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Greatest arab physicians

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Greatest arab physicians

  1. 1. GREAT ARAB PHYSICIANS BY: ATHIATHULLAH HABIBULLAH
  2. 2. Abu Nasr Al-Farabi (872 – 950) Farabi contributed considerably to science, philosophy, logic, sociology, medicine, mathematics and music, but the major ones are in philosophy, logic and sociology and for which he stands out as an Encyclopedist
  3. 3. Ibn Sina (980 – 1037) AVICENNA WAS A PERSIAN POLYMATH His most important contribution to medical science was his famous book al-Qanun, known as the “Canon” in the West. This book is an immense encyclopedia of medicine including over a million words and like most Arabic books is richly divided and subdivided. It comprises of the entire medical knowledge
  4. 4. Thabit ibn Qurra (826 – 901) Also known as Thebit. Arab mathematician, physician and astronomer; who was the first reformer of the Ptolemaic system and the founder of statics.
  5. 5. Abu Bakr Al-Razi (865 – 925) Also known as Rhazes. Persian alchemist and philosopher, who was one of the greatest physicians in history.
  6. 6. Ibn Zuhr (1091 – 1161) Also known as Avenzoar. Arab physician and surgeon, known for his influential book Al-Taisir Fil- Mudawat Wal-Tadbeer (Book of Simplification Concerning Therapeutics and Diet).
  7. 7. Ibn Al-Baitar (1197 – 1248) Arab scientist, botanist and physician who systematically recorded the discoveries made by Islamic physicians in the Middle Ages.
  8. 8. Arabic: ‫ﻢﺳﺎﻘﻟﺍ‬ ‫ﻒﻠﺧ‬ ‫ﻦﺑ‬ ‫ﺱﺎﺒﻌﻟﺍ‬ ‫ﻱﻭﺍﺮﻫﺰﻟﺍ‬‫ﻮﺑﺃ‬
  9. 9. BIOGRAPHY • ABU AL-QASIM KHALAF IBN AL-ABBAS AL-ZAHRAWI (936–1013), ALSO KNOWN IN THE WEST AS ALBUCASIS, WAS AN ARAB MUSLIM PHYSICIAN WHO LIVED IN AL-ANDALUS. HE IS CONSIDERED THE GREATEST MEDIEVAL SURGEON TO HAVE APPEARED FROM THE ISLAMIC WORLD, AND HAS BEEN DESCRIBED BY MANY AS THE FATHER OF MODERN SURGERY. HIS GREATEST CONTRIBUTION TO MEDICINE IS THE KITAB AL-TASRIF, A THIRTY-VOLUME ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MEDICAL PRACTICES. HIS PIONEERING CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD OF SURGICAL PROCEDURES AND INSTRUMENTS HAD AN ENORMOUS IMPACT IN THE EAST AND WEST WELL INTO THE MODERN PERIOD, WHERE SOME OF HIS DISCOVERIES ARE STILL APPLIED IN MEDICINE TO THIS DAY. • HE WAS THE FIRST PHYSICIAN TO DESCRIBE AN ECTOPIC PREGNANCY, AND THE FIRST PHYSICIAN TO IDENTIFY THE HEREDITARY NATURE OF HAEMOPHILIA.
  10. 10. WORKS • ABŪ AL-QĀSIM WAS A COURT PHYSICIAN TO THE ANDALUSIAN CALIPH AL-HAKAM II. HE DEVOTED HIS ENTIRE LIFE AND GENIUS TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF MEDICINE AS A WHOLE AND SURGERY IN PARTICULAR. HIS BEST WORK WAS THE KITAB AL- TASRIF, DISCUSSED BELOW. • ABŪ AL-QĀSIM SPECIALIZED IN CURING DISEASE BY CAUTERIZATION. HE INVENTED SEVERAL DEVICES USED DURING SURGERY, FOR PURPOSES SUCH AS INSPECTION OF THE INTERIOR OF THE URETHRA, APPLYING AND REMOVING FOREIGN BODIES FROM
  11. 11. AL-ZAHRAWI WAS THE FIRST TO ILLUSTRATE THE VARIOUS CANNULAE AND THE FIRST TO TREAT A WART WITH AN IRON TUBE AND CAUSTIC METAL AS A BORING INSTRUMENT. HE WAS ALSO THE FIRST TO DRAW HOOKS WITH A DOUBLE TIP FOR USE IN SURGERY
  12. 12. KITAB AL-TASRIF Abū al-Qāsim's thirty-chapter medical treatise, Kitab al-Tasrif, completed in the year 1000, covered a broad range of medical topics, including dentistry and childbirth, which contained data that had accumulated during a career that spanned almost 50 years of training, teaching and practice. In it he also wrote of the importance of a positive doctor-patient relationship and wrote affectionately of his students, whom he referred to as “my children”He also emphasized the importance of treating patients irrespective of their social status. He encouraged the close observation of individual cases in order to make the most accurate diagnosis and the best possible treatment.
