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Chris Hattersley – MSc, BSc, ASCC, CSCS, CES
Athletic Development For Youth
Footballers
Overview
• Creating the modern day player.
• Long term athlete development for football.
• Performance profiling.
• Invest...
Modern Day Player
Key requirements;
-Play 50 games per season.
-Consistently cover 12km per game total
distance & 1000m hi...
LTAD Model
Learning to train 9-11 years old Training to train 12-14 years old Training to compete 15-16 years
old
Training...
Programme Considerations
To develop physically and psychologically robust players it is essential to demonstrate
excellenc...
Total Score of Athleticism
• A single score and rank of the players physical
capacity.
• Sum of z-scores;
- YIRT2
- 10m
- ...
Performance Profile
• Physical benchmarking using
radar chart.
• Based on norms, not z-score.
• Identifies strengths and
w...
Assessing Maturity
• Wrist / Hand X-ray is the gold standard
(Gilsanz & Ratib, 2005). Level of maturity
assessed by the ep...
U9-11’s Programme
Ajax Athletic Skills Centre
U9-11’s Adaptations
• Main adaptations are neuromuscular due
to high degree of neuroplasticity during
these ages;
- Cerebr...
U9-11’s Programme
- Fun, movement based sessions, coach
sets structure then provides limited
input.
- Should be as creativ...
U12-14’s Adaptations
• Onset of puberty and peak height
velocity, main adaptations;
- Increase in circulating anabolic
hor...
U12-14’s Adolescent Awkwardness
• Adolescent Awkwardness;
- Limbs increase in size and mass =
bigger levers that are capab...
U12-14’s Programme
• High emphasis on mobility, multi-
planar strength, neuromuscular
control and proprioception.
• Develo...
U15-16’s / U18’s Overview
• Post PHV, the focus is now on preparing players for the
scholarship. Must be aware of late dev...
Physical Monitoring
• External load - GPS analysis allows
us to monitor movements,
distances and running speeds
during tra...
Training Load
• Weekly target 30km total
distance, 2500m high
intensity.
• Rolling 5 game averages of
physical match
perfo...
Fitness
• Improve VO2 Max, lactate
tolerance & high intensity
running.
• Must also condition players to be
able to tolerat...
Integrated Approach to Conditioning
- All physical requirements can be met through the manipulation of football drills.
- ...
Speed Training
• Straight line running power is critically
important for performance.
• Gym based strength training very
i...
Acceleration Programme
Initial Acceleration Early Phase
Acceleration
Late Phase
Acceleration
Late Phase / Max
Velocity
Dis...
Strength Training - Benefits
• During late adolescence a major
emphasis should be placed on
strength training due to the
n...
Strength Training - Considerations
- Programmes use the appropriate
training stress to create the local
and systemic respo...
Strength Programme Design
Key Movement Patterns
Squat Lunge/Step-
up
Horizontal
Push/Pull
Vertical
Push/Pull
Hinge Rotate
...
Injury Prevention
• Screening should focus on static
and dynamic posture, lower limb
alignment and lumbo-pelvic core
funct...
Posture
Nutrition
Nutrition is the most regular performance enhancing factor!
Compete
Train
Eat 900-2000 times
5-70 times
300-800 ...
Recovery
• Chocolate milk – 3:1 carb to protein
ratio. Rehydration, increase protein
synthesis & glycogen re-synthesis.
• ...
Player Education
The modern player should have a high
level of knowledge regarding their
physical performance. Presentatio...
Barriers to Player Development
• Many of the challenges faced
during player development
are social / psychological.
• Must...
Key Research
Key Research
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Athletic Development For Youth Footballers

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Presentation looking at the athletic development and physical training of youth football / soccer players.

The key areas the presentation covers are;

- Fitness testing: performance profiling, total score of athleticism (TSA), movement screening.

- Assessing physical maturity: Relative Age Effect (RAE), predicted height, bio-banding, peak height velocity (PHV)

- Monitoring training load: GPS analysis, heart rate analysis, small sided games (SSG).

- Youth training techniques: Multi sports, strength training, managing growth, resisted sprints.

