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HOFSTEDE- A Cultural Dimensions Theory

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HOFSTEDE- A Cultural Dimensions Theory

  1. 1. HOFSTEDE: A Cultural Dimensions Theory -Geert Hofstede
  2. 2. CULTURE • collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another. • collective phenomenon, because it is at least partly shared with people who live or lived within the same social environment. LAYERS OF CULTURE: National Level Regional Level Gender Level Generation Level Social Class Level Organizational Level
  3. 3. DIMENSIONS • Power Distance Index (PDI) • Individualism Vs. Collectivism (IDV) • Masculinity Vs. Femininity (MAS) • Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) • Long Term Orientation Vs. Short Term Normative Orientation (LTO) • Indulgence Vs. Restraint (IND) The six dimensions of national culture are based on extensive research done by Professor Geert Hofstede, and his research teams.
  4. 4. PDI HIGH POWER DISTANCE • Inequality • Autocratic Leadership • Centralization in society • Subordinates do what they feel like • Income Inequality • Mostly lower class people LOW POWER DISTANCE • Equality • Democratic Leadership • Decentralization • Subordinates consults before performing a task • Less Income Inequality • Mostly middle class people
  5. 5. INDIVIDUALISM VS COLLECTIVISM (IDV) INDIVIDUALISM • I identity • Task comes first • Self-actualization is ultimate goal • Wealthier countries • Higher divorce rates • Faster pace of life COLLECTIVISM • We identity • Relationship comes first • Harmony is the ultimate goal • Poorer countries • Lower divorce rates • Slower pace of life
  6. 6. MASCULINITY VS FEMINITY (MAS) MASCULINITY • Tough, aggressive, cruel • Girls cry and boys fight • Man being a subject and woman being an object • More illiteracy • Poverty level is high • Only men shop in the market • Salary is more important FEMINISM • Gentle, emotional, calm, kind • Both may cry but neither should fight • Less illiteracy • Poverty level is low • Both men and women ship in the market • Leisure is more important
  7. 7. UNCERTANITY AVOIDANCE INDEX (UAI) STRONG UAI (uncertainty avoidance) • More stress and anxiety • Lack of Innovation • Sticking to jobs • People always carry identity cards • Driving faster and more alcoholism • Cleanliness and purity are more important in marketing WEAK UAI (uncertainty acceptance) • Less stress and anxiety • Innovative • Easily changing jobs • Carrying identity card is optional • People drive slower and less alcoholism • Attracting consumers by convenience or easy products is more important in marketing

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