  13. 13. He introduced over 200 surgical instruments. Many of these instruments were never used before by any previous surgeons His use of catgut for internal stitching is still practised in modern surgery. The catgut appears to be the only natural substance capable of dissolving and is acceptable by the body. Abū al-Qāsim also invented the forceps for extracting a dead
  14. 14. Al-Tasrif described how to ligature blood vessels almost 600 years before Ambroise Paré, and was the first recorded book to document several dental devices and explain the hereditary nature of haemophilia. He was also the first to describe a surgical procedure for ligating the temporal artery for migraine, also almost 600 years before Pare recorded that he had ligated his own temporal artery for headache that conforms to current descriptions of migraine. Abū al-Qāsim was therefore the first to describe the migraine surgery
  15. 15. On Surgery and Instruments is an illustrated surgical guide written by Albucasis, known in Arabic as ‘al- Zahrāwī’. Albucasis contributed many technological innovations, notably which tools to use in specific surgeries. In On Surgery and Instruments, he draws diagrams of each tool used in different procedures to clarify how to carry out the steps of each treatment. The full text consists of three books, intended for medical students looking to gain more knowledge within the field of surgery regarding procedures and the necessary tools. Interestingly, Albucasis considers his educated opinion to be superior than that of the Ancients: “…whatever skill I On Surgery and Instruments
  16. 16. Muhammad ibn Zakariya al- Razi
  17. 17. Muhammad ibn Zakariyā Rāzī(Persian: ‫ﺪﻤﺤﻣ‬ ‫ﯼﺎﯾﺮﮐﺯ‬ ‫ﯼﺯﺍﺭ‬ Mohammad-e Zakariā-ye Rāzi, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854 CE – 925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist and chemist, philosopher and important figure in the history of medicine and as the discoverer of alcohol
  18. 18. Being endowed by nature with a comprehensive mind, Razi made fundamental and enduring contributions to various fields of science, which he recorded in over 200 manuscripts, and is particularly remembered for numerous advances in medicine through own observations and discoveries An early proponent of experimental medicine, he became a successful doctor; was appointed a court physician, and served as chief physician of Baghdad and Rey hospitals. He was among the first to use Humoralism to distinguish one contagious disease from another and has been described as doctor's doctor, the father of pediatrics, and a pioneer of ophthalmology.
