What is a Constitution?
“A Constitution means a document, having a special
legal sanctity which sets out the frame work and
the principle functions of the organs of the
Government of a State and declares the principles
governing the operations of those organs.”
Framing of the Indian
The struggle for independence was thus over by 15th August
1947. But the attainment of independence was not an end itself.
The 1st tasks undertaken by independent India was framing of
The 1st meeting of the assembly was held on 9th Dec 1946 as the
sovereign Constituent Assembly for India. On 11th Dec , Dr.
Rajendra Prasad was elected as permant Chairman.
The Draft constitution was publish in Jan, 1948. The people of
India were given 8 months to discuss the Draft & propose
The Draft constitution was considered for 114 days.
The New Constitution of India was adopted by the constituent
assembly on 26th Nov 1949 & signed by the President Dr.
Some of new provisions of constitution, where came into force
on 26th Jan 1950 & this was the date on which constitution was
Some of the prominent leaders were-
Dr. Rajendra Prasad.
Jhaverbhai Vallabhai Patel
Abul kalam Azad
Kanhaiyalal Maniklal Munshi
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar
Shyama Prasad Mukherjee
Dr. Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad (3 December 1884 – 28 February 1963)
was the first President of the Republic of India.
An Indian political leader, lawyer by training, Prasad
joined the Indian National Congress during the Indian
independence movement and became a major leader
from the region of Bihar. A supporter of Mahatma
Gandhi, Prasad was imprisoned by British authorities
during the Salt Satyagraha of 1931 and the Quit India
movement of 1942. Prasad served one term as President of the Indian National
Congress from 1934 to 1935. After the 1946 elections, Prasad served as minister
of food and agriculture in the central government. Upon independence in 1947,
Prasad was elected president of the Constituent Assembly of India, which
prepared the Constitution of India and served as its provisional parliament.
When India became a Republic in 1950, Prasad was elected its
first President by the Constituent Assembly. Following
the general election of 1951, he was elected President by the
electoral college of the first Parliament of India and its state
legislatures. As President, Prasad established a tradition of
non-partisanship and independence for the office-bearer, and
retired from Congress party politics. Although
a ceremonial head of state, Prasad encouraged the
development of education in India and advised the Nehru
government on several occasions. In 1957, Prasad was re-elected
to the presidency, becoming the only president to
have been twice the office.
Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel
Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel
(31 October 1875 – 15 December
1950) was an Indian barrister
and statesman, one of the leaders
of the Indian National Congress
and one of the founding fathers
of the Republic of India. He was a
social leader who played a leading
role in the country's struggle for
independence and guided its
integration into a united,
independent nation. In India and elsewhere, he was often addressed as Sardar,
which means Chief in Hindi, Urdu and Persian.
He was raised in the countryside of Gujarat. Vallabhbhai Patel
was employed in successful practice as a lawyer. Patel subsequently organised
peasants from Kheda, Borsad, and Bardoli in Gujarat in non-violent civil
disobedience against oppressive policies imposed by the British Raj; in this
role, he became one of the most influential leaders in Gujarat.
He rose to the leadership of the Indian National Congress and was at
the forefront of rebellions and political events, organising the party for
elections in 1934 and 1937, and promoting the Quit India movement.
As the first Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister of India, Patel
organised relief for refugees in Punjab and Delhi, and led efforts to
restore peace across the nation. Patel took charge of the task to forge a
united India from the British colonial provinces allocated to India and
more than five hundred self-governing princely states, released from
British suzerainty by the Indian Independence Act 1947. Using frank
diplomacy, backed with the option and use of military force, Patel's
leadership persuaded almost every princely state. Often known as the
"Iron Man of India" or "Bismarck of India", he is also remembered as
the "Patron Saint" of India's civil servants for establishing modern all-
Abul kalam Azad
Abul Kalam Muhiyuddin Ahmed
Azad (11 November 1888 – 22
February 1958) was an Indian
scholar and a senior political leader
of the Indian independence
movement. Following India's
independence, he became the
first Minister of Education in the
Indian government. In 1992 he was posthumously awarded India's
highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna. There is also a theory
which suggests that earlierwhen he was offered Bharat Ratna he
promptly declined it saying that it should not be given to those who have
been on the selection committee. Later he was awarded posthumously in
1992. He is commonly remembered as Maulana Azad; the word Maulana
is an honorific meaning 'learned man', and he had adopted Azad (Free)
as his pen name. His contribution to establishing the education
foundation in India is recognised by celebrating his birthday as "National
Education Day" across India.
