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MARRIAGE <br />NATURE AND DEFINITION OF MARRIAGE<br /><ul><li>Humankind’s most basic and oldest social unit is the family. It is a social institution primarily established by society to ensure its continuity and to regulate the sexual behavior of its members.
The family is the primary group where the child is initially socialized and initiated in the ways of life of his group. The family provides the child’s social, psychological, and emotional needs – warmth, intimacy, affection, love, nurturance, care and security.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Marriage is another human construction to insure the continuity of the family and the eventual perpetuation of the human specie.
The New Family Code of the Philippines, which became effective on August 3,1998, defines Marriage as a special contract of permanent union between a man and a woman entered into in accordance with law for the establishment of conjugal and the family life.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Light and Keller (1985)
defines marriage as a socially recognized union between two or more individuals that typically involves sexual and economic rights and duties.</li></ul>They further elucidated their view of marriage.<br />“Marriage is a business partnership as much as a romantic fairytale; it involves compromises, division of labor, specialization, financial arrangement, and communication systems.”<br />
Aspects of Marriage:<br /> First, the legal point of view <br /><ul><li>posits that marriage is a contract.</li></ul> Second, religious point of view <br /><ul><li>posits that marriages a sacrament.</li></ul>“What God has put together let no man put asunder.”<br />
The meaning of Marriage and the Family Issue<br />a. The most traditional socialnorm<br /><ul><li>views marriage as a sacred phenomenon; </li></ul>that is, the family and the marriage are <br />divine and holly institutions created and <br />maintained by God or some supreme <br />being greater than human beings.<br />
b. Asecond traditional norm<br /><ul><li>views the meaning of marriage and family as centering primarily on social obligations.</li></ul>A third <br /><ul><li>meaning of marriage suggest that families and the marital relationship exist for the individual.</li></li></ul><li>Important Legal Matters On Marriage<br />A. ESSENTIAL REQUISITES FOR MARRIAGE<br /> <br />Family Code of the Philippines provides:<br /> Art. 2: No marriage shall be valid, unless these essential requisites are present:<br />Legal capacity of the contracting parties (18 yrs. or upwards), who must be a male and female; and<br />Consent freely given in the presence of the solemnizing officer.<br />
B. FORMAL REQUISITES OF MARRIAGE<br />Art.3. the formal requisites of marriage are:<br />Authority of solemnizing officer;<br />A valid marriage license except in cases provided in chapter 2 of this title; and<br />A marriage ceremony which takes place with the appearance of the contracting parties before the solemnizing officer and their personal declaration that they take each other as husband and wife in the presence of not less than two witnesses of legal age:<br />Art.4.The absence of any of the essential or formal requisites shall render the marriage “void ab initio” (void from the beginning) except as stated in Article 35(a).<br />
C. ANNULMENT OF A MARRIAGE<br />ANNULMENT<br /><ul><li> refers to hr legal process of filing a petition in the appropriate court seeking a judicial declaration of making a marriage null and void ab initio or from the beginning as if no marriage took place.</li></li></ul><li>Art.45.Enumerates the grounds for annulmentof marriage, as follows:<br />One of the contracting parties is 18 yrs. of age or over but bellow 21 and without parental consent;<br />Either party was of unsound mind;<br />Consent of either party was obtained by fraud, force and intimidation;<br />Either party was physically incapable of consummating the marriage with the other; and<br />Either party was afflicted with a sexually transmissible disease found to be serious and incurable.<br />
D. LEGAL SEPARATION<br />Legal Separation- refers to the legal process of filling a petition in the appropriate court seeking a judicial declaration of legal separation for married couples.<br /> Art.55. A petition for legal separation may be filed on any of the following grounds:<br />Repeated physically violence or grossly abusive conduct directed against the petitioner;<br />Physical violence or moral pressure to compel the petitioner, apolitical affiliation;<br />Attempt of respondent to corrupt r induce the petitioner, a common child, or a child of the petitioner, to engage in prostitution, or connivance in such corruption or inducement;<br />
