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Introduction Shasta dam Construction Preparations and camps shasta Spillway Shasta Power Plant Shasta Temperature Control Device Shasta Transformer Deck Tours and recreation
dam: is a barrier that impounds water orunderground streams. Dams generally serve theprimary purpose of retaining water, while otherstructures such as floodgates or levees (alsoknown as dikes) are used to manage or preventwater flow into specific land regions. Hydropowerand pumped-storage hydroelectricity are oftenused in conjunction with dams to generateelectricity. A dam can also be used to collect wateror for storage of water which can be evenlydistributed between locations.
Power generation Water supply Stabilize water flow / irrigation Flood prevention Land reclamation Water diversion Navigation Recreation and aquatic beauty
Shasta Dam (called Kennett Dam before itsconstruction) is a gravity dam across theSacramento River in the northern part of theU.S. state of California, at the north end of theSacramento Valley. The dam mainly serveslong-term water storage and flood control inits reservoir, Shasta Lake, and also generateshydroelectric power. At 602 feet (183 m) high,it is the ninth-tallest dam in the United Statesand forms the largest reservoir in California.
to release for irrigation andsalinity control inthe Delta. flood control. to protect communities along the SacramentoRiver. water supply benefits. Meet recreational and environmental needs. power generation.
Construction started in earnest in 1937 under thesupervision of Chief Engineer Frank Crowe. During itsbuilding, the dam provided thousands of much-neededjobs; it was finished twenty-six months ahead ofschedule in 1945. When completed, the dam was thesecond-tallest in the United States after Hoover, and wasconsidered one of the greatest engineering feats of alltime. Status In useConstruction began1938Opening date 1945Owner(s) U.S. BureauOf Reclamation
The World’s Longest Conveyor Belt The Pit River Bridge Southern Pacific Railroad Concrete Placement
Over twelve million tons of gravel wouldbe needed to build the massive dam, anda good supply was found along theSacramento River in Redding, California.To transport all that gravel, the world’slongest conveyor belt was built to deliverthe gravel to the old mining town ofCoram, just downstream of the dam site.The belt was an amazing (15.3 km) longand operated 24 hours a day for severalyears.
The early phase of dam construction also includedmoving over 30 miles of Southern Pacific Railroadtrack which was running right through the dam site.Moving the train was a major undertaking, andrequired the building of many bridges, trestles andtunnels. One tunnel, shown here, was built rightthrough the hillside to temporarily detour the trainaround the dam site so excavation of the westernabutment could begin. This was just part of a muchbigger plan.
The plan also included the Pit River Bridge, a massivedouble-deck bridge which includes both Interstate 5and the train, crossing over Shasta Lake (note trainon lower deck). After this bridge was built they wereable to permanently relocate the train to its newhome above Shasta Lake where it still runs today.
Building of thedams mainconcrete structurestarted in July 1940after the cablesystems had beencompleted and themixing plant cameon line. Steelbuckets capable ofcarrying 8 cubicyards (6.1 m3) ofconcrete, weighing16 tonnes whenfull, traveled backand forth along thelines.
For three years,thousands of menlabored building thedams massiveabutments pouringconcrete into largemodular "blocks"(15 m) square and(1.5 m) deep. Theseblocks were shapedusing woodenforms, which wereremoved when theconcrete dried andrebuilt to handle thenext block above it.
Workers were busy building the abutments of the damuntil 1943, when it was time to start the spillway. Upuntil this time, the Sacramento River had continued toflow in its original channel,right through the middleof the dam site. Duringthis same time workerswere also busy workingon completing a new pathfor the Southern PacificRailroad.
After the new train track was completed, the SouthernPacific Railroad was ready to run on its new course.With this relocation, workersat the dam site were now ableto divert the Sacramento Riverthrough the same tunnel thatwas used earlier as atemporary detour for the train.This allowed them to clear outthe original river channel andcomplete the construction ofShasta Dam.
Shasta Power Plant A visit to Shasta Power Plant shows usthe five huge generators capable of producing 710megawatts.These generators haverecently undergone anupgrade, increasing theirefficiency rating to 98%, usingtodays latest technology. Putinto operation in 1944, ShastaPower Plant has beenproducing power for over 60years.
Today when we gooutside at the base ofthe dam we get amagnificent view of thefinished product.Shasta Dam’s spillwayis used to provideflood control – the 18valves, or outlets, seenon the face of the damallow operators tomanage the lake level,providing flood controldownstream. At thetop are massive steeldrum gates, also usedin the management ofthe lake level.Spillways 1Type of spillwayRiver outlets+triple drumgatesSpillway capacity(7,580 m3/s)
The Temperature Control Device (TCD) wasdesigned to ensure cold water releases tothe river, providing suitable habitat fordownstream fish populations and fishspawing. Completed in 1997, thisunderwater construction project is thelargest of its type ever built. With the TCD,managers at Shasta Dam are now able towithdraw water from a range of depths,including the deeper, colder water, sendingit through the generators, maximizingpower generation, while meeting watercommitments and environmental needsdownstream.
Once power isgenerated it is sent totransformers where thevoltage is increasedfrom 13,000 volts to230,000 volts fortransmission. TheWestern Area PowerAdministration isresponsible for sellingfederally producedpower for use in thewest. Power is sold topublic power customersthroughout the 15Western States.
Reclamation holds guided tours of the Shasta Damyear round, each taking two to three hours. Therealso are a visitor center and auditorium. The tourscomprise a 428-foot (130 m) elevator ride to thebase of the dam, and visits to the dams innergalleries and the powerhouse among otherareas.Shasta Lake has a surface of 30,310 acres(12,270 ha) at full pool and is surrounded by theShasta-Trinity National Forest
. Many public and private marinas, campgrounds, RVparks, resorts and boat launches border thereservoir, one of the most popular recreational lakesin California. Houseboating, water-skiing, swimmingand fishing are among the numerous activitiesavailable at the lake; hiking, picnicking, mountainbiking, hunting and camping are popular in themountainous vicinity surrounding it.