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Lecture 2 History of Tourism (1).pptx

  1. Ask Me Anything! 2471 9032
  2. Globalization and Tourism Lecture 2: A History of Tourism (1350 BCE to 1899) CCGL9021
  3. Guide: Premodern Tourism Modern Trade Modern Tourism
  4. What is Tourism? “…taking a trip to a main destination outside [one’s] environment, for less than a year, for any main purpose (business, leisure or other personal purpose) other than to be employed by a resident entity in the country or place visited” United Nations Economic and Social Affairs
  5. ~4,000 Years in 100 Minutes Premodern Tourism Modern Trade Modern Tourism
  6. Origins Who Traveled? Preconditions Road Infrastructure Roads of Note Premodern Tourism
  7. First peaceful tour* from Ancient Egypt to Punt, by Queen Hatshepsut (1480 BCE) Trade between Egypt and Punt dated back to 2500 BCE Egyptian expeditions linked temples to sources of stones Origins (1/4) Journey to Punt- First Tour?
  8. Journey to Punt • Punt- Frontier of Egyptian Empire; site of exotic goods (ivory, resin, ebony) • Frontiers tend to have more different climates and more different goods. More on the Voyage to Punt
  9. Egyptian trade facilitated by the environment. Nile served as an efficient transportation route, supporting trade and exploration. Punt was a precolonial outpost Egyptian trade to Punt was globalization Origins (2/4)
  10. Shang Dynasty (1350 -1050 BCE) Ancestral emperor gods resided in the environment Zhou Dynasty (1050-771 BCE) Beginning of Confucianism Codified link between religion and place Sui Dynasty (581-618 CE) Mandarins asked to “seek ultimate truth from landscape” Origins (3/4) Shang Capitol Site at Yin Xu (Near Beijing) For More See Sofield and Li, 1998
  11. Polynesian Migration (2000 BCE) Sophisticated engineering, technology and navigation Not strictly tourism; not conducive to tourism (push migration) Origins (4/4)
  12. From Goeldner and Richie: 1. Military Deploy military 2. Government Officials Administer government 3. Caravans (Traders) Grow material base Who Traveled? (European Focus)
  13. Routine tourism depended on: Currency Coins and conventions Codified Hospitality e.g. Xenia Technology & Infrastructure Roads and ships Preconditions From Hellenic Faith
  14. More on Road Infrastructure Developed later than waterways Initial advantage for Egyptian empire Also relied on natural geography Two-lane roads for Crete (2000 BCE) and Mycenae (1600 BCE) Road at Knossos (Crete) From World History Encyclopedia
  15. Geography, Trade and Tourism Stage 1: Natural geography-) Scale of Trade -) Wealth Stage 2 Technology X Natural Geography -) Scale of Trade-) Wealth
  16. From Casson, “Travel in the Ancient World”
  17. Roman Road Network From Nicholas Malniak Roman Empire coincides with Roman Roads Modern England to Modern Turkey/ North Africa Roads: Allow for central administration Link Rome to a large resource network Setup international travel on a continental Scale, up to 100 miles a day with ‘subbed’ horses People and goods follow the same path
  18. Via Egnatia Connects Adriatic Sea and Byzantium (Istanbul) Construction began in 145 BCE Impressive Scope (1,120 KM) Traced geography of ‘least resistance’, but with mountain passes.
  19. As a subway network , Via Catherine Edwards
  20. Roman Road Network Source Roman road engineering overcame some physical resistance
  21. Hospitum in ancient Rome
  22. Mansiones and Cauponae Mansiones: State-run waystations for travelers on official businesses Cauponae: Private Taverns
  23. 3 Hospitality Systems Reciprocal/ Private Command/ Public Mansion Exchange/Private (Caupona)
  24. Royal Road | 500 BCE ~2,800 Kilometers
  25. Han Road Network | 25 -220 BCE
  26. Hawaiian Settlement ~300
  27. Hawaiian Settlement ~300 Supported by engineering (double hulled vessels) and astronomy/navigation
  28. The Silk ‘Road’ | 130 BCE- 1453
  29. Developing the Silk Road Past to Future
  30. The Hajj • Pilgrimage to Mecca • Dates back to founding of Islam (630 CE) • One of 5 Core Islamic tenants • Coincides with the end of the lunar calendar • Grows out of earlier traditions and remembrances • Non-hedonistic tourism Source
  31. Out of Eden Walk Series Introduction
  32. “Pilgrim Road” Series Introduction
  33. Marco Polo: The First West -) East Traveler? The Legend: 13th century Venetian trader, traveled to Yuan- Era China, worked as emissary for Kublai Khan, returned to Europe, published Travels of Marco Polo Assessment Frances Wood: neglected to mention foot binding or the Great Wall; made clearly false claims, probably a second-hand account. Hans Vogel: TOMP has uniquely specific details, corroborated by Chinese sources (and none others)
  34. The answer doesn’t matter too much John of Plano Carpini Traveler Route Remarks John of Carpini Lyon -) Karakorum First papal mission to Mongol empire John of Monte Carvino Vatican -) Khanbaliq (Beijing) Missions to India and China William of Rubruck Constantinople -) Karakorum Famous documentarian Brother Benedict the Pole Breslau (Wroclaw) -) Kanev Franciscan emissary to Mongolia Andrew of Perugia Perugia -) Quanzhou Bishop of Quanzhou
  35. Viking Conquests 860-995
  36. Review: What is Globalization? …process in which events, decisions, and activities in one part of the world affect individuals and communities in another part of the world Anthony Giddens, 1990
  37. Trade and Tourism Premodern tourism emerged with trade and tourism and changed with the physical expansion of the market
  38. Guide: Premodern Tourism Modern Trade Modern Tourism
  39. 800 Globalizing Years
  40. Colonial Exploration 1492-1577
  41. Magellan 1519-1522*
  42. 18th Century Slave Trade Colony to Colony Trade Flow
  43. Colonial Trade Mercantilist Credit-Based Charter-Based Backed by Military Specialized
  44. Two Trading Systems Facet Premodern Modern Exchange Control Market-Based Division of Labor Weak Intensifying Technology Human-Powered Machine-Powered Scale Continental Intercontinental Important Norms Reciprocity Exchange Dominant Logic(s) Multiple Comparative Advantage
  45. South: North: Comparative Advantage 1/3
  46. Opportunity Cost Opportunity costs represent the potential benefits an individual, investor, or business misses out on when choosing one alternative over another. Investopedia
  47. Opportunity Cost, Comparative Advantage + Trade Via Marginal Revolution
  48. Slope = opportunity cost The producer with the smaller opportunity cost of producing a good has the comparative advantage Comparative Advantage 2/3
  49. Comparative Advantage 3/3
  50. Review: Tourism is ‘Downstream’ Natural Environment, Technology, Norms, Tourism
  51. Questions?