4. Final judgment sentencing the respondent to imprisonment of more than six yrs; even if pardoned;<br />Drug addiction or habitual alcoholism of the respondent;<br />Lesbianism or homosexuality of the respondent;<br />Contracting by the respondent of a subsequent bigamous marriage, whether in the Philippines or abroad;<br />Sexual infidelity or perversion;<br />Attempt by the respondent against the life of the petitioner; or<br />Abandonment of petitioner by respondent without justifiable cause for more that one year.<br />
NORMS OF MARRIAGE ON THE SELECTION OF POTENTIAL MARRIAGE PARTNERS<br />Endogamy-is a rule that requires a person to marry someone from within his or her own group—tribe, nationality, religion, race community, or any other social grouping.<br />Exogamy-is a rule that requires a person to marry someone from outside his her own group.<br />Sororate-prescribes that a widower marry the sister or nearest kin of the decease wife.<br />Levirate-prescribes that widows marry the brother nearest kin of the deceased husband.<br />
FORMS OF MARRIAGE<br />Monogamy<br /><ul><li>marriage between one man and one woman.</li></ul>2. Polygamy or plural marriage<br /><ul><li>has three forms:</li></ul>Polygyny- one husband and two or more wives<br />Polyandry- one wife and two or more husbands<br />Group marriage- two or more husbands and two or more wives.<br />
BASIS ON CHOOSING A MARRIAGE PARTNER <br />Parental Selection or Arranged Marriages<br /><ul><li>Families that have important stake in the type of spouse their son or daughter will take usually practice.</li></ul>2. Romantic Love<br /><ul><li>Romantic love has become an important basis for marriage in our society. It is the theme of most of our popular songs, the subject of many of our movies and television shows, and made active in scores of popular books and magazine articles.</li></li></ul><li>WHY PEOPLE MARRY<br /> <br /> 1. Love 11. Unhappy home situation<br /> 2. Economic security 12. Money<br /> 3. Emotional security 13. Companionship<br /> 4. Parent’s wishes 14. Protection<br /> 5. Escape from loneliness 15. Adventure<br /> 6. Common interest 16. Sex and sexual attraction<br /> 7. Parenthood 17. Begetting and rearing of 8. Physical attraction children <br /> 9. Compatibility 18. Acceptance responsibility<br /> 10. Martial bliss and 19. Death of a former spouse<br /> happiness 20.Care and nurturance<br /> happiness<br />
DEFINITION AND NATURE OF FAMILY<br /> The family is the basis social institution and the primary group in society.<br /> <br />Burgess and Locke (1963) <br /><ul><li>define the family as a group of persons united by ties of marriage, blood or adoption, constituting a single household, interacting and communicating with each other in their respective social roles of husband and wife, mother and father, son daughter, brother and sister, creating and a common culture.</li></li></ul><li>Light (1985) - defines the family as a group of people who are united by ties of marriage, ancestry, or adoption and who are recognized by the community as constituting a single household and as having the responsibility for rearing children.<br />Murdock (1949)–defines the family as a social group characterized by common residence, economic cooperation and reproduction.<br />
THEORIES OR PERSPECTIVE ON THE FAMILY<br />Three Theories:<br />1. The functionalist Perspective<br />Functionalist says that if a society is to survive and maintain itself across time, certain essential functions must be performed.<br />Functions:<br />Regulation and sexual behavior;<br />Reproduction;<br />Biological maintenance;<br />Socialization;<br />Care and protection function;<br />Social placement or group status;<br />Social control.<br />
2. The Conflict Perspective<br />Jetse Sprey (1979), agree with the functionalists’ position that the family institution and other groups in society are organized systems of species survival.<br />3. The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective<br />The symbolic interationist direct considerable attention to the symbolic environment in which people carry out their daily activities.<br />
PATTERNS OF FAMILY ORGAIZATION<br />BASED ON INTERNAL ORGANIZATION OR MEMBERSHIP<br />Nuclear Family <br /><ul><li>is composed of a husband and his wife and their children in a union recognized by the other members of the society.</li></ul>The family of the orientation– is the family into which a person is born and where he is reared or socialized.<br />The family of procreation– is the family that such person established through marriage and consists of a husband, a wife, a sons and daughter.<br />
2. Extended Family – is composed of two or more nuclear families, economically and socially related to each other.<br />Linton (Murdock 1949)<br /> Two types of family:<br />Conjugal family<br /><ul><li>corresponds to the nuclear family where priority is given to marital ties.</li></ul>Consanguineal family<br /><ul><li>corresponds to the extended family where priority is given to blood ties.</li></li></ul><li>B. BASED ON DESCENT<br />Descent<br /><ul><li> implies family genealogical ties of a person with a particular group of kinsfolk.</li></ul>Bilateral descent- involves the reckoning of descent through both the father’s and mother’s families<br />Patrilineal descent- involves the reckoning of descent through the father’s family only.<br />Matrilineal descent- involves the reckoning of descent through the mother’s family only.<br />
