2. An issue is a subject matter that
people argue about or discuss. These
are concerns that warrant attention of
people and, in the case of community,
a topic of collective discussion and
3. On the other hand, community
problems are conditions or qualifications of
issues that are undesired by members of a
community. For example, community health
may be the issue at hand; the topic of
argumentation and discussion. Consequently,
the presence and spread of typhoid or malaria
across parts of community are considered
community health problems.
5. Actions and Initiatives
• Due to the “realities” in the community, action
and initiatives from members are relevant and
needed. Thus, put into action.
• As a member of the community, you should take
part in the initiative to address issues and
• Aim: to make the community life better for all the
members of the community.
6. Why do actions and initiatives
• Community issues and problem arise
• Argument and discussion of people
• Seeking solutions for undesirable conditions
experienced by people
7. Core Values and Principle of Community
• Human Rights
• Social Equity
• Gender Equality
• Participatory Development
8. Human Rights
• The rights inherent to all human beings
whatever our nationality, place of residence,
sex, national or ethic origin, colour, religion,
language or any other status.
• Supreme, inherent, and inalienable rights to
life, to dignity and to self-development.
9. • Natural Rights- the liberty and other pursuit
• Civil Rights- privacy, property, religion,
expression, contract and movement
• Political rights- assembly, petition, suffrage,
direct and indirect participation, self-
determination, self-government and election
to public office.
10. Social Equity
• Is the fair access to opportunities, like
education, livelihood and resources.
11. • Involves participation in cultural and
political practices in the community like
the social justice, but social equity
emphasizes more on institutions and
how people access it, especially those
who need it most.
12. Gender Equality
• The equal rights, responsibilities, and
opportunities of all the people in the
• It emphasizes the equal rights, values,
treatment and opportunities of an individual
regardless of its gender.
13. • Men may often have better opportunities,
freedom and social favor compared to
• Most of the positions, socially and politically
were being occupied mostly by men.
• Men have more weight in marriages or other
direct or indirect relationships.
14. Participatory Development
• Its objective is to engage the marginalized
group in programs and activities that will
• Advocacies to enable the marginalized groups
to promote their rights
15. • More participation from the community, the
higher is the possible success and
sustainability of the programs and projects.
• It will empower a certain sector that will
benefit from the community initiatives thru
16. Four Forms of Participatory
• Passive Participation
• Participation by Consultation
• Participation by Collaboration
• Empowerment Participation
17. • Passive Participation- people participate by
being told what is going to happen or what is
already happened. It is unilateral
announcement by an administration or by
project management; people’s responses are
not taken into account.
18. • Participation by Consultation- is a
participatory process that underpins
genuine community development. It
enables communities to articulate their
own concerns, and identify the
appropriate responses and solutions to
problems that affect them.
19. • Participation by Collaboration-
commitment to share decision-making
and the allocation of human, physical
and financial resources. When
community do not develop a pattern of
collaboration, they diminish community
20. • Empowerment Participation- is more than the
involvement, participation or engagement of
communities. It implies community ownership
and action that explicitly aims at social and