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Street Food and Street Fairs in France in pictures and words

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Street Food and Street Fairs in France, a description in pictures and words by Francesca Sautman PH.D

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Street Food and Street Fairs in France in pictures and words

  1. 1. This is the first among a series of digital exhibits prepared in conjunction with the Henri Peyre French Institute’s Three-Year Seminar Food, Power, Exchange and Identity: Food and Foodstuffs in the French and Francophone Worlds exhibit prepared by Francesca Canadé Sautman Please comment on this exhibit by joining our online Forum of September 30, 1 to 7 PM, on the Henri Peyre French Institute Website FRENCH STREET FAIRS AND STREET FOODS FROM THE 1800S TO THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY
  2. 2. HENRI PEYRE FRENCH INSTITUTE • Three-Year Seminar • Food and Foodstuffs: Food, Power, Exchange and Identity in the French and Francophone Worlds
  3. 3. FOOD, POWER, EXCHANGE AND IDENTITY IN THE FRENCH AND FRANCOPHONE WORLDS • The Henri Peyre French Institute “Food and Power” seminar builds upon the wide expertise of departments, disciplines, and scholars from CUNY and other institutions and also invites active participation from the public. It seeks to become a space of sharing and dissemination, a crossroads and home for advanced research as well as for ongoing explorations and discussion of the many dimensions of this field. • The seminar focuses on the relation between food as cultural process and on particular foodstuffs with a rich and complex history in the arts and in society. Seminar activities each semester center on specific foods and forms of processing in the French and Francophone worlds: Salt, Sugar, Coffee, Fruit (indigenous and imported), Wine and Transformation Processes that preserve foods. Events include discussions of taste, discourses on physiology, cultural difference, and structures of exchange. • The transfer of such foodstuffs from their natural habitat to markets, kitchens and tables is inseparable from long term impacts on the communities that produce them, and also changes the economic and cultural makeup of their point of arrival. Networks of exchange and production operate through plantation systems of exploitation, colonialism and migration, as well as industrialized agriculture and trade, local and global. Migrating, cultivating, gathering, processing and preserving generate rich forms of local and popular cultures. The online exhibits explore specific themes within these questions.
  4. 4. French street carnivals and fairgrounds….
  5. 5. Late 19th-century street fairs and carnivals were preceded by trade fairs that took place beginning in the Middle Ages , and continued throughout the 19th century. Olivier Perrin (1761-,1832) “le Champ de Foire de Quimper,” 1821. Musée des Beaux Arts de Quimper. {{PD-Exp}} Wikimedia Commons
  6. 6. THE FÊTE FORAINE OF JULY 14, 1880 IN PARIS • The street fair with carnival attractions, or fête foraine in French, was sufficiently known by 1880 to be central to the July 14, 1880, celebration all over Paris. A journalist for the Figaro described an otherwise drab fifth arrondissement, where the rue Mouffetard, the "old rag pickers' center," was decorated by with flags and banners, but he also complained about the atmosphere and the "warm, sour," smell due to the odor "of old rags transformed into flags, the scent of open air cooking, but most of all the various emanations coming from the crowd." • At the Gobelins the fête foraine took over the place d'Italie, but the main attraction was the mat de Cocagne, rue Berthollet, surrounded by a compact crowd. In Menilmontant’s rues de Menilmontant and Oberkampf, there were booths of strong men (“hercules”) whose barrel organs were continuously grinding out the Marseillaise (Figaro July 15 1880)
  7. 7. Eating outdoors. Georges Montorgueil, Paris au Hasard, 1895. Ills. Auguste Lepère. Fête foraine à Paris, and detail, next slide. Cote : 8 ° Li3 882/Microfilm R 122021 {{PD-GallicaScan-BNF}}
  8. 8. Merry-go-round, Musée des Arts Forains, Bercy-Paris. Image dinkum. {{PD}} CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0)
  9. 9. Food stand selling a Lyons confectionary of drawn sugar known as “chique”. Baraque Foraine, Foire St-André d’Avignon, early 20th century.
  10. 10. Early 20th-century amusement parks reproduced the street fair in a contained environment: for instance in the famous Magic City in Paris. Paris 1913’ Agence Rol Bibliothèque Nationale de France CC-PD-Mark 1.0 Wikimedia Commons
  11. 11. The “queens” of nougat, the famous confectionary from Montélimar, 1924. Postcard by Joguet. Domaine Public. {{PD-1996}} Wikimedia Commons
  12. 12. WHAT’S TO EAT AT THE FAIR? FRIES AND CANDY… • Sale items featured in ads appearing in the 1925 Guide Rose de L’Intermédiaire Forain for fairground entrepreneurs: • Roasted peanuts, minimum ten-kilo bag • Newest postcards, including for Saint Catherine and other feast days • Supreme of Nougat from Montélimar • Satiny confetti guaranteed dust-free from a factory in Correze • More nougat: nougats du Canard Sauvage from Montélimar: specializing in blocs, all flavors, soft nougat, nougat with fruit, cubes, novelty boxes, bars all sizes, deluxe assortments, nougat “de la Vieille France” • All sorts of articles decorated with seashells • Scented products: perfume, powder, cream, scented tablets • Wax toys and good-luck charms…
  13. 13. Opening of the Foire du Trône, one of the most famous Parisian fairs, 1932. Document Gallica-BNF {{PD}}
  14. 14. The spiced cake known as “pain d’épices’” is originally from the East of France and made into decorated shapes, particularly animals such as pigs. It became the basis of well-known and very popular fairs. The poster for, this one, the Foire au Pain d’épices , Paris, Place de La Nation, 1933, clearly shows the carnival rides in the background. G. Preux (18??-19??). Velox Publicité Document BNF {{PD- Exp}} {{PD-1996}} Wikimedia Commons
  15. 15. The popularity of the “pain d’épices ” led to its use in caricatures. « À la foire aux pains d'épices. Un amateur distingué ». The Minister Jules Ferry bites into a priest made of pain d'épice. Petite Lune #42, 1878- 1879 By famous caricaturist André Gill (1840-1885) BNF {{PD-Exp}} Wikimedia Commons
  16. 16. Fair (Fête foraine) of Roubaix, North, 1938, near the Rue des Longues Haies Fairground food sellers posing in from of their stand of Berlingots, a traditional pyramid-shaped candy. Document Gallica Mediathèque CP_A07_L3_S2_012 Domaine public
  17. 17. STREET FOOD IS ALSO AVAILABLE EVERY DAY • The Food criers of Paris: • the tradition before 1800
  18. 18. Reverse copy of Au Vinaigre (Vinegar), from Les Cris de Paris (The Cries of Paris), plate 6 Simon Francis Ravenet, the elder (French, 1706 or 1721–1774) Artist: After François Boucher (French, Paris 1703–1770 Paris) Etching and engraving. Dimensions: Sheet: 10 13/16 x 7 3/8 in. (27.4 x 18.8 cm) trimmed The Metropolitan Museum of Art The Elisha Whittelsey Collection, The Elisha Whittelsey Fund, 1966 Accession Number: 66.617.2(5)
  19. 19. “Coffee.” From Les Cris de Paris (The Cries of Paris). Artist: Etienne Fessard (French, Paris 1714–1777 Paris) After Edme Bouchardon (French, Chaumont 1698–1762 Paris) Date: 1746. Etching with some engraving Dimensions: image: 9 x 7 1/8 in. (22.8 x 18.1 cm) sheet: 9 7/16 x 7 3/16 in. (24 x 18.2 cm) Metropolitan Museum of Art Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1953 Accession Number: 53.600.588(49)
  20. 20. Board game with Paris food criers, early 19th century. Library of Congress, pga.03870
  21. 21. Cris de Paris, late 18th century and detail, next slide. Bibliotheque Nationale de France, Gallica {{PD-Gallica-BNF}}