C. BASE ON RESIDENCE <br />Patrilocal -the married couple live with or near the husband’s family.<br />Matrilocal–the husband leaves his family and sets up housekeeping with or near his wife’s family.<br />Neolocal-the married couple establish a new home; they reside independently of the parents of either groom or bride.<br />Bilocal- it gives the couple a choice of staying with either the groom’s parents or the bride’s parents.<br />
Concepts to Master: <br />1. Family Planning <br /> 2. Responsible Parenthood<br /> 3. Population Education<br /> 4. Sex Education<br /> 5. Contraception<br /> 6. Contraceptive devices<br />
FAMILY PLANNING<br /> Family planning experts define family planning as the process by which responsible and mature couples, if they wish, determine by themselves the timing, proper spacing and number of the children born to them. Family planning involves three main aspects:<br />1. Responsible parenthood<br />2. Proper spacing of children<br />3. Birth control<br />
Family planning involves the rational utilization of effective contraceptive methods by married couples so they space and limit their children to a desirable size in order for them to attain quality life. Contraceptive means prevention of unwanted pregnancy, while responsible parenthoodmeans responsible pro-creation and socialization of children. As responsible parents, married couples are prepared for the responsibility of rearing a child who can be properly fed, clothed and educated.<br />
NORMS ON FAMILY PLANNING<br />1. Sociological Norms<br />Family planning is the process whereby, through interaction, married couples arrive at an intelligent decision in the number of children they could provide with quality life.<br />2. Medical Norms<br /> Family planning through the use of contraceptives provides protection against unwanted pregnancies. Contraceptives work to prevent the meeting of the egg sperm. Family planning is concerned with the regulation of human reproductive capacity. It involves the prevention of unwanted births by contraceptive techniques, or by reducing the length of exposure to pregnancy in order to protect the well-being of the mother, of the family, or of the larger population. <br />
3. Legal-Juridical Norms<br /> Government support of family planning is reflected in Article XV, <br />Sec. 10 of the Philippines Constitution to achieve and maintain population levels most conducive to the national welfare. Measures to assure its implementation have been made in law and practice. The Labor Code of the Philippines requires the employer of more than 200 workers to provide for family planning services to their employees and their spouses ( Sec. 11, Rule VII, Book III of the Implementing Rules ). <br />
4. Ecclesiastical Norms<br />All the major religions of the world believe in the guiding principle that a couple has a right to limit family size. <br />The Roman Catholic Church is not against family planning but categorically condemns the use of artificial methods as they are against the natural laws. The Catholic Church only accepts the withdrawal, abstinence, and rhythm or calendar method.<br />5. Psychological Norms<br /> Family planning has psychological bearing on problems which confront the young today brought about by their development stage and the sexual revolution in the present times. Marlyn Benoit, Executive Director of the Devereux Children’s Center in Washington, D.C. agrees that changes in society and family structure have led to more sexual activity among teenagers.<br />
POPULATION POLICY AND PORGRAMS <br />Congress, through R.A. 6365, created, the Population Commission (POPCOM) in 1971.<br /> Main Goal: To enhance national development by meeting the social challenge of a high rate of population growth. <br /> The Department Of Education and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities create programs for population education.<br />Population educationis the process of developing awareness and understanding of population situations as well as rational attitude and behavior toward those situations for the attainment of high quality of life for the individual, the family, the community, the nation, and the world. <br />
CONTRACEPTION (BIRTH CONTROL METHODS AND TECHNIQUES)<br /><ul><li>Reproduction is the basic biological reason for sexual intercourse. However, most people enjoy sex and do not want to conceive every time they have sex. There are many reasons. they may wish to concentrate on a career, they may already have too many children in the family, or suffer from certain health problems, or dislike babies, or fell too young or old, and so on.
Contraception is not a new idea. Over thousands of years all kinds of devices have been tried to prevent pregnancy. Almost 4,000 years ago some Egyptian women put a contraceptive paste into their vaginas, made form honey, sodium carbonate and crocodile dung!</li></li></ul><li>Literature on contraception and birth control gives the following methods and techniques:<br />A. Chemical Methods <br />1. Pill or Oral Contraceptive<br /> The pill is a tablet made of man-made hormones (estrogen and progesterone) mimicking the ones your body produces monthly on its own. It’s is of two kinds: COCs or combined oral contraceptives and POPs or progesterone only pills (mini pills). These are available in over-the counter or prescription forms.<br /> Estrogen prevents the egg from maturing and being released from the ovary. Progesterone changes the lining of the uterus and the consistency of cervical mucus, making them inhospitable to sperm and the implantation of fertilized egg.<br /> The pill has to be taken for a certain number of days in the menstrual cycle, usually 21. Its effectiveness is 96% to 99%, if used properly.<br />`<br />
2. “Morning-After Pill”<br />The so-called “morning-after pill” is a form of emergency birth control. Emergency contraception can prevent a woman from getting pregnant even after unprotected sex. This method is especially helpful for those who have been raped or whose main birth control methods have failed. Prescribed by a health care professional, these pills are similar to birth control pills but contain a higher dose of hormones. The pills will either inhibit or delay ovulation, or they may alter the uterine lining, preventing the implantation of a fertilized egg. After sexual assault or consensual sex, two of these pills are taken within 72 hours, and then two more are taken 12 hours later. <br />
In the Philippines, anti-abortion and pro-life groups insist that the pill previously marketed here under the brand Postinor- is an abortifacient because, as many of them believe, a fertilized egg is already considered a life form. Thus, preventing it from being implanted into the uterus is tantamount to aborting, or killing it.<br />After much pressure from these groups, the government relented and pulled Postinor out of the local market. The Bureau of Food and drug (BFAD) likewise delisted the product from its registry of drugs. <br />It is injected by a health care professional every three months. its effectiveness is 99% of preventing pregnancy.<br />
3. Implants<br /> Implants are six matchstick-size rubber silicone rods, tubes or capsules containing progestin or progesterone. A physician surgically implants them under the skin, usually on the upper arm . The rods released low doses of hormones to suppress ovulation and cause a thickening of the cervical mucus so that sperm cannot penetrate. They are locally available as Norplant and close to 100% effectiveness for up to five years, and they can be removed by a doctor at any time. <br />
B. Sterilization or Surgical Method<br /> In sterilization, the eggs or sperm are prevented from going anywhere by cutting, knotting or blocking the tubes along which they normally travel. This is done by a small surgical operation in the hospital or clinic. Its effectiveness is 99% to 100%.<br />1. Tubal Ligation<br />Female sterilization involves tying, cutting or searing the two fallopian tubes or oviducts via survey so that the passageway to the uterus is blocked. It is a more or less permanent surgical method for women. The operation is minor, leaving a small scar on the lower abdomen. Most women can leave the hospital on the same day, or a day or two later.<br />
2. Vasectomy<br /> Male sterilization involves tying, cutting or searing the two vasdeferens, the tubes which carry sperm from the testes to the penis, to prevent the sperm from mixing with the seminal fluid. It is a more or less permanent or irreversible surgical method for men. <br />3. Mechanical or Barrier Methods<br />The barrier methods of contraception put a physical barrier between sperm and egg, so that two cannot meet.<br />
a. Male condom or prophylactic latex<br /><ul><li>The condom is a synthetic latex sheath worn over the penis during copulation to prevent the sperm from entering the woman’s womb. It has a sealed end the caches the sperm0containing fluid at ejaculation (enlarge and rigid) penis before intercourse and unrolled and disposed of afterwards. It is advised to withdraw the penis immediately after intercourse, and while still erect. Delaying may cause sperm to spill out into the cervix.</li></ul>b. Female Condom<br /><ul><li>Female condom is elongated as polyurethane sheath about 6.5 inches long, with a flexible ring at each end. It is used to line the inside of the vagina covers the cervix. It prevents the sperm from reaching the cervix. It is inserted into the vagina before intercourse. Its effectiveness is more or less 75% to 80% in preventing pregnancy.</li></li></ul><li>c. Diaphragm/Cervical Cap<br /><ul><li>This device is a thin rubber cap or bowl-shaped rubber disk with flexible rim that fits into the top of the vagina and covers the cervix, the neck or entrance to womb. It prevents the sperm in the vagina from entering the uterus and reaching the egg beyond. It is usually fitted 2 or 3 hours before intercourse and removed several hours afterwards. </li></ul>d. Sponge<br /><ul><li>The sponge is a soft, donut-shaped devise, which is made of spongy materials that contains spermicidal. It must be moistened and inserted before intercourse, and left in place from up to six hours afterward (although it can be worn up to 24 hours with repeated intercourse). It works like the diaphragm and the cervical cap. Its function is to block the entry of the sperm into the womb. The sponge is available without a prescription and is about 85% effectiveness on preventing pregnancy.