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International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)productivity, quality and service will follow. These organizational improvements lay thegroundwork for improvements in business performance.INTRODUCTIONThe model development is based on two streams of research that stretch back over the past 20years. One stream of research focuses on performance excellence, which tracks employeeviews of product and service quality and the other stream focuses on employee engagement,which measures employee commitment and willingness to apply discretionary effort. Theseconstructs are measured, respectively, through the Performance Excellence Index (PEI) andthe Employee Engagement Index (EEI). In combination, these two indexes are potent leadingindicators of business success. These constructs have been linked to a host of positive outcomes. They better predictthese outcomes when combined, rather than when used alone. In other words, organizationsmust optimize both constructs in order to perform at optimal levels. Clearly, in both definition and composition, there is a distinction betweenperformance excellence and employee engagement. An organization can be high onperformance excellence, but low on engagement. That’s not the desired outcome. Ideally, anorganization is high on both. When an organization has developed to that level, its goal is tomaintain that dual focus, by continually instructing and reinforcing leaders and managersthroughout the organization.HIGH PERFORMANCE-ENGAGEMENT MODEL DEFINED A high performance organization is committed to high-quality products and servicesand, in fact, excels in creating loyal customers who serve as advocates. Employees observe astrong emphasis on quickly correcting customer problems and on continuous improvementleadership practices, such as using employee input and customer feedback to refine andenhance work processes. In addition, employees in high performance organizations have clear performancestandards, receive the training needed to keep up with new demands and are encouraged toparticipate in decisions affecting their work and to be innovative. They also indicate that co-worker cooperation in goal accomplishment is high. An engaged workforce is one in which employees possess a strong sense oforganizational pride, proactively recommend their organization as a good place to work andare committed to staying with their employer given their high level of overall satisfaction.Their high level of employee engagement derives from having trustworthy leaders whoinspire confidence in the future, managers who recognize the contributions of employees andtreat them respectfully, opportunities for growth and development, and work that matcheswell with their abilities and interests. An engaged workforce is more aligned withorganizational direction and more willing to apply discretionary effort in goalaccomplishment. 213
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)LEADERSHIP REQUIREMENTS Not surprisingly, an organization’s success is fundamentally dependent on the skillsand actions of its leaders. The High Performance-Engagement Model assumes it is theresponsibility of leaders to establish values and implement practices that both enable highperformance and foster a culture that supports employee engagement. High levels oforganizational performance are supported by concentrating on the leadership practices ofcustomer orientation, quality emphasis, employee training and involvement in decisionmaking. When these leadership practices prevail and are consistently implemented, team andorganizational performance improves. Likewise, employee engagement is clearly a critical element in achieving sustainedorganizational success. Research has unequivocally demonstrated that when leadershipinspires trust and confidence in the future, and managers recognize and respect employees,ensure they are growing and developing, and match them to assignments for which they arewell suited, employee engagement is higher. Employee engagement, when unleashed in the context of high performance workvalues and practices, yields the highest returns. Success, in both customer experience andfinancial performance, follows when leaders support all elements of the HPEM.KEY INDICATORS Will an organization be successful in the future? Proactive organizations institute andmonitor “indicators” that allow leaders to make mid-course adjustments to their plans,structures and systems. An organization’s current state can be measured by tracking thePerformance Excellence Index and Employee Engagement Index. The PEI measures the organization’s focus on customer service, quality, employeetraining and involvement. These topics target values, practices and outcomes directly relevantto the customer’s experience when interacting with the organization. They measure the mostsalient threats to customer relationships and thus the PEI acts as a gauge for futureorganizational performance. The EEI measures employees’ pride in their organization, their willingness toadvocate employment at their organization, overall organization satisfaction and theircommitment to stay with the organization.HPEM KEY ASSUMPTION The key assumption of the High Performance-Engagement Model is that performanceexcellence plus employee engagement actually creates a synergistic effect, unleashingworkforce energy to further drive overall performance. This assumption requires validation,which is provided later in the article.THE PERFORMANCE EXCELLENCE INDEXThe Performance Excellence Index is measured using the average level of favorability forthese seven questions: • Senior management is committed to providing high quality products and services to external customers. • Where I work, we set clear performance standards for product/service quality. 214
