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Class lecture notes #3 (statistics for research)

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Class lecture notes #3 (statistics for research)

  1. 1. <ul><li>The Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: A questionnaire is a set of carefully planned written questions related to a particular research topic which, when submitted to and answered accurately by properly selected persons called respondents, will supply data to complete the research project. </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Advantages of the Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>1. The questionnaire is easy to construct. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Distribution is easy and inexpensive. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Tabulation of responses is easy. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The respondent’s replies are of his own. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Confidential information may be given freely. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Respondents can fill out the questionnaire at their own </li></ul><ul><li>convenience. </li></ul><ul><li>7. More accurate replies may be given. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Disadvantages of a Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>1. The questionnaire cannot be used with illiterates. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Some or many respondents may not return the questionnaire. </li></ul><ul><li>3. A respondent may give a wrong information. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Respondents may leave some or many items unanswered. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Some questions or items may be vague to the respondents. </li></ul><ul><li>6. The number of choices may be very limited. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Construction of a Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>The following are the steps in the construction of a questionnaire: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Making research in the library . There might be some theses or dissertations dealing with studies similar to the research problem at hand. The questionnaire in these studies may serve as models in the construction of one. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Interviewing knowledgeable people. Talking to people who know the principles of questionnaire construction may help a lot. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>3. Mastering the guidelines. The guidelines learned from the theses and dissertations and from knowledgeable people must be mastered before writing a questionnaire. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Writing the questionnaire. Write the questionnaire following as much as possible the guidelines learned. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Editing the questionnaire. After the questionnaire has been written, it must be shown to people who know about questionnaire construction, especially to an adviser if there is one, for correction and suggestions for the improvement of the questionnaire. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>6. Rewriting the questionnaire. The questionnaire must be rewritten according to corrections and suggestions for the improvement of the questionnaire. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Pretesting the questionnaire. This is called a dry run. This is the process of determining the validity and reliability of the questionnaire and determining the clarity of the items, the difficulty in answering them, the proper time length of answering, attractiveness and other problems. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Writing the questionnaire in its final form. The questionnaire should now be written in its final form after making the necessary corrections, adjustments, and revisions after the dry run. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Questions Asked in Survey Questionnaires <ul><li>A. According to form: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The free – answer type . The respondent is free to answer the question in his own words and his own way. This is called the open form, open – ended, subjective, unrestricted, essay, free response, and unguided response type. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The guided response type. This is also called the closed form or restricted type. The respondent is guided in making his reply. There are two kinds of this type (a) recall and (b) recognition types. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>a. Recall Type . The replies are recalled and supplied. </li></ul><ul><li> Example: Please supply the following asked for: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Graduate Course finished _________ </li></ul><ul><li>(b) School graduated from ___________ </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Year of graduation _______________ </li></ul><ul><li>b. Recognition Type . There are options given and the respondent chooses his reply or replies. There are three types: dichotomous, multiple choice, and multiple response. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>1. Dichotomous. There are only two options and one is chosen. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Are you employed? Yes ____ No____ </li></ul><ul><li>2. Multiple Choice . Several options are given but only one is </li></ul><ul><li>elected as a reply. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: What program do you prefer to take? Please </li></ul><ul><li>check. </li></ul><ul><li> _____ Education _____ Nursing </li></ul><ul><li> _____ Commerce _____ Optometry </li></ul><ul><li> _____ Medicine _____ Computer </li></ul><ul><li> _____ Engineering _____ Others </li></ul><ul><li> _____ Dentistry </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>3. Multiple Response . Two or more options may be chosen from those given. