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How social marketing works? Based on the principles of commercial marketing
Principles and techniques
Difference : commercial marketing
Examples of nation wide social marketing campaigns.
What is social marketing ?
motivating people, marketing techniques to voluntarily
adopt behaviour which is beneficial to them , over other
“potentially” harmful behaviour.
Definition: “the design , implementation and control of
programs -Philip Kotler 1975
acceptance and willingness to adopt a beneficial behaviour.
ex- acceptance of a new vaccine by physicians and public
To promote public health,(health for all).
- so it relies heavily on Preventive Medicine.
not be confused with marketing of commercial
health and hospitals , profit and not public health
It is an opportunity for, to bridge the gap
between health care delivery systems and the
The Principles:marketing mix of 4psproduct promotion
packaging positioningBranding form
specifications of good/service and how it relates to end users needs and wants.
Pretesting and obtaining feedback from users reduces obstacles in social marketing.
High visibility :
Reminds the user
Timing: user is most likely to accept the product.
The readiness to accept information changes at different times and
with the source.X:-a woman in labour .
Convenience costs Response costs
Perception The cost of medical/ surgical intervention in a critically ill person
is not a big issue inspite of low personal income.
But for promotive and preventive health care, the demand is more
If the price is low and when personal income is high.
Convenience costs:- Cost of loss of work/pay/travel.
Response costs:-embarrassment in publicly buying condoms/attending a std clinic
near his residence.
The product/service/message should be located where the users are most
likely to find them without any stigma
poor utilization of separate STD clinics is due to stigma.
Message on Breast feeding and immunization is best delivered in ante-natal
Design of the Message
based local sensitivities rather than strict rules.
able to educate the target group
about the existence of health problem,
empower the group , educated choices
overcome any cultural social and traditional practices
PPI messages on mass media by leading film stars is an .
Designing process- A step wise approach
Indepth knowledge of health problem has to gained.
Rigid customs and opinions of the community to be considered
Consensus- has to developed through operational and political co-
Step one:Identification of health problem
and establishing methods for social Marketing:
Step two: Identification of priorities and
implementation of affordable efforts.
Organising priorities particularly money.
viewpoint of consumer.
Estimates well in advance.
Have realistic and achievable goals and objectives
prepare realistic budgets.
Step three: Analysis of marketing
activities ,including Social message.
different messages, different
X:-Messages and style of
delivery for HIV prevention is
different for College students,
Commercial Sex workers,
truck drivers and house wives.
Step four: Identification of target
audience for each marketing component
Market segmentation , identification of weak link in
terms of health related behaviour.
X:-identification of clients of CSWs not using the
Accurate market segmentation effective Social
Step five: Analyse each strategy to determine attitudes
and potential resistance among target groups
Identify all possible cultural ,social , religious –resistance points.
Attitude testing techniques , resistance to healthy behaviour.
countering such attitudes head on will result in rejection of the message
.So, its appropriate to build consensus and strategy to overcome resistance.
Step six: Identification of
objectives for each target group
proposed behaviour change in each target group should be accurately identified
and preferably quantified.
X- “raising the condom usage among clients of CSWs in an area from 40% to 90% in
next one year.”
- “increasing the household use of iodised salt in a district from 60% to 95% in next 2
The necessary and relevant information is provided according to the understanding
capabilities of the target group.
Effect of each message should be evaluated periodically to assess if it has been
understood properly or not.
Step seven: Designing and testing
the social message:
the social message should be pretested on samples of target audience
for acceptability ,comprehension , believability and conviction.
even a well designed message is of no utility if it is not understood or
believed by the target group.
After pretesting ,messages should be revised and retested as necessary.
Step eight : Selection of
Media and distribution system for the message should be in a manner
which ensures maximum coverage among the target audience.
X:-Statutory warnings on tobacco products is one way of deliver the
anti-smoking message to the target audience.
Evaluate the impact of social messages:
Quantifiable variables should be identified which indicate the impact of the
message over a time period
Periodic assessments provide information to make midterm corrections
X:-incidence of STDs as ascertained from a busy STD clinic/hospital in a
district is a good indicator of impact of social marketing for condoms in the
Limitations of social marketing
Public health experts must realise the fact that the social marketing
has it’s limitations.
social marketing techniques are appropriate in certain
Focus on individual behaviour rather than on the family or
community , village.
Danger of perception of marketed behaviour better than other
X:-use of condoms for multiple partner sex may be perceived a
better behaviour than the single partner sex.
. . .
social marketing is ineffective if major barriers are present as they resist
change in individual behaviour.
social marketing is ineffective if individual efforts are inadequate
There are ethical and social issues in determining who must make
decisions on what behaviours to be promoted.
X:- some resist promotion of condoms more aggressively than abstaining
from extramarital affairs and multiple sex partners
Poverty Lack of health facilities Social discrimination
Commercial marketing Social marketing
Meets identified needs , wants of
target market segment
Change attitudes, behaviour to a
Makes profit by serving interests of
Serves interests of target market
without personal profit
Marketing of products/ services
mostly through ideas
Marketing of ideas, concepts
rather than tangible products
Commercial v/s social
Examples of social marketing
The Nirodh condom project in India was the
first nationwide contraceptive social marketing
National Breast-feeding program (Brazil) 1981
“Stop Aids” (Switzerland) 1987
Social Marketing of Bednets (Tanzania) 1997
Research, product design, distribution, information,
Introduction of a new product/ concept/ service- aim to
Uses scientific evidence- creates education, action
programmes for healthier habits, behaviour
Anuj bhatnagar ,social marketing,WHO AFMC.text book
of public health and community 2009 edition,p386-88.