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A Friendly Introduction to Machine Learning

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A Friendly Introduction to Machine Learning

  1. 1. Introduction to Machine Learning Chirag Jain, ML Engineer
  2. 2. About Haptik Chatbot platform for publishers, advertisers and enterprises AI powered conversational interface to drive customer engagement Reach of 30 Million Users, processing 5 Million Chats per month One of the world’s largest chatbot platforms Started in 2013, global pioneers of chatbots
  3. 3. How this talk is divided Part 1: AI Introduction and applications ➔Introduction ➔New and Old news about AI Part 2: ML Introduction and workflow ➔Introduction Part 3: High Level Learning framework ➔Code (and some Math) walkthrough of linear classifier
  4. 4. What is AI ? Demonstration of human like intelligence by machines. A machine performing any task that needs human level intelligence can be said to be “Artificially Intelligent”
  5. 5. AI In everyday life today Email Categorization Web search Targeted (annoying) Ads
  6. 6. AI In everyday life today Maps & Navigation Computer Games Digital Assistants
  7. 7. Few ML success stories in the past 3 years
  8. 8. Few ML success stories in the past 3 years
  9. 9. Few ML success stories in the past 3 years Neural Style Transfer Controllable Image Generation (Xianxu Hou et. al.)
  10. 10. Major Goals of AI ➔Reasoning and Problem Solving ➔Knowledge Representation ➔Autonomy and Planning ➔Self Learning via Experiences ← Machine Learning is a part of this ➔Natural language processing ➔Sensory Perception
  11. 11. Major Goals of AI ➔Motion and Manipulation ➔Social Intelligence ➔General/Super Intelligence ← Media tries to sell you this
  12. 12. Sciences involved in AI research ➔Computer Science ➔Mathematics ➔Psychology ➔Linguistics ➔Philosophy ➔Many Others
  13. 13. Philosophy around AI ➔Is general/super intelligence possible ? ➔Do they have to be similar to human systems to be intelligent as us ? ➔Can intelligent machines be dangerous ? ➔Should we prefer more accurate systems over transparent systems ?
  14. 14. The vagueness and the hype Real Story: Task was to learn negotiation in natural language, not some efficient cryptic language. Researchers only reported a failed experiment trail.
  15. 15. Few words on “Deep learning” Image Credits: http://neuralnetworksanddeeplearning.com/chap5.html
  16. 16. AI, ML, NN, DL are not new! ➔First Programmable Computer ≈ 1936 ➔AI research began ≈ 1956 ➔Neural Networks - base ideas as early as 1943, polished idea ≈ 1958, research active since 1990s ➔Deep learning - first idea proposed in 1965, early implementations ≈ 1965 - 1971, research active since 1990s ➔Large NNs were computationally infeasible to train back then ➔NNs and DL went into “hibernation” for more than a decade
  17. 17. Resurgence of “AI” because of Deep Learning Training complex models has become feasible now ➔Large datasets are available for some tasks ➔Compute power has increased exponentially - we now have very powerful GPUs/TPUs ➔Theoretical ideas in research have been polished over time ➔Much better tools to work with! ◆ Theano,Tensorflow (Google), Keras (now Google), Torch/PyTorch(Facebook), CNTK (Microsoft), Caffe (UCB), MXNet(Apache, Amazon), sklearn, gensim, nltk
  18. 18. Machine Learning Image credits: https://recast.ai/blog/machine-learning-algorithms/
  19. 19. Machine Learning Blends ideas from statistics, computer science, operations research, pattern recognition, information theory, control theory and many other disciplines to design algorithms that find low-level patterns in data, make predictions and help make decisions (at scale).
  20. 20. Typical Machine Learning Pipeline
  21. 21. Common Taxonomy of ML methods ➔Supervised Learning - some feedback is available ◆Completely Supervised Learning ◆Semi-Supervised Learning ◆Active learning ➔Reinforcement Learning ➔Unsupervised Learning - no explicit ground truths ➔Meta learning ➔...
  22. 22. Common Tasks for ML ➔Classification (usually supervised) ➔Regression (usually supervised) ➔Clustering (unsupervised) ➔Dimensionality Reduction ➔...
  23. 23. Classification ➔Task is to learn to categorize input into discrete classes E.g. Input: Image Output: probabilities of image containing {dog, cat, horse, zebra} ➔Supervised task, we have true labels for each input ➔Metrics: To keep things simple, we will use accuracy - how many things the classifier can classify correctly. Selecting a metric depends on the data + problem
  24. 24. Logistic Regression - A simple linear classifier Notebook to follow along https://gist.github.com/chiragjn/24b548785d99a393fca9dc cfe1439d4a
  25. 25. Gradient Descent Your loss function may look something like this
  26. 26. Gradient Descent But let’s take a simpler example
  27. 27. Gradient Descent Optimum value is at the bottom
  28. 28. Gradient Descent You spawn at some random point
  29. 29. Gradient Descent Gradient at any point points in direction of steepest change
  30. 30. Gradient Descent Learning rate is the scaling factor of the gradient step i.e. how much to nudge each variable involved
  31. 31. Gradient Descent Keep learning rate small, Take smaller steps
  32. 32. Gradient Descent Large learning rate can cause overshoots
  33. 33. Other things that we don’t have time for ➔Non-Linear classifiers ➔Learning Methods that don’t use Gradient Descent ➔Other Metrics: Precision, Recall, F1 ➔Overfitting and underfitting ➔And many more tricks of the trade
  34. 34. Recommended materials: 1. https://www.coursera.org/learn/machine-learning 2. http://martin.zinkevich.org/rules_of_ml/rules_of_ml.pdf 2. http://neuralnetworksanddeeplearning.com/ 3. https://www.coursera.org/learn/neural-networks 4. https://web.stanford.edu/~hastie/ElemStatLearn/ 5. News and discussion on latest stuff - http://reddit.com/r/MachineLearning
  35. 35. Thank You! Chirag Jain Machine Learning Engineer chirag.jain@haptik.ai

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