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Athletic Development For Youth Footballers

  1. 1. Chris Hattersley – MSc, BSc, ASCC, CSCS, CES Athletic Development For Youth Footballers
  2. 2. Overview • Creating the modern day player. • Long term athlete development for football. • Performance profiling. • Investigate mechanisms that regulate growth. • Suggested athletic development programme through the phases.
  3. 3. Modern Day Player Key requirements; -Play 50 games per season. -Consistently cover 12km per game total distance & 1000m high intensity distance. -Play 2 games a week over a 4 week period without performance dropping. -Excellent short distance acceleration, 10 metre time < 1.2 sec. -High strength-body mass ratio. -Body fat < 10%. -Implements good recovery practices & injury prevention methods e.g. good diet, yoga etc.
  4. 4. LTAD Model Learning to train 9-11 years old Training to train 12-14 years old Training to compete 15-16 years old Training to win 16-18 years old Fundamental Movements Growth Management Scholarship Preparation Professional Development Programme focussed towards multilateral development of athleticism. Main focus on managing growth / introducing players to more intense programme. Programme designed to prepare players for full time scholarship. Full potential progressively achieved. Teaching of fundamental movement skills. Increased training time. Post-peak height velocity Comprehensive support from sport science and medicine professionals. Orientated towards enjoyment. Adolescent growth spurt. Gradual progression in training overload. Advanced physical training techniques utilised. Main adaptations are neuromuscular. Structural adaptations driven by increase in anabolic hormones. Completely individualised programme. Close monitoring to avoid overtraining e.g. HR, GPS, wellness. High emphasis on co-ordination / varied locomotor patterns. Limb growth may require refinement of skill and technique. Increased number of gym / injury prevention sessions. Aerobic and anaerobic systems trained for maximum output. Introductory nutrition & psychology workshops. High emphasis on proprioception / neuromuscular control. Higher emphasis on football specific conditioning work. Strength training maximised. Develop athletic base through mixed activities. Individualised athletic development groups. In depth movement screen analysis. Improving recovery from competition. Fun multi-sport experience. Strength training introduced, learning then loading. Nutrition & psychology workshops for high performance sport. Advanced movement screen / individual prehab. - Need to be aware of how all body systems and tissues physically mature and construct programmes based on each stage of development. Progressive long term programme.
  5. 5. Programme Considerations To develop physically and psychologically robust players it is essential to demonstrate excellence in the following areas on a daily basis; • Data analysis and presentation. • Training load monitoring and management. • Programme design and practical execution. • Nutritional and recovery practices. • Player education. • Coach-player, coach-parent and coach-coach relationships. • Research and Innovation
  6. 6. Total Score of Athleticism • A single score and rank of the players physical capacity. • Sum of z-scores; - YIRT2 - 10m - 20m - Arrowhead Agility - CMJ • Can be used within age group, across phase or to assess players on similar level of maturity. • Players that score the highest also demonstrate the best match running performance. • ‘TSA as an indicator of match running performance in elite youth soccer players.’
  7. 7. Performance Profile • Physical benchmarking using radar chart. • Based on norms, not z-score. • Identifies strengths and weaknesses. • Easy visual interpretation for coaches and players. • Progress is also monitored in relation to the previous testing results.
  8. 8. Assessing Maturity • Wrist / Hand X-ray is the gold standard (Gilsanz & Ratib, 2005). Level of maturity assessed by the epiphyseal fusion of the phalanges, radius and ulna. • Relative Age Effect (RAE) charts are created for each age group and the whole academy. • Regression equation put forward by Mirwald et al (2001) used to assess physical maturity / years from peak height velocity PHV) • Predicted height is assesed using the equation provided by Sherar & Lauren et al (2002). Bio-bands are then created from the players percentage of adult height.
