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Napoleón Bonaparte

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Napoleón Bonaparte

  1. 1. NAPOLEON BONAPARTE Gorka Seoane. 4º ESO 2009-10. IES FRAY PEDRO DE URBINA
  2. 2. The beginning of the emperor Napoleon Bonaparte was born in Ajaccio in 1769, son of Carlo Bonaparte and Maria Letizia Ramolino. His family was part of the local bourgeoisie, then in Paris Napoleon studied in the militar academy. When the revolution started, he returned to Corsica, but his rivality with a nationalist representant forced the exile of Napoleon.
  3. 3. The Campaigns In Paris, Bonaparte finished with some revolts against the Convention; after that, he received an army to march to Italy, there Napoleon defeated the Austrian army and he got Lombardy for France and two Papal states. In Egypt Napoleon defeated the English army in the pyramids battle and the Ottoman army; after that, Bonaparte took the control of Egypt and some Ottoman cities as Acre.
  4. 4. Napoleon takes the power The army in Egypt was left in charge of Jean Baptiste Kléber. Unknown to Bonaparte, the Directory had sent him orders to return to ward off possible invasions of French soil, but poor lines of communication meant the messages had failed to reach him. By the time he reached Paris in October, France's situation had been improved by a series of victories. The Republic was bankrupt, however, and the ineffective Directory was unpopular for the French population.The Directory discussed Bonaparte's "desertion" but was too weak to punish him. In Paris Napoleon and Sieyes were decided to prepare a coup d’etat. At the beginning, the new consul would be Sieyes but Napoleon was faster and he took the power, and he proclaimed himself consul forerver, it made Napoleon the most powerful person in France. During the consulate Napoleon tried to restore the order, lost during the revolution, fighting against the Austrian army in Lombardy and selling the Louisiana to solve the bankrupt.
  5. 5. Napoleon’s Empire To consolidate his charge of consul, Napoleon decided to change the consulate to an hereditary empