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How many of you have used a virtual world? How many have used one for teaching?
Pbl in 3D virtual world for healthcare simulation Evelyn Mcelhinney
Problem based Learning in a 3D Virtual World Evelyn McElhinney aka Kali PizzaroSchool of Health and Life sciences TELP Webinar
• Brief overview of 3D VW and the affordances of 3D VirtualWorlds•Discuss why simulation in a 3D virtual world eg. Second Life (SL)•Describe how I used and created Problem Based Learning scenariosin SL•Examples of student interaction in VWs and decision making•Some results from Action Research Project
Poll How many of you have used a 3D virtual world?How many have use a 3D virtual world for teaching?
What is a 3D virtual World?•3D multi user environment (MUVE)•Users create a digital representation of self (avatar)•Immersive – user should feel immersed and a senseof presence and social presence in the environment•Content creation•Sharable user generated digital contents•Viewer required or web interface(de Frietas 2008)
Avatars “Digital representation driven by humans” (Blascovich and Bailenson 2011, p11) “A virtual human can not only look and behave like us,but once we form a psychological connection with the virtual human, it can become us.” (Ahn, et al. 2012)
Affordances of 3D Virtual Worlds• Self-representation (via the avatar)• Spatial cognition, immersion & social presence• Increased socialisation• Increased engagement• Increase active learning• Educational (clinical) simulation• Collaboration – local or international• Guest lectures• Field tripsSavin-Baden (2010),Minocha and Roberts (2008)
Pedagogy • Experiential • Situated • Social Constructivism Many more
Educational activities in 3D Virtual Worlds • Virtual quests • Collaborative simulations • Collaborative construction • Virtual Laboratory • Virtual Field trip • Role Play • Game – based learning • Lectures Duncan et al (2012)
Why?• Part time – Blended‘protected time for practise in clinical area’• Unable to access physical world CSL – needed authenticlooking immersive synchronous environment•Competing demands – work, family etc•Delphi – hindering factors – confidence in diagnostic historytaking and listening to heart sounds, documentation (McElhinney2010)•Difficulty engaging with asynchronousVLE
What? - Simulation using ProblemBased Learning scenarios • Patient/patient bot or distant volunteer - real life health history • Heart sounds – simulator worn on avatar chest and controlled by lecturer • Continue – documentation, investigations –given roles – short term management – with literature to back up • Present as a Multi Disciplinary meeting to international audience in SL
Student Presentation to International Audience
Methods - Data Collection• Pre survey – self assessed computer ability•Student diaries – completed after all sessionsin the VW•Lecturer diary – usability, etc = changes•Post VW self assessment of group work
Analysis - 5 Stage Model of Teaching and Learning in Second Life Salmon et al. (2010)
Adaptation of Salmon et al. Model Access and motivation Development - Online Socialisation transfer to Social Presence physical world Knowledge Co- Construction Information and reflection – Exchange new knowledge
Access and Motivation• In lab induction• Created their avatar• Taught basics required for the scenario
Online Socialisation (social presence)• Students customised their avatars as soon as possible• Commented on each others clothes – unhappy if they had the same look• “The experience itself is very immersive. Think this is a combination of the software environment (CSL lab) and the avatars” Feels like we are sitting in the same room going over the material. Feel just as nervous taking a history in second life if I was sitting in a class room with the facilitator and my peers. Didn’t anticipate this” (Student 7, Male)• “I feel no difference in authenticity, when I am taking a history in SL, it is easy for me to immerse myself in the experience” (Student 6, Female)• “Logged on to see if I could move around and get to home before scenario. Went straight to home base and managed to move around with no problems. Changed my clothes with ease. Felt a bit lonely without the group (Student 8, Female)
Information Exchange• Combination via SL, via BB, via email“I passed on the information by dropping the notecard into the trolley, but I also passed it to the others by dropping it into an instant message that meant we all knew what was happening and could move on” (Avatar 3, Female)“There were a few communication difficulties at first, two of the group members had accidently muted the module facilitator and were unable to see her dialogue in local chat. I assisted them in fixing the problem, and we were back on track in 15 minutes” (Avatar 7, Male)
Knowledge co – construction, reflection – new knowledge“The different clinical experience in the group really helped when reviewing our testresults. Really impressed with how collaborative the process is. Managed to reachconsensus quicker than I anticipated. Second life has been invaluable – chat logswere especially useful for me. Allowed me to examine my own and other people’sdecision making and thought processes. Met up with the group to decide on ourrecommendations for the scenario. Really liking the collaborative nature of thesoftware” (Student 7, Male)“All in all it was a good learning experience, both the actual scenario and to brushup on computing skills.. Find it a good way of learning, as we can learn from eachother” (Student 8 , Female)
Knowledge construction through discussion Lecturer: “So what are your thoughts at the moment?” Student 1: “We have to decide if the tumour is operable or not and if she is fit for anaesthesia?” Student 7: That means I am up, eh? Student 4: Yeah, now we need to decide how we can stage properly and we can ask for surgical review, then decide on anaesthetic review and talk to the patient” Student 7: I think it is safe to say she will get surgery Lecturer: Think back to her health history Student 1: Oh wait we need to address her warfarin therapy
Development transfer to physical worldSelf assessment of their group work• Improved diagnostic history taking and documentation• Increased confidence in history taking and interpreting investigations• Increased understanding of need for good teamwork• Improvement of communication in the clinical area• Increased transferable computer skills
My reflections• Think about what you want to do and if 3D virtual worlds will offer something different to other platforms• Socialisation is easier with a visual avatar compared to text chat environments leading to quicker engagement• Subject experts must gain an understanding of VWs to enable creation of PBL and teaching and learning activities to be developed in - world and facilitate troubleshooting• Link up with others who have done similar things to that you want to do for scripts, buildings, ideas• VW can offer an immersive environment that encourages a multiple of skills and increases engagement• Link up with your friendly neighbourhood tech!
Challenges• There is a learning curve (but good induction can ease this)• Computer issues and broadband use of mobile devices• Understand you are dealing with a 3rd party tool so need to be prepared for maintenance or downtime• Support from within your organisation• Cost – SL can be cica $2000 for a decent piece of land (island), however GCU have 2 islands willing to ‘rent’ to others• Alternatives grids – create your own VW or have your organisation run a VW server (cheaper)• Time to create and need a builder
Take Home•Virtual worlds can offer a flexible alternative to physicalworld simulation•Allow for experiential and social constructivist learning in asafe environment•Increase engagement with activities compared toasynchronous text virtual environment• Pre-course in-lab or in-world practice is essential to enableeasier transition for learning in VWs•Exchange of Chat logs can enable reflection, feedback andfeed forward
ReferencesAhn, S, J., Fox, J., and Bailenson, J. N. (2012) Avatars, in Bainbridge, W. S. (Ed) Leadership in Science and Technology: A reference Handbook: Sage PublicationsDe Freitas, S (2008) Serious Virtual Worlds: A scoping study, JISC E-Learning ProgrammeDuncan, I., Miller, A., Jing, S (2012) A Taxonomy of virtual worlds usage in Education. British Journal of Educational Technology Vol 43, No 6 p949-964McElhinney E, (2010) Factors which influence nurse practitioners ability to carry out physical examination skills in the clinical area after a degree level module – an electronic Delphi study, Journal of Clinical Nursing, Vol 19, issue 21-22 pp 3177 - 3187Salmon, Gilly , Nie, Ming and Edirisingha, Palitha (2010) Developing a five-stage model of learning in Second Life, Educational Research, 52: 2, 169 — 182Savin-Baden M, (2010) A Practical Guide to Using Second Life in Higher Education, Open University Press