  9. 9. U9-11’s Programme Ajax Athletic Skills Centre
  10. 10. U9-11’s Adaptations • Main adaptations are neuromuscular due to high degree of neuroplasticity during these ages; - Cerebral Maturation (Motor cortex, parietal lobe & cerebellum) - Myelination of neurons (Spinal cord & peripheral nerves) - Intramuscular co-ordination - Intermuscular co-ordination - Limited changes in muscle architecture during this stage. Players need to learn to calculate and co- ordinate as many movements as possible = Fundamental Movements / Motor Control
  11. 11. U9-11’s Programme - Fun, movement based sessions, coach sets structure then provides limited input. - Should be as creative as possible. - ‘Performance Playground’ - Multi-sports programme. - Climbing, tchoukball, volleyball, gymnastics, parkour, capoeira, sprint mechanics, tag rugby, badminton, tennis, table tennis, basketball, strategy games, judo, tag games. - 3 x 10 mins twice per week.
  12. 12. U12-14’s Adaptations • Onset of puberty and peak height velocity, main adaptations; - Increase in circulating anabolic hormones regulated by hypothalamus and pituitary gland. - Musculoskeletal growth is caused by increased amount of hormone- receptor interactions allowing the hormones to interact with the relevant tissues. - Muscle fibre differentiation - Neural development continues
  13. 13. U12-14’s Adolescent Awkwardness • Adolescent Awkwardness; - Limbs increase in size and mass = bigger levers that are capable of creating more force. - This rapid growth of the tissues alters the brains proprioceptive mapping of the body which impairs co-ordination. - May lead to decrements in motor control tasks i.e. running, agility, sporting skill. - Body out of balance & increased risk of injury = Growth Management
  14. 14. U12-14’s Programme • High emphasis on mobility, multi- planar strength, neuromuscular control and proprioception. • Develop basic competencies in the gym, foam roll, mobility, pre- activation. • Introduce to yoga and pilates, more advanced support, nutrition, training load, education etc. - 1 Multi-sport session - 1 Athletic development session - 1 Gym session
  15. 15. U15-16’s / U18’s Overview • Post PHV, the focus is now on preparing players for the scholarship. Must be aware of late developers. Key areas; Area U15/16 U18 Match Running Performance / Fitness (GPS profiles) x 1 x 1 Strength & Conditioning (Learning then loading) x 2 x 3 Injury Prevention (Advanced screening / individualised) x 2 x 3 Player Education Players must be knowledgeable on key areas related to their performance.
  16. 16. Physical Monitoring • External load - GPS analysis allows us to monitor movements, distances and running speeds during training and games. Key metrics; TD, HID, Acc:Dec, max velocity. • Internal Load - Heart Rate analysis provides a measure of internal training load. Max HR, mean HR & time over 85% max HR. • Psychophysiological load – Players perception of how hard training was. RPE 1-10 x time of session.
  17. 17. Training Load • Weekly target 30km total distance, 2500m high intensity. • Rolling 5 game averages of physical match performance. • Training stress balance, acute & chronic load to monitor injury risk. • Email reports are sent out to players and coaches as close to the previous session as possible.
  18. 18. Fitness • Improve VO2 Max, lactate tolerance & high intensity running. • Must also condition players to be able to tolerate match specific actions with a high level of musculoskeletal loading such as accelerations & decelerations. • Sport specific training is the most appropriate approach by manipulating SSG’s. • Coach education important.
  19. 19. Integrated Approach to Conditioning - All physical requirements can be met through the manipulation of football drills. - Sport Science provide training guidelines on a daily / weekly basis. - Coaches manipulate drills to obtain desired technical, tactical and physical outcomes. Plan Do Review Target of 600m High intensity distance - 7 v 7 Big Pitch - All players in attacking half to score - 3 x 7 min games - Analyse GPS - Were the W:R ratio, pitch size and rules appropriate?
  20. 20. Speed Training • Straight line running power is critically important for performance. • Gym based strength training very important, but resisted sprints more specific. • Overload sprint mechanics and locomotion movement pattern. • Increase peak leg extension forces of stance leg = increased stride length. • Sledge, parachute, ramp, vest - Each type trains a distinct component of acceleration. • Should be used in conjunction with plyometrics that develop a similar component.