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013) • Customer problems get corrected quickly. • We regularly use customer feedback to improve our work processes. • Where I work, employees are getting the training and development needed to keep up with customer demands. • In my company, employees are encouraged to participate in making decisions that affect their work. • The people I work with cooperate to get the job done. The global PEI score is exactly 60%. However, we can see very clearly that employees are responding more favorably to overall perceptions of quality commitment and operating against clear quality standards than they are to being involved in decisions affecting their work and having the necessary training.PERFORMANCE EXCELLENCE INDEX (PEI) BY COUNTRY Employees working in different countries across the globe experience support forperformance excellence to varying degrees (see Figure 1). The BRIC economies, Brazil,Russia, India and China, are at the top of the list. These are fast-growth economies that aregoing to play a very dominant role over years and generations to come. At the bottom of thelist, we find the countries of Saudi Arabia, Spain, Italy and Japan.FIGURE 1: PERFORMANCE EXCELLENCE INDEX SCORE BY COUNTRY PEI Score by Country in % 80 75 68 68 65 70 64 63 63 62 60 58 56 55 60 55 48 45 50 40 30 20 PEI Score by Country in % 10 0PEI SCORES BY GLOBAL INDUSTRIES At 66%, hi-tech manufacturing has the highest PEI score (see Figure 2). We also notethat fewer employees in healthcare services (55%) and government (51%) report a focus oncustomer service, quality, and employee involvement and training. 215
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013) FIGURE 2: PERFORMANCE EXCELLENCE INDEX SCORE BY INDUSTRY PEI Score by Industry in % 80 67 70 62 62 61 55 52 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PEI Score by Industry in %IMPROVING PERFORMANCE EXCELLENCE: RECOMMENDATIONS FORLEADERS Examining the PEI item scores, we see that while leaders are building support forclear quality standards, other practices rank lower. Teams might be pulling together to getwork done, but inattentiveness to customer service is degraded by a lack of employee traininggeared toward equipping employees to serve their customers—a critical point given the rolefront-line employees play in impacting customer relationships every day. To improve performance, a pivotal area for intervention is the involvement ofemployees. Only 48% of employees feel as though their leaders encourage participation inmaking decisions that affect their own work. This means that less than half of all workers areempowered to suggest actions to improve efficiencies in workflow, and to provide insightsinto customer wants and needs. Actions like these could translate into the next big sale or intoprocess improvements that potentially could reduce an organization’s waste and scrap. Ifleaders and managers can find ways to utilize employee suggestions for improvements, theirorganizations stand to improve their efficiency, effectiveness, customer retention and sales.THE EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT INDEXThe Employee Engagement Index is measured through four items: • I am proud to tell people I work for my company. • Overall, I am extremely satisfied with my company as a place to work. • I would recommend this place to others as a good place to work. • I rarely think about looking for a new job with another company. 216
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT INDEX (EEI) BY COUNTRY In absolute terms, the average Employee Engagement Index score for the countriesstudied is 56% (see Figure 2). The EEI score for India is twice that of the bottom rankedcountry, Japan. North American countries rank higher in employee engagement thanEuropean countries. The EEI scores of employees in India are higher than the EEI scores ofemployees in other Asian countries or in the Middle Eastern Gulf Cooperative Council(GCC) region. In general, the remaining developing “BRIC” economies compare favorably toEuropean countries; in fact, Brazil has the second highest EEI score. These differencesclearly suggest that organizations in different geographical locations vary in their focus onemployee engagement; cultural differences in employee perceptions or survey ratingconventions could explain score differences as well. FIGURE 3: EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT INDEX BY COUNTRY EEI Score by Country % 80 74 70 66 64 62 56 58 60 55 55 54 55 53 53 52 50 45 40 36 30 20 EEI Score by Country % 10 0EEI BY JOB TYPE Employee engagement also varies across different types of work. There is a contrastbetween employees who work in the upper echelons of the organizational hierarchy and thoseworking in the lower job levels; the EEI score of service and production workers is only 51%,while the score of senior/ middle managers is much higher at 64%.WHY ARE EMPLOYEES ENGAGED? DRIVERS OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT Measuring employee engagement is the starting point. In the context of developingstronger organizations, the real question is, “How do leaders target their efforts to improveemployee engagement?” The Kenexa Research Institute led a comprehensive analysis,comparison and distillation of the aspects of work that drive employee engagement. Wegathered information from not only the most recent administrations of Work Trends, 217
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)Kenexa’s comprehensive normative database of employee opinions, but also from arepresentative sample of the more than 10 million employees whose opinions are containedwithin World Norms, Kenexa’s client-derived normative database. The significant overlap inthe two listings of drivers is remarkable. The results indicate when trust and confidence in senior leaders grow, employeeengagement increases; the direct manager also plays a key role through offering recognitionand respect and providing employees with greater opportunities for involvement. Employeeengagement also is influenced by the opportunities employees have for personal growth anddevelopment, further building their skills. Finally, employees liking what they do, beingexcited about their work and sensing support for work/life balance contribute to their levelsof engagement. Demonstrations of organizational caring and employee investment, such asensuring that safety is a priority, emerged as a theme—as did quality and improvement, butnot consistently across the analyses of the two databases.FOUR BLENDED MACRO DRIVERS OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT The exercise of identifying drivers of employee engagement, based on analyses ofboth the Work Trends and World Norms databases, yielded four blended macro drivers ofemployee engagement: Confidence and Trust, Recognition and Respect, Growth andDevelopment, and Work and Balance. As summarized in the High Performance-EngagementModel, these blended macro driver’s account for the majority of the contributing factors toemployee engagement. Organizations interested in improving employee engagement can intervene throughseveral avenues. Senior leaders, through their vision and communication, can instill a senseof confidence and trust in the future of the organization. Leadership also holds responsibilityfor building trust through demonstrating to employees that they are valued and that theorganization cares about their well-being and their personal futures; in so doing, employeesreciprocate. Through performance and talent management systems, managers can take advantageof opportunities for recognition and manage employee rewards. They also can plan, fosterand accommodate employees’ efforts to develop. They can orient workflow and assignments,giving employees tasks that fit with their skills and abilities, or that could stretch theirdevelopment by gaining new skills. Human Resources can play a role in designing work thatis interesting and fulfilling and, along with managers, guide employees into engaging tasks, abalanced work/life and appealing careers within the organization.VALIDATING THE HIGH PERFORMANCE-ENGAGEMENT MODEL Building models is relatively easy. The challenge is in their validation. Our validationstudy involved 158 multinational organizations operating in a variety of industry settings. Forthese organizations, we linked their PEI and EEI scores to two financial metrics: dilutedearnings per share (DEPS) and three-year total shareholder return (3-year TSR). The first isan immediate, short-term measure of financial performance while the second is a moremedium-term measure. The validation requirements are met. What does this mean? Both the PEI and EEIplay a role when it comes to these two important measures of financial success. However, therole they play is more influential through their additive and multiplicative effects. When both 218