</li></li></ul><li>4. Natural Family Planning Methods<br /><ul><li>Natural Family Planning, also called fertility awareness, refers to methods for planning and preventing pregnancies by observation of the naturally occurring signs and symptoms of the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Intercourse is avoided during the fertile phase if pregnancy is not desired. The natural methods rely on timing rather that artificial aids or surgery.</li></li></ul><li>The eight techniques of nfp are:<br />a. The Rhythm (or Calendar) Method<br /><ul><li>The rhythm method is also known as the safe period. It is a fertility tracking method using a calendar. The woman must observe and record her reproductive cycle (I.e., ovulation and menstruation). Ovulation occurs about 12 to 16 days before menstruation (which is the end of your ovulation period or 14 days before the next period is due.) An egg has a natural life of two days in the womb waiting to be fertilized. A sperm can last for four or five days.</li></ul>b. Cervical Mucus Method<br /><ul><li>It is an NFP method relying on a woman’s familiarity with her body and its processes. The vagina discharge after a woman’s period is used as indicators of fertility. It is also known as the Billing’s method, named after an Australian doctor who discovered it. Observe that the vagina discharge which appears after menstruation will first be cloudy and sticky.</li></li></ul><li>c. Basal Body Temperature<br /><ul><li>The NFP method involves the daily recording of the temperature changes in the woman’s body with a special thermometer. She records her temperature at the same time every day before getting up or doing anything in the morning. A rise in the BBT of about half a degree Celsius may mean ovulation, and the couple should abstain from intercourse if pregnancy is not desired. Effectiveness is more or less 95% but only for couples with normal fertility who follow and use the method perfectly.</li></ul>d. Sympto-thermal Method<br /><ul><li>This is a combination of the BBT and the cervical mucus methods and other physiological indicators of ovulation, such as tenderness of the breast and mid-cycle pain. This involves recording. If pregnancy is not desired, couples should abstain from intercourse until the 3rd day of elevated temperature or the fourth day after the peak day of mucus, whichever comes first. Its effectiveness is 98% but only for couples with normal fertility who follow and use the method perfectly.</li></li></ul><li>5. Withdrawal or coitus Interruptus<br /><ul><li>During sex, the man withdraws his penis from the woman’s vagina just before the sperm-containing fluid ejaculates. However, this method is not very reliable. It is difficult to predict the exact timing of ejaculation and some sperm may be released before the full ejaculation. Even before the ejaculation. Even before the ejaculation, the man releases “pre-ejaculation fluid” which already contains enough sperm to get a woman pregnant. It may also lead to frustration for one or both partners. Its effectiveness is more or less 30% to 40%.</li></ul>6. Prolonged Lactation or Lactation Amenorrhea (LAM)<br /><ul><li>This is considered a natural contraceptive and is known to protect a woman from pregnancy for the first six months after giving birth, depending on certain factors.
Breastfeeding is the main factor for delaying menstruation (lactaional amenorrhea). As the baby sucks, the nipples are stimulated, causing the woman’s body to produceprolactin, the hormone that includes milk flow.</li></li></ul><li>Prolactin is also believed to suppress ovulation on the nursing mother, in addition to its main function of increasing the supply of breast milk; thus, the more frequent and the longer the breast feeding, the longer the delay of menstrual period.<br />Breastfeeding provides 98% protection against another pregnancy only as long as:<br />a .The baby is under six months old<br />b. The mother is fully breastfeeding, a minimum old six feedings during the daytime and two at night, and completes emptying of the breast during every feeding episode.<br />c. The mother is amenorrheic or has not experienced menstrual bleeding 56 days after delivery.<br />
CURRENT RESEARCH ON BIRTH CONTROL<br />A new male condom made of polyurethane is one type of birth control currently under development. Diaphragms may one day include a one-size-fits-all device and disposable, spermicide –releasing diaphragms may also be developed. <br />A contraceptive vaccine for men currently in development contains a hormone that appears to interfere with the production of both sperm and the male sex hormone testosterone. Vaginal rings that deliver female sex hormones are another potential method for preventing pregnancy. These silicone rubber rings fit in the vagina and release a steady supply of hormones progestin-only vaginal rings would be worn continuously while those containing both estrogen and progestin would be worn for three weeks and then removed for one week to allow menstrual bleeding in the same pattern as combined oral contraceptives.<br />
SUMMARY<br /> Family planning is the process by which responsible couples determine by themselves the timing, proper spacing and number of children born to them with the aim of giving them quality life. It involves three aspects: responsible parenthood, proper spacing of children, and birth control.<br /> There are several norms on family planning: the sociological norms, the medical norms, legal-juridical norms, the ecclesiastical norms and the psychological norms. These norms provide various views and perspectives on family planning.<br />
Another aspect of family planning is birth control. Various methods and techniques of contraception are available today. These include: Chemical Method, Sterilization or Surgical Method, Mechanical or Barrier Methods, Natural Family Planning Methods, and the Intra-Uterine Devices.<br /> Current research on birth control focuses on contraceptives for men, such as contraceptive vaccines, hormonal contraceptive injections, biodegradable implants, and male polyurethane condom. Advance in birth control are limited by legal, religious, and financial concerns.<br />