  23. 23. View of Toulouse by the great photographer Eugene Trutat Eugene Trutat (1840-1910). Pont Neuf sur la Garonne. 25 juin 1899. View of two workmen cleaning the streetcar rails. In front of the frame, the two men at work; behind them, on the sidewalk, displays with forains, parasols, crates; background, fronts of buildings on the left bank of the Garonne and Church of La Daurade. Toulouse, Archives Municipales. Fonds Trutat. 51Fi59 {{PD}}
  24. 24. Eugene Trutat (1840-1910). Toulouse. Garlic fair, August 24 1899. Toulouse, Archives Municipales. Fonds Trutat. 51Fi50 {{PD}}
  25. 25. Man selling the herb gentian in Toulouse area. Eugene Trutat. Marchand_de_gentiane. Toulouse, Archives Municiples_Fonds_Trutat_-_MHNT_PHa_659_A_004. {{PD}}
  26. 26. Georges Montorgueil, Paris au Hasard, 1895 and detail. Ills. Auguste Lepère. The Soup- Seller Cote : 8 ° Li3 882/Microfilm R 122021 {{PD-GallicaScan-BNF}}
  27. 27. Hot food street seller, Rheims. Wikimedia Commons
  28. 28. Fishmonger selling bouillabaisse Old postcard. Anonymous. 1900s {{PD-exp}} Wikimedia Commons
  29. 29. • Soup was sold by street vendors and also distributed in public places by pollitical groups. The late 19th century had “Soupes anarchistes” that followed the “Soupes militaires.” The entertainment entrepreneur Oller distributed soup at the swimming pool of the rue Rochechouart. Anarchists collected from the bourgeois to pay for an event titled “ X, anarchiste, soupe-conference” at the Salle Favié in Belleville, [where] the poor were served a meager soup and a copy of the anarchist paper, followed by a conference by the above mentioned speaker. • (Emile Goudeau. Paris qui consomme. Dessins de Pierre Vidal. Tableaux de Paris. Paris: Imprimé pour Henri Beraldi, 1893. p. 115)
  30. 30. Selling tripe cooked in the “Mode de Caen” recipe, detail of drawing by Paul Leonnec in the Journal Amusant, 1 April 1893. CC-PD-Mark {{PD- Old}} {{PD-Exp}}
  31. 31. Soupe populaire
  32. 32. Marche rue mouffetard, Paris, en 1896. Author unknown. {{PD-Old}} {{PD-exp}} Wikimedia Commons
  33. 33. Food cart at the famous Rue Mouffetard market in Paris. Eugene Atget. 1910. BnF. {{PD-Scan}} Wikimedia Commons
  34. 34. Women selling madeleines at the strain Station of Commercy, a town known for their production. Old postcard pre-1930. Scanned. Carte postale de Commercy publiee avant 1930. 22 April 2013. Own work: G. Garitan. CC-BY-SA-3.0 (Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0)
  35. 35. Scanned old postcard CC-PD-Mark PD-OLD
  36. 36. L’Illustration, Candy Seller in the Street, selling vanilla-flavored confectionary. “Marchand de bonbons et paves rafraichisssants a la vanille, Place Maubert” Wiki Commons
  37. 37. Chestnut seller, Wiki Commons
  38. 38. Chestnut seller, Paris, 1908. Agence Rol. Bibliothèque Nationale btv1b69110095 CC-PD-Mark PD Old WikimediaCommons
  39. 39. Young woman eating chestnuts on the street. Jean Beraud in the Figaro Illustré, 1892. NYPL Digital Gallery
  40. 40. A kiosk selling carbonated drinks. Charles Marville Cie. Fonrobert Debit de boisson gazeuses, ca.
  41. 41. “Vendeur de coco” Hot chocolate or tisane (herbal tea)seller. La Petite Lune 48, 1878-1879. Drawing by André Gill (1840-1885) BNF {{PD-Exp}} Wikimedia Commons
  42. 42. Left and Right: Hot chocolate sellers, 1900s, Wiki Commons.