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Why do you used Hapee toothpaste? Please </li></ul><ul><li>check your answers. </li></ul><ul><li>______ It sweetens my breath </li></ul><ul><li>______ It makes my mouth fresh </li></ul><ul><li>______ It prevents tooth decay </li></ul><ul><li>______ It is cheap </li></ul><ul><li>______ It is available all the time </li></ul><ul><li>______ It is made in the country </li></ul><ul><li>______ It is economical </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>B. According to the Type of Data asked for: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Descriptive Data (Verbal Data) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: In What kind of community do you live. Please </li></ul><ul><li>check. </li></ul><ul><li> ____ City </li></ul><ul><li> ____ Town </li></ul><ul><li> ____ Barrio </li></ul><ul><li>2. Quantitative Data (Numerical Data) </li></ul><ul><li> Examples: (1) What is your daily wage? ____ </li></ul><ul><li> (2) What is the total income of your family?____ </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>3. Intensity of Feeling, Emotion or Attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Do you agree that RH bill be implemented? </li></ul><ul><li>Please check your attitude. </li></ul><ul><li> _____ Strongly agree </li></ul><ul><li> _____ Agree </li></ul><ul><li> _____ Fairly agree </li></ul><ul><li> _____ Disagree </li></ul><ul><li> _____ Strongly disagree </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>4. Degree of Judgment </li></ul><ul><li> Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) How serious is drug addiction in your university? </li></ul><ul><li>Please check. </li></ul><ul><li> ______ Very Serious </li></ul><ul><li> ______ Serious </li></ul><ul><li> ______ Fairly Serious </li></ul><ul><li> ______ Not Serious </li></ul><ul><li> ______ Not a Problem </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>(2) How efficient is your graduate statistics Professor? Please </li></ul><ul><li>check. </li></ul><ul><li> ______ Very efficient </li></ul><ul><li> ______ Efficient </li></ul><ul><li> ______ Fairly efficient </li></ul><ul><li> ______ Inefficient </li></ul><ul><li> ______ Very inefficient </li></ul><ul><li>5. Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Explain what a dictatorship form of </li></ul><ul><li>government is. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>6. Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Why do you prefer a surprise examinations in </li></ul><ul><li>statistics for research? </li></ul><ul><li>Important Characteristics of Research Instruments including the Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>I. Validity – means the accuracy by which an instrument gathers information for which it is intended to gather. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: If data about the teaching of statistics are needed, then the instrument must gather data about the teaching of statistics and not data about the teaching of any other subject. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>II. Reliability – means consistency of measurement that is, if an instrument administered to the same group it should give the same or about the same average measures of the two groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines in the Formulation of Items or Questions for a Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>1. Make the questionnaire as valid and as reliable as possible . To do this, the following suggestions are offered: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Make all directions brief, clear and unequivocal. While there are general directions, there should be a direction for every specific type of questions asked. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Poor direction for multiple choice items : Answer the following questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Better: For each question, choose the best answer from among those given and put a check mark before your choice. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Use correct grammar. Punctuation marks should be placed </li></ul><ul><li>properly to avoid misinterpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>Example of poor grammar : Please accomplish the questionnaire as soon as possible return it. </li></ul><ul><li>Better: Please accomplish the questionnaire and return it as soon as possible. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>c. Make all questions brief, clear and unequivocal . Specify the precise units in which the answer is to be given to avoid misinterpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Vague Question : What is your income? </li></ul><ul><li>Better : What is your monthly income? </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Question : Are you married or not? </li></ul><ul><li>Better : Are you married? </li></ul><ul><li>d. Avoid asking biased or leading questions . A biased or leading questions is one in which there is veiled suggestion for answer. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Example of a biased question: Do you use Hapee Toothpaste? If no, what brand do you use? In this question, there is veiled suggestion to make Hapee as the answer. The respondent may think that because Hapee is mentioned, it is the best toothpaste, and so has the tendency to say yes. </li></ul><ul><li>Better: What brand of toothpaste do you use? </li></ul><ul><li>Example of a leading question : Why do you use Hapee toothpaste? This is a leading question if there is no preceding question asking what brand of toothpaste the respondent is using. If he says he is using Hapee toothpaste, the question is good. However, if the respondent answers the question without telling him first that he is using Hapee, that is an admission that he is using Hapee although actually he is not. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>e. Objectify Responses . This is to make easier for the respondent to make replies and for the standardization of responses for easier tabulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Why do you use Hapee toothpaste? Instead of requiring the respondent to write his responses, give all the possible reasons and let him check his replies. </li></ul><ul><li>____ It sweetens my breath better </li></ul><ul><li>____ It makes my mouth feel fresher </li></ul><ul><li>____ It is cheaper </li></ul><ul><li>____ It is available all the time </li></ul><ul><li>____ It last longer </li></ul><ul><li>____ Others, please specify </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>f. Relate all questions to the topic under study . All questions must gather data relevant to the study. If the study is about the teaching of behavioral statistics, all questions should gather data that have something to do with the teaching of behavioral statistics. </li></ul><ul><li>g. Create categories or classes for approximate answers. There are questions that cannot be answered with the precise units desired. Create categories or classes that accommodate such approximate replies. Such categories may be qualitative or quantitative. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li> Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>How adequate are the library references in USJ-R? </li></ul><ul><li>______ Very adequate </li></ul><ul><li>______ Adequate </li></ul><ul><li>______ Fairly adequate </li></ul><ul><li>______ Inadequate </li></ul><ul><li>______ Very inadequate </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li> Quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>How much commission do you earned a month by selling cars? </li></ul><ul><li> _____ P3,000 – under P6,000 </li></ul><ul><li> _____ P6,000 – under P9,000 </li></ul><ul><li> _____ P9,000 – under P12,000 </li></ul><ul><li> _____ P 12,000 – under P15,000 </li></ul><ul><li> _____ P15,000 – under P18,000 </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>h. Group the questions or items in logical sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>The following are some ways of grouping questions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Questions or items may be grouped according to the specific questions asked under “Statement of the Problem”. All questions that gather data to answer one specific question should be grouped together. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Specific Question: How qualified are the professors handling statistics? All questions dealing with degrees earned, majors or specializations, units in statistics, special training and seminars in statistics attended, teaching experiences, and aptitude in statistics should be grouped together. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>2. Questions that deal with items that are logically related should be grouped together. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Question about demographic characteristics such as age, sex, civil status, place of birth, ethnic origin, native language, etc. should be grouped together. </li></ul><ul><li>3. In each grouping, easier questions should be asked first. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Questions should be given in successive steps if the study deals with a process such as rice farming, building construction, etc. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>i. Create a sufficient number of response categories . This is to include the respondent’s correct choice. If the correct choice of the respondent is not included among the options and he is required to make a response, his reply would be wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Do you agree that statistics be taught by </li></ul><ul><li>mathematicians? </li></ul><ul><li>______ Agree ______ Disagree </li></ul><ul><li> If the respondent does not know which is better, to </li></ul><ul><li>allow or not to allow mathematicians to teach </li></ul><ul><li>statistics, his response is not among the options and </li></ul><ul><li>if he is required to answer, his answer is wrong. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Better number of responses or options: </li></ul><ul><li>______Strongly agree </li></ul><ul><li>______ Agree </li></ul><ul><li>______ Uncertain or do not know </li></ul><ul><li>______ Disagree </li></ul><ul><li>______ Strongly disagree </li></ul><ul><li>j. Word carefully or avoid questions that deal with confidential or embarrassing information. Suppose a woman respondent has left her husband. You want to know why she left her husband in connection with your study on family relations. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Poor Question: Why did you leave your husband? The causes might be too embarrassing to reveal and so she may give distorted reasons that reduces the validity of the questionnaire. </li></ul><ul><li>Better Question: In your opinion, why do some wives leave their husbands? If all possible reasons are given, she may check those that apply to her since the question does not specifically or directly refer to her. </li></ul><ul><li>k. Explain and/or illustrate difficult questions. Difficult questions especially those with unfamiliar technical terms should be clarified or illustrated to avoid misunderstanding and a wrong reply. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>l. State all questions in the affirmative . A question in the affirmative can be answered categorically but a categorical reply to a question in the negative has to be explained. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Are you employed or not? If the respondent is not employed he can say yes but this is vague. So if he is employed his answer should be “Yes, I am employed” or “ No, I am not employed”. </li></ul><ul><li>Better: Are you employed? This can be answered by a categorical yes if the respondent is employed or by categorical no if he is not employed. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>m. Add catch – all word or phrase to options of multiple response questions. This is important because the respondent may have additional information which he may want to give. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Why did you take up psychology as your </li></ul><ul><li>profession? </li></ul><ul><li> ____ I am interested in HRD positions. I love to deal with job applicants </li></ul><ul><li> ____ It is unique from other courses </li></ul><ul><li> ____ It is easy to get a position after graduation </li></ul><ul><li> ____ The salary is good enough for me </li></ul><ul><li> ____ Others (Please specify) </li></ul><ul><li> The word “Others” is the catch – all word. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>n. Make the respondents anonymous. This will make the respondents give true information freely thinking that they will not be held liable to any offense since they are not known. </li></ul><ul><li>o. Pre-test the questionnaire after writing it. This is important to determine the worth of the questionnaire. The process is to administer the questionnaire to at least ten persons who have the same characteristics as those who are to be requested to fill up the questionnaire but who will not be involved anymore in the study. Then after the administration of the questionnaire, the pre-test respondents may be asked to the following questions: </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>1. Are the directions, statements, questions, or items clear and unequivocal? Are they brief but unambiguous? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Do the questions or items gather intended data? Are the responses those called for? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Are there sufficient numbers of possible responses or choices for multiple choice and multiple questions? Are all possible replies to a question included? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Are all data to be gathered relevant to the topic of the study? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Is the questionnaire organized in its proper format? Are the items grouped logically? </li></ul><ul><li>6. Is answering the questions easy enough? Are the replies so objectified that replies are only in the form of check marks, letters, numbers or short words or phrases? What difficulties have been encountered in filing of the questionnaire. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>7. Are all questions or items worded carefully so as to avoid embarrassment or indictment? Are they in correct grammar? </li></ul><ul><li>8. Are there catch – all words or phrases for multiple response questions? </li></ul><ul><li>9. Is the questionnaire free from all kinds of bias? </li></ul><ul><li>10. Are the respondents anonymous? </li></ul><ul><li>11. Are the data to be gathered by the questionnaire sufficient and adequate enough to complete the study and to make the conclusions and other generalizations valid and tenable? </li></ul><ul><li>12. Is the questionnaire too long that it becomes boring to finish filing it up? </li></ul><ul><li>13. If some questions are not answered, why are they not answered? </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>14. Are the spaces for writing the replies adequate and properly placed? </li></ul><ul><li>15. What suggestions can you give to improve the questionnaire? What items should be eliminated, added, or clarified? </li></ul><ul><li>2. The questionnaire should be accompanied by a good cover letter. </li></ul><ul><li>A good cover letter in the form of a request should be made as cordially and politely as possible to make the instrument more acceptable to the respondents. The letter should explain the purpose of the study, the importance of accomplishing it and within reasonable period of time, that the information gathered should be kept and treated as confidentially as possible to avoid any embarrassment or trouble to anyone, and with a promise that the respondents shall be informed of the results of the study if they so desire. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>3. The questionnaire must be accompanied, if possible, by a letter of recommendation from a sponsor. The sponsor should be one who has some influence over the respondent to insure the accomplishment and return of the questionnaire. </li></ul>
  36. 36. The Interview <ul><li>Definition: An interview is a verbal interaction between two persons, one called the interviewer who ask questions to gather information and the other called the interviewee who supplies the information ask for. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of the Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Among the advantages of the interview are the following: </li></ul><ul><li>1. It yields a more complete and valid information. </li></ul><ul><li>If there is a reply of doubtful value, the interviewer can at once check veracity of such information. </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>2. It can be used with all kinds of people. Anybody, literate or uneducated, rich or poor, laborer or otherwise, can be interviewed. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Any vague point can be clarified at once. This will enable the interviewee to give accurate information. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Subliminal cues may be observed by the interviewer. The non – verbal reactions of the interviewee such as the expression of his face, the nodding or shaking of his head, and the gestures of his hands may reveal some important facts that are useful to the study </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>5. Only the interviewee can make a reply. The responses are truly of the respondent’s, unlike in the questionnaire in which the respondent may delegate somebody to accomplish it making the responses of doubtful value. </li></ul><ul><li>6. There is flexibility. The interviewer can always modify the conduct of the interview whenever there is a need. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Disadvantages of the Interview <ul><li>Among the disadvantages of the interview are the following: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Some respondents are hard to contact. This is true especially if the respondents are too busy or are abroad at the time of the interview. </li></ul><ul><li>2. It is expensive. This is true if the study is big and many interviewers are needed. Expenses for training of interviewers plus their salaries may be too big. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>3. Some responses may be inaccurate. This is true if the respondent has no time to consult his records if pressed for an immediate answer. </li></ul><ul><li>4. It is time consuming . This is true if the researcher alone conducts the interview. </li></ul><ul><li>5. It is inconvenient for both interviewer and interviewee. There is inconvenience if the interview is conducted in an unholy hour or if the interviewee is too busy. The interviewer has to travel also long distances </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>6. Important data may be witheld. Since there is no anonymity, the interviewee may evade to answer some embarrassing questions or may withold some important confidential information if he does not trust the interviewer. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Some bias may be introduced. There is always the tendency for interviewers to get some information that would redound to their expectations or benefit or that would benefit their interview employers and so they unknowingly introduce what is known as interviewer’s bias. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li> 8. Standardization of questions and responses may be lessened. When an interviewer revises a question because of certain reasons, the standardization of the questions and the responses is lessened and categorization and tabulation become difficult. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Types or Classes of Interviews <ul><li>Treece and Treece Jr. Classify interviews as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Standardized interview. In this type of interview, the interviewer is not allowed to change the specific wordings of the questions in the interview instrument. This is the same as the formal interview and structured interview . </li></ul><ul><li>2. Non-standardized interview . In this type of interview, the interviewer is not tied up to the interview instrument. He may revise or explain the questions as he sees fit depending upon the situation. This is the same as the informal interview and non – structured interview. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>3. Semi – standardized interview . In this type, there are listed major questions to be asked and once they are asked and answered, the interviewer is free to ask any question as he sees fit depending upon the situation. This is the same as the semi – formal or semi – structured interview . </li></ul>
  45. 45. The Interview Instrument <ul><li>Types of Interview Instruments </li></ul><ul><li>I. The interview schedule . The interview schedule is the same as a questionnaire. The preparation and validation of an interview schedule are the same as those of the questionnaire. The only difference is that in the interview schedule the questions are asked orally by the interviewer and the interviewee answers also orally. Besides, it is the interviewer who writes the answer of the interviewee. In the questionnaire, the respondent himself reads the questions and writes his answers. </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Remark: The interview schedule is usually used in standardized or structured interviews. </li></ul><ul><li>II. The interview guide. The interview guide does not ask specific questions but only provides general ideas from which the interviewer derives his questions to get the needed information. The interviewer is free to ask any question depending upon the situation but of course the questions must be relevant to the major question or idea provided by the interview guide. </li></ul><ul><li>Remark: The interview guide is usually used in non-standardized or semi – standardized interviews. </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Example: An interview guide for gathering data about the teaching of statistics in the tertiary level. </li></ul><ul><li>INTERVIEW GUIDE </li></ul><ul><li>Name (Optional) ______________________ Date _________ </li></ul><ul><li>Address ___________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Qualifications of statistics instructors/professors </li></ul><ul><li>Methods and strategies in teaching college statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities in the teaching of college statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisory assistance to the instructors / professors </li></ul><ul><li>Problems encountered in teaching statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed solutions to the problems </li></ul>