  19. 19. Contributions to medicine "Smallpox appears when blood 'boils' and is infected, resulting in vapours being expelled. Thus juvenile blood (which looks like wet extracts appearing on the skin) is being transformed into richer blood, having the color of mature wine. At this stage, smallpox shows up essentially as 'bubbles found in wine' - (as blisters) - ... this disease can also occur at other times - (meaning: not only during childhood) -. The best thing to do during this first stage is to keep away from it, otherwise this disease might turn into an epidemic." Smallpox vs. measles Razi's book: al-Judari wa al-Hasbah (On Smallpox and Measles) was the first book describing smallpox and measles as distinct diseases
  20. 20. Razi contributed in many ways to the early practice of pharmacy by compiling texts, in which he introduces the use of 'mercurial ointments' and his development of apparatus such as mortars, flasks, spatulas and phials, which were used in pharmacies until the early twentieth century Pharmacy
  21. 21. Books and articles on medicine • The Virtuous Life (al-Hawi). • A medical adviser for the general public (Man la Yahduruhu Al-Tabib)• Doubts About Galen (Shukuk 'ala alinusor) • The Diseases of Children • Mental health • Isbateh Elmeh Pezeshki (Persian proving the Science of Medicine"). • Dar Amadi bar Elmh Pezeshki (Persian Outcome of the Science of Medicine"). • Rade Manaategha 'tibb jahez • Rade Naghzotibbeh Nashi
  22. 22. • The Experimentation of Medical Science and its Application • Guidance • Kenash • The Classification of Diseases • Royal Medicine • For One Without a Doctor ( ‫ﻦﻣ‬ ‫ﻩﺮﻀﺤﯾﻻ‬ ‫ﺐﻴﺒﻄﻟﺍ‬) • The Book of Simple Medicine • The Great Book of Krabadin • The Little Book of Krabadin • The Book of Taj or The Book of the Crown AND SO MANY BOOKS WHICH WERE TRANSLATED IN ENGLISH
  23. 23. Alchemy The Transmutation of Metals Razi’s interest in alchemy and his strong belief in the possibility of transmutation of lesser metals to silver and gold was attested half a century after his death by Ibn an- Nadim’s book The Philosophers Stone (Lapis Philosophorum in Latin). Nadim attributed a series of twelve books to Razi,
  24. 24. He is known to have: • perfected methods of distillation and extraction. • dismissed the idea of potions and • dispensed with magic, meaning the reliance on symbols as causes. • his alchemical stockroom was enriched with products of Persian mining and manufacturing, even with sal ammoniac, a Chinese discovery. • He relied predominantly on the concept of ‘dominant’ forms or essences, which is the Neoplatonic conception of causality rather than an intellectual approach or a mechanical one). Razi’s alchemy brings forward such empiric qualities as • salinity and inflammability -the latter associated to
  25. 25. He is important figure in the history of medicine and as the discoverer of alcohol and vitriol (sulfuric acid) is well known.
  26. 26. Books on alchemy Here is a list of Razi's known books on alchemy, mostly in Persian: Modkhele Taalimi Elaleh Ma'aaden Isbaate Sanaa'at Ketabeh Sang Ketabe Tadbir Ketabe Aksir Ketabe Sharafe Sanaa'at Ketabe Tartib, Ketabe Rahat, The Simple Book Ketabe Tadabir Ketabe Shavahed Ketabe Azmayeshe Zar va Sim (Experimentation on Gold) Ketabe Serre Hakimaan Ketabe Serr (The Book of Secrets) Ketabe Serre Serr (The Secret of Secrets) The First Book on Experiments The Second Book on Experiments Resaale'ei Be Faan Arezooyeh Arezookhah
  27. 27. This is a partial list of Razi's books on philosophy. The Small Book on Theism Response to Abu'al'Qasem Braw The Greater Book on Theism Modern Philosophy Dar Roshan Sakhtane Eshtebaah Dar Enteghaade Mo'tazlian Delsoozi Bar Motekaleman Meydaneh Kherad Khasel Resaaleyeh Rahnamayeh Fehrest Ghasideyeh Ilaahi Dar Alet Afarineshe Darandegan Shakkook Naghseh Ketabe Tadbir Naghsnamehyeh Ferforius Do name be Hasanebne Moharebe Ghomi Books on philosophy
  28. 28. Ethics of medicine On a professional level, Razi introduced many practical, progressive, medical and psychological ideas. He attacked charlatans and fake doctors who roamed the cities and countryside selling their nostrums and "cures". At the same time, he warned that even highly educated doctors did not have the answers to all medical problems and could not cure all sicknesses or heal every disease, which was humanly speaking impossible. To become more useful in their services and truer to their calling, Razi advised practitioners to keep up with advanced knowledge by continually studying medical books and exposing
  29. 29. RHAZES WROTE IN HIS MEDICAL ETHICS AS FOLLOWING: "The doctor's aim is to do good, even to our enemies, so much more to our friends, and my profession forbids us to do harm to our kindred, as it is instituted for the benefit and welfare of the human race, and God imposed on physicians the oath not to compose mortiferous remedies."
  30. 30. THANK YOU

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