  43. 43. The Hot chocolate (“coco”) seller. Between 1855 and 1857. Paul Gavarni (1804-1866) “V’la l’coco” (The Chocolate Vendor). Walters Art Museum Walters 371449.jpg released to Public Domain {{PD-Old}} Wikimedia Commons
  44. 44. “Caiffa” seller, on the route de Granville (Manche) c. 1905, Wiki Commons. These colporteurs for the rapidly expanding company “Au Planteur de Caiffa” originally sold coffee, but later added other types of dry goods, which they offered door to door in their little carts
  45. 45. Caiffa seller, Joigny (Yonne-Burgundy), 1905-1910
  46. 46. INSIDE /OUTSIDE SPACES Eating in and off the Street
  47. 47. Georges Montorgueil, Paris au Hasard, 1895. Ills. Auguste Lepere. Fig. p.35 : Parisians Eating at tables set up on the frozen Seine in Billancourt, right outside Paris [Cote : 8 ° Li3 882/Microfilm R 122021]
  48. 48. Wine Seller. Marchand de vin Rue Boyer. Wiki Commons
  49. 49. Wine seller, “street trade.” Marchand de vin Métier de la rue. 19th century Wiki Commons
  50. 50. The shop of a wine seller. Betourné, Marchand de vin a Sarcelles Wiki Commons
  51. 51. Porte de Menilmontant, fortifications, guingette where indoor meets outdoor, the “street” meets the garden Wiki Commons
  52. 52. An outdoor eatery near Paris using the famous name. The “Moulin de la Galette” of Montmagny (S-et-O). Image L. Chardon. Wiki Commons
  53. 53. PARIS BY NIGHT: WHAT’S THERE TO EAT? Qu’est-ce qu’on mange?
  54. 54. Back from the Ball… ”Paris by night,” L’illustration, 1852 Wiki Commons
  55. 55. • By 1899, two hundred and fifty legally registered dance halls were operating in Paris, subject to careful rules, such as closing at midnight, and separating the "bal musette," where only one instrument was to coax dancers to their feet, from ballrooms with orchestras. Dance-halls had proliferated during the early nineteenth century, and at the turn of the century, were already beginning to wane, although they were still numerous and sufficiently associated with the picturesque and the sordid to warrant bourgeois interest. The people of Paris, one observer commented, danced at every possible occasion: "It is understood that everybody dances in Paris, everything is done dancing, and, while political and other events conclude with songs, it can be stated that dance has an equal share in concluding even the most serious situations." (Louis Bloch et Sagary, Paris qui danse. Paris: Librairie Henry du Parc, 1899, pp. 35-40). Dancing was thus not always confined to halls, and spilled out to the streets on special occasions; a contemporary historian of dance-halls, Montorgueil, suggested the date of May 1, 1878 for the first street balls, soon to become a mainstay of July 14 celebrations, as the wounds of the Franco-Prussian war began to heal (Montorgueil, Paris dansant, p. 66)
  56. 56. • A final stop for night owls who do not want to go home—the Père Rossignol, a closed cabaret in Montmartre where entry must be secured, frequented by poets, aspiring actors, thugs (escarpes) or burglars; another clandestine one is found at the Chateau-d’Eau, rue de Lancry in a cave, while in the Quartier Latin there is a final station for tartines and lait, [milk and buttered bread] the latter sometimes attached to a bakery. (Goudeau, p. 306)
  57. 57. Jules Cheret. Augusta Segatori’s Famous Au Tambourin frequented by artists and serving Italian food Wiki Commons
  58. 58. The famous Café du Rat Mort, frequented by the men of the Boheme who disputed the space with women seeking women, a source of voyeuristic tourism, but also reputed for its “excellent cooking”…
  59. 59. As shown in this menu… Carte de menu du café restaurant “Le Rat mort” 1896. A. Willette . Via Cercle Coecilia 1998 {{PD-Exp}}
  60. 60. “Night Café.” The Rat Mort’s ambience is evoked in the following two paintings by Swedish artist Axel Torneman (1880-1925) Image Posse Stryngford. {{PD}} WkC. Public domain. PD in 1995 in Sweden, URAA ineligible. Photographer released rights. 1990-03-01, Posse Stryngford, Own work / CC-BY-3.0 & GFDL
  61. 61. Night Café II, Axel Torneman 2011-10-28, {{PD}} WkC. Public domain. PD in 1995 in Sweden, URAA ineligible. Photographer released rights. 1990-03-01, Posse Stryngford, Own work / CC-BY-3.0 & GFDL
  62. 62. THE GRADUATE CENTER THE HENRI PEYRE FRENCH INSTITUTE 365 FIFTH AVENUE, ROOM 4204 NEW YORK, NY 10016-4309 DIRECTOR: PROFESSOR FRANCESCA CANADE SAUTMAN 212-817-8365 Please comment on this exhibit by joining our online Forum of September 30, 1 to 7 PM, on the Henri Peyre French Institute Website