  21. 21. Acceleration Programme Initial Acceleration Early Phase Acceleration Late Phase Acceleration Late Phase / Max Velocity Distance - 0-10m -0-20m 30-40m 30-60m Emphasis - Net concentric power generation - Longer ground contact time - Horizontal ground reaction forces - Net eccentric power dissipation - Shorter ground contact time - Vertical ground reaction forces Resisted Sprint Sledge Sprints: 5 x 7.5m @ 20kg, 5 x 15m @ 15kg, Parachute Sprints: 8 x 25m Vest Sprints: 4 x 20m @ 10kg, 4 x 30m @7.5kg, 4 x 40m @ 4kg Hill Sprints (3°): 6 x 30m, 4 x 40m, 2 x 50m Plyometric 1 DB Jump Squat 5 x 5 @ 30kg Box jumps: 5 x 5 @ 30 inch High hurdle rebound jumps: 5 x 3 @ 0.76m Depth jumps: 5 x 3 @ 16 inch, Plyometric 2 Single leg standing long jumps: 4 x 5 Single leg bunny hops: 4 x 5 High hurdle rebound jumps: 5 x 3 @ 0.84m Depth jumps: 5 x 3 @ 24 inch
  22. 22. Strength Training - Benefits • During late adolescence a major emphasis should be placed on strength training due to the numerous performance enhancing effects it has; - Large increase in muscle mass / CSA +5-15kg during scholarship underpins developments in strength and power. - Muscles become more resistant to fatigue. Switch on genes that limit eccentric stress and prevent damage to the sarcomere. (titin kinase – alpha actinin ACTN3). - Injury prevention, maintain muscle balance, posture and fine tune movement patterns.
  23. 23. Strength Training - Considerations - Programmes use the appropriate training stress to create the local and systemic responses required for adaptation. - Multi joint movements that activate large amounts of muscle mass are used to generate a enhanced hormonal response. - High amounts of tension are also necessary to activate high threshold motor units in order to stimulate neurological adaptations and hypertrophy of FT fibres.
  24. 24. Strength Programme Design Key Movement Patterns Squat Lunge/Step- up Horizontal Push/Pull Vertical Push/Pull Hinge Rotate Jump & Land Brace Programming For Functional Hypertrophy Training Variables Example Session No. of exercises 6-8 Back Squat 4 x 7, 4 x 5 Sets 4-8 RDL 4 x 7, 4 x 5 Reps 4-8 BB Walking Lunge 6 x 5 each leg Rep Vol 150-300 Push Press 3 x 7, 3 x 5 Load (% 1RM) 80-90% Wtd Chin Ups 2 x 8, 2 x 6, 2 x 4 Rest Interval 2-3 min Bench Press 2 x 8, 2 x 6, 2 x 4 Tempo 2 – 0 - 1 Core
  25. 25. Injury Prevention • Screening should focus on static and dynamic posture, lower limb alignment and lumbo-pelvic core function. • Injury prevention sessions informed by trends from screening for group and individual work. • Photo’s used to improve analysis and provide feedback to players. • Physio’s perform additional assessments LLD, laxity etc. • Release – lengthen – activate - integrate.
  26. 26. Posture
  27. 27. Nutrition Nutrition is the most regular performance enhancing factor! Compete Train Eat 900-2000 times 5-70 times 300-800 times
  28. 28. Recovery • Chocolate milk – 3:1 carb to protein ratio. Rehydration, increase protein synthesis & glycogen re-synthesis. • Ice bath – 10 mins at 12°. Reduce DOMS and sympathetic stress. • Tart cherry drink – reduce oxidative stress & free radical damage. • Foam roll – increased muscle and tendon blood flow, reduce DOMS. • Large meal – High GI carbs & protein to replenish substrate stores & optimise muscle damage repair. • Sleep – stimulates further regeneration and alleviates psychological fatigue.
  29. 29. Player Education The modern player should have a high level of knowledge regarding their physical performance. Presentations should be delivered in the following areas; - Match running performance. - Match preparation and recovery. - Strength training and injury prevention. - Nutrition and supplementation. - Interactive, lots of practical examples.
  30. 30. Barriers to Player Development • Many of the challenges faced during player development are social / psychological. • Must limit each barrier to provide the optimal environment to progress. • Individual approach creates more buy in. • Reinforce discipline and positive behaviours. • When this is done consistently this creates culture.
  31. 31. Key Research
  32. 32. Key Research

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