As a young man, Azad composed poetry in Urdu language, as well
as treatises on religion and philosophy. He rose to prominence
through his work as a journalist, publishing works critical of
the British Raj and espousing the causes of Indian nationalism.
Azad became the leader of the Khilafat Movement, during which
he came into close contact with the Indian leaderMahatma
Gandhi. Azad became an enthusiastic supporter of Gandhi's ideas
of non-violent civil disobedience, and worked to organise the non-co-
operation movement in protest of the 1919 Rowlatt Acts.
Azad committed himself to Gandhi's ideals, including
promoting Swadeshi (indigenous) products and the cause
of Swaraj (Self-rule) for India. In 1923, at an age of 35, he became
the youngest person to serve as the President of the Indian
Tiruvellore Thattai Krishnamachari
(1899–1974) was the Indian Finance
Minister from 1956–1958 and from
1964-1966. He was also a founding
member of the first Governing Body
of NCAER, the National Council of
Applied Economic Research in New
Delhi,India’s first independent economic policy institute
established in 1956. Krishnamachari graduated from Madras
Christian College(MCC) and was a visiting professor to
the department of economics at MCC. He was popularly known as
TTK. He has the ignominy of being the first minister in free India
to have resigned due to his involvement in a scam. He was also a
member of drafting committee, an entrepreneur and congress
Jaipal Singh Munda (January 3,
1903 – March 20, 1970) was a
Munda tribal man, who captained
the Indian field hockey team to
clinch gold in the 1928 Summer
Olympics in Amsterdam. He is
well known for his sportsmanship
and political skills.
Later he emerged as a sole leader of Adivasi cause and creation of a
separate home land for adivasis of central India. As a member of
the Constituent Assembly of India he actively campaigned for the rights
of the scheduled tribes.
His dream came true on November 15, 2000, when Jharkhand was
carved out of Bihar. He is popularly known as "Marang Gomke" which
means the Great Leader. This name was given to him by the tribal
people of Chota nagpur region.
Harendra Coomar Mookerjee
(1887–1956), also spelt as H.C.
Mookherjee or H.C. Mukherjee
or H.C. Mukerji or H.C. Mukerjee,
was the Vice-president of the
Constituent Assembly of India
for drafting the Constitution of India before Partition of
India, and the first Governor of West
Bengal after India became a republic with partition into
India and Pakistan.
He was an educationalist, prominent Christian leader
of Bengal, and was the chairman of the Minority rights
committee and Provincial constitution committee of the
Constituent Assembly—consisting of indirectly elected
representatives to draft the Constitution of India,
including for provinces
of present Pakistan and Bangladesh(then-East Bengal) -
the assembly considered onlyMuslims and Sikhs as
religious minorities - after India became republic, the
same Constituent Assembly became the first Parliament
of India in 1947.
Durgābāi, Lady Deshmukh
(July 15, 1909 – May 9, 1981)
was an Indian freedom fighter,
lawyer, social worker and
politician. She was a member
of the Constituent Assembly of
India and the Planning
Commission of India.
Born in Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India. Durgabai was married at
the age of 14 to a Telugu person, later left and married C.D. Deshmukh,
the first Indian Governor of the Reserve Bank of India and Finance
Minister in India's Central Cabinet during 1950 - 1956. She was a public
activist for women's emanicipation and was also the founder of Andhra
Mahila Sabha. She was also the founder chairperson of central social
Baldev Singh was an Indian
Sikh political leader, he was
an Indian independence
movement leader and the
first Defence Minister of
India. Moreover, he represented the Punjabi Sikh community in
the processes of negotiations that resulted in the independence
of India, as well as the Partition of India in 1947.
After independence, Baldev Singh was chosen to become as the
first Minister of Defence, and served in this post during the first
Kashmir war between India and Pakistan. He is addressed often
with the title of Sardar, which
in Punjabi and Hindi means Leader or Chief.
Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi
Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi,
(30 December 1887 – 8 February
1971) popularly known as Kulpati
Dr. K. M. Munshi, was an Indian
independence movement activist
, politician, writer and
educationist from Gujarat state.
A lawyer by profession, he later turned to literature and
politics. He was a well known name in Gujarati literature.
He founded Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, an educational trust, in
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar
(14 April 1891 – 6 December
1956), popularly known as
Babasaheb, was an Indian
jurist, politician and social
reformer who inspired the
Modern Buddhist Movement
and campaigned against social
discrimination in India, striving for equal social rights
for Dalits, women and labour. He was independent India's first law
minister and the principal architect of the Constitution of India.
Ambedkar was a prolific student, earning a law degree and various
doctorates from Columbia University and the London School of
Economics, and gained a reputation as a scholar for his research in
law, economics and political science.
In his early career he was an economist, professor, and lawyer.
His later life was marked by his political activities, where he
became involved in the negotiations for India's independence
campaigning by publishing journals advocating political
rights and social freedom for untouchables and contributing
significantly to the establishment of the state of India. In
1956 he converted to Buddhism, initiating mass conversions
In 1990, Ambedkar was posthumously conferred with
the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award. Present day
India had various followers of Ambedkar and numerous
memorials have been erected in his memory.
Syama Prasad Mookerjee
Syama Prasad Mookerjee
(6 July 1901 – 23 June 1953)
was an Indian politician,
who served as Minister for
Industry and Supply in
Prime Minister Jawaharlal
Nehru's cabinet. After falling
out with Nehru, Mookerjee quit the Indian National
Congress party and founded the nationalist Bharatiya
Jana Sangh party in 1951.
Jawaharlal Nehru ( 14 November
1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first
Prime Minister of India and a
central figure in Indian politics
for much of the 20th century. He
emerged as the paramount leader
of the Indian independence
movement under the tutelage of
Mahatma Gandhi and ruled India from its establishment as
an independent nation in 1947 until his death in office in 1964.
Nehru is considered to be the architect of the modern Indian
nation-state: a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic
The son of Motilal Nehru, a prominent lawyer and nationalist
statesman, Nehru was a graduate of Trinity College,
Cambridge and the Inner Temple, where he trained to be
a barrister. Upon his return to India, he enrolled at
the Allahabad High Court, and took an interest in national
politics, which eventually replaced his legal practice. A
committed nationalist since his teenage years, Nehru became
a rising figure in Indian politics during the upheavals of the
1910s. He became the prominent leader of the left-wing
factions of the Indian National Congress during the 1920s,
and eventually of the entire Congress, with the tacit approval
of his mentor, Gandhi. As Congress President in 1929, Nehru
called for complete independence from the British Raj and
instigated the Congress's decisive shift towards the left.
Sarojini Naidu, born as
also known by the sobriquet
as The Nightingale of India,
was a child prodigy, Indian
independence activist and
poet.Naidu served as the first
governor of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh from
1947 to 1949; the first woman to become the governor of an
Indian state. She was the second woman to become the
president of the Indian National Congress in 1925 and the
first Indian woman to do so.
Somnath Lahiri (1901–1984) was an Indian statesman
and a leader of Communist Party of India. He was
a member of Constituent Assembly of India
from Bengal and later served as aMemberWest
Bengal legislative assembly.
The Indian Constitution is criticized to be borrowed from
the number of other constitutions.
But it doesn’t mean that all the provisions are borrowed
It has gone through a great amount of research on and
above the borrowings from the other constitutions, to
make the present Indian constitution.
These valuable inputs are largely influenced by factors like,
Social, Economic & Geographical factors……
And hence, the Indian Constitution came into force after a