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)the PEI and the EEI are higher in an organization, there will be stronger financialperformance as compared to the circumstance in which only one is higher. In other words, thefindings of this multi-company, multi-sector, multi-country research validate the model: thereis a synergistic effect between performance excellence and employee engagement. Whenboth are fostered, the workforce unleashes additional energy toward meeting customerservice and top-and bottom-line financial goals.CONCLUSION This article documents that it is the combination of creating a high performanceorganization and building an engaged workforce that positions an organization for its greatestsuccess. The constructs under consideration are performance excellence and employeeengagement. The indices that measure these constructs, the PEI and EEI, shine as potentemployee-based leading indicators of business success. The higher the scores on theseindices, the better-positioned employees are to deliver the organization’s value proposition tothe marketplace. Focusing on these two indices provides a clear path forward. Continuousimprovement on these constructs and measures will impact critical fiscal performancemetrics—prizes coveted— for which leaders are running their race.REFERENCES 1. Ketter, P. (2008), “What’s the big deal about employee engagement?” Training & Development, Vol 62, pp 44-49. 2. Lockwood, N. R. (2007), “Leveraging Employee Engagements for Competitive Advantage: HRs Strategic Role”, HR Magazine, Vol 52, No 3, pp 1-11. 3. Robinson, D., Perryman, S. and Hayday, S. (2004), “The Drivers of Employee Engagement”, Brighton, Institute for Employment Studies. 4. Saks, A. M. (2006), “Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), pp. 600-619. 5. Johnson, J.W. (2000). A heuristic method for estimating the relative weight of predictor variables in multiple regressions. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 35, 1- 19. 6. Lundby, K.M. & Johnson, J.W. (2006) Relative weights of predictors: what is important when many forces are operating. In A.I. Kraut (ed.), Getting Action for Organizational Surveys: New Concepts, Methods, and Applications. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass (pp. 326-351). 7. Macey, W.H. & Schneider, B. (2008). The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1, 3-30. 8. Robinson, D. (2007). Engagement is marriage of various factors at work. Employee Benefits, 37. 9. Schneider, B., Hanges, P.J., Smith, D.B. & Salvaggio, A.N. (2003). Which comes first: employee attitudes or organizational financial and market performance? Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 836-851. 10. Scheider, B., Macey, W.H., Barbera, K.M. & Martin, N. (2009). Driving customer satisfaction and financial success through employee engagement. People & Strategy, 32, 22-27. 219
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013) 11. Vance, R.J. (2006). Employee Engagement and Commitment: A Guide to Understanding, Measuring and Increasing Engagement in your Organization. Alexandria, VA: SHRM Foundation. 12. Robinson, D., Perryman, S. and Hayday, S. (2004), “The Drivers of Employee Engagement”, Brighton, Institute for Employment Studies. 13. Saks, A. M. (2006), “Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), pp. 600-619. 14. www.kenexa.com/.../Driving success through performance excellence and employee engagement.html 15. A. Rothwell & J. Arnold, (2007), “Self-perceived employability: Development and validation of a scale”, Personnel Review, 36, pp 23-41. 16. M.R. Barrick & M.K.Mount, (1991), “The Big Five Personality Dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis”, Personnel Psychology, 44, pp 1-26. 17. P. Cappelli & P.D. Sherer, (1991), “The missing role of context in OB: The need for a meso-level approach”, Research in Organizational Behaviour, 13, pp55-110. 18. J.D. Kammeyer-Mueller, C.R. Wanberg, T.M. Glomb & D. Ahlburg, (2005), “The role of temporal shifts in turnover processes: It’s about time”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, pp 644-658. 19. T.W. Lee & T.R.Mitchell, (1994), “An alternative approach: The unfolding model of voluntary employee turnover”, Academy of Management Review, 19, pp 51-89. 20. Kahn, W. A. (1990), “Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 33, pp 692-724. 21. Lockwood, N. R. (2007), “Leveraging Employee Engagements for Competitive Advantage: HRs Strategic Role”, HR Magazine, Vol 52, No 3, pp 1-11. 22. Dr. C. Swarnalatha And T.S. Prasanna, “Employee Engagement From A Retail Sector Perspective” International journal of Marketing & Human Resource Management (IJMHRM) Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 01-07, Published by IAEME. 23. Dr. C. Swarnalatha And T.S. Prasanna, “Employee Engagement: A Theoretical Study” International journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM) Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 16-25, Published by IAEME 24. Dr. C. Swarnalatha, t.s. Prasanna, “Employee Engagement: The Key To Organizational Success” International Journal of Management (IJM) Volume 3, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 216-277, Published by IAEME 25. Dr. C. Swarnalatha, T.S. Prasanna, “Positive Organizational Behaviour: Engaged Employees in Flourishing Organizations” International Journal of Management Research and Development (IJMRD) Volume 2, Issue 1, 2012, pp.18-26, Published by PRJ PUBLICATION. 26. Dr.C.Swarnalatha, Mr.G.Sureshkrishna, “Workplace Harassment and Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Study among Employees of Automotive Industries in India” International Journal of Management Research and Development (IJMRD) Volume 2, Issue 1, 2012, pp.27-34, Published by PRJ PUBLICATION. 220