  48. 48. Steps in the Interview <ul><li>The following are the steps or pointers to be followed in the interview: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Preparatory step. The following are included in the planning stage: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Preparation of the instrument whether interview schedule or interview guide. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Selection of the population and locale of the interviews. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Selection of the interviewees. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Selection of the type of interview whether structured or unstructured. </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>2. Making a survey of the specific places for interviews. For general research, the interviewer naturally goes to the dwelling places of the interviewees or to their places of work. What is important is that the place of the interview must be as quiet as possible with minimum distractions. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Established rapport. There must be a cordial and friendly atmosphere between the interviewer and the interviewee. The interviewer must take pains in establishing one. He must explain as politely as he can the purpose and importance of the interview. The interviewee may have some benefit otherwise it must be clear to him the information he imparts will be treated with the utmost confidentiality and that he will not be placed in any compromising or embarrassing situation nor will there be any indictment brought against him for any information he reveals. </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>4. Carrying out the interview. Conduct in a polite, friendly, and conversational manner. Praise and thank the interviewee for many important information that he imparts. If the interviewee finds difficult in expressing himself, the interviewer may help him out but he must maintain his objectivity. He must avoid being biased . The interviewer must also be very tactful. If the respondents becomes uncooperative , the interviewer must use all his resourcefulness in winning back the cooperation of the interviewee. </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>5. Recording the interview. Record the interview results immediately with the utmost objectivity. Record exactly what the respondent said and shown overtly. Do not interpret yet. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Closing the interview. In closing the interview. Thank the interviewee for the data he has given and the inconvenience he has gone through. Make him feel that he has contributed a great deal to the completion of the data you need. </li></ul>
  52. 52. What to Avoid in Interviews <ul><li>There are things that may spoil an interview and should be avoided. Among of these are the following: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Avoid forcing an interview upon a respondent. He may not give accurate and reliable information. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Avoid arguing. Disagreeing with or contradicting the interviewee often may make him withhold vital data for fear of being contradicted again. </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>3. Avoid pressing unduly the respondent for a reply . He may give wrong information just to comply. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Avoid using unfamiliar language to the interviewee . If he does not understand the language, he may make a wrong reply or does not reply at all. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Avoid talking about things not related to the topic of the interview. This will prolong the interview and will bring more inconvenience to both interviewer and interviewee. </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>6. Avoid embarrassing the interviewee. Word very carefully questions that deal with morality, integrity, or sexual habits. Touch very gently, if unavoidable. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Avoid appearing too high in social status . If the interviewee feels that he is too low in education, knowledge and social status compared with his interviewer he becomes shy and may not cooperate. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Avoid conducting the interview in an unholy hour. When the respondent is too busy attending to some important matter, or when he is hungry, or the like, it is not wise to interview him specially if the interview is a long one. He may not cooperate fully. Wait for some opportune time. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Observation <ul><li>Definition: Observation is gathering data by means of the senses such as sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell. The sense of sight is the most important and the most used among the senses. Observation is very much used in studying overt behavior. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Purposes of Observation <ul><li>The following are purposes of observation (why observation is needed). </li></ul><ul><li>1. To gather empirical data difficult to gather by other means . This is especially true in anthropological studies where the life cycle, social and economic activities, the motivations and aspirations, and other beliefs and practices of a group are to be described in more detail. </li></ul><ul><li>2 . To gather data to supplement or to verify data gathered by other means. For instance, data gathered by a questionnaire show that the library is rich. An occular inspection may verify the truth of the data gathered by the questionnaire. </li></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>3. To gather data which can be obtained only through observation. In individual case studies, especially in clinical, psychiatric cases, observation of the behavior of the subjects is an indispensable tool in gathering data for the case studies. </li></ul><ul><li>4. To gather directly primary or first-hand information. This is to make description and interpretation more valid and reliable. </li></ul><ul><li>5. To gather data through experimentation. Observation is indispensable in experimentation. The results of experiments are collected only through observation. Generally, data gathered by means of experimentation are more valid and reliable because the variables involved are under the control of the experimenter. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Types of Observation <ul><li>I. Participant and nonparticipant observation </li></ul><ul><li>a. In participant observation , the observer engages himself in the activities of the group being observed. He may even live and work with the group for a length of time to enable him to learn all the ins and outs of the activities of the group, its beliefs, customs, and traditions, etc. Anthropologists usually do this in studying tribal groups. </li></ul><ul><li>b. In nonparticipant observation , the observer does not participate in the activities of the group being observed. He is just a bystander using his five senses gathering data for his study. </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>II. Structured and Unstructured Observation. </li></ul><ul><li>a. In structured observation , the items of a variable to be observed are specified and listed down. This is usually used in nonparticipant observation. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Unstructured observation , on the other hand, is one in which the observer does not have any list of items to be observed. Any object, condition, situation, or behavior that is relevant to the research investigation is included in the observation. Unstructured observation is generally used in participant or uncontrolled observation. </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>III. Controlled and Uncontrolled Observation. </li></ul><ul><li>a. Controlled observation is used in experimental studies in which the experimental as well as the non-experimental variables are manipulated and controlled by the experimenter. While the experimental variable is manipulated by the researcher, the non-experimental variables are kept constant or are kept equal so that change in the dependent variables is attributable only to the independent variable. Controlled observation is usually done in the laboratory. </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>b. In uncontrolled observation , no attempt is made to control the variables to be observed. In many cases, the variables to be observed are beyond the control of the observer. This is especially true in observing natural phenomena and the behavior of subjects involved in status studies. Uncontrolled observation is similar to unstructured observation and is usually utilized in participant observation. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Advantages of Observation <ul><li>The following are the advantages of observation: </li></ul><ul><li>1 . The information gathered is more accurate, valid, and reliable . This is so because the information is direct, first-hand information. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Observation can be made as long and as many times it is needed. The observer can make long and several observations to ensure the accuracy and reliability of his data. </li></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>3. Observation is the only technique of collecting data from inanimate objects and nonverbal behavior. No other means can be used to collect such data </li></ul><ul><li>4 . The subjects of the inquiry can be observed in their natural setting. This will ensure a more accurate and valid interpretation of data. This is especially true in participant, uncontrolled and unstructured or even in controlled observation. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Observation results can be checked and verified . If observation has been delegated and the results are of doubtful value, the results can be checked and verified by another or repeated observations by different observers may be made. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Characteristics of Observation for Research Purposes <ul><li>Observation for systematic investigational purposes may be distinguished from ordinary observation as follows: (Good and Scates) </li></ul><ul><li>1. Observation is specific . The observation is specific with carefully defined data to look for, not just looking around for general impressions. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Observation is systematic . There must be a system in the observation. It is not merely a chance “dropping in” on a situation at any time when one happens to be passing by. The length of the periods of observation, the interval between them, and the number of observations are carefully planned. </li></ul>
  65. 65. Characteristics of Observation for Research Purposes <ul><li>3. Observation is quantitative . The observation is quantitative, usually with a tally of the number of instances of a particular type of behavior has occurred; sometimes a total duration of the particular conduct during the period of observation, or some other accountable or measurable characteristic; sometimes a diagram is made showing special relationship, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Observation is recorded immediately . A record is made of the observation immediately, or as promptly as possible, not entrusting the recording of the results to memory. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Characteristics of Observation for Research Purposes <ul><li>5. Observation is expert . Observation is expert, that is, it is done by an investigator who has special training for such work. This is essentially true in clinical and psychiatric cases where expert observation skills and techniques are very much needed. However, in ordinary community and school surveys where graduate students are generally engaged, the investigator – observer need not be very trained to be able to gather data for his study. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Observation is objective . The results of observation must be recorded as they are and treated as they are even if they are not in accordance with expectations. That is research. Bias must not influence the treatment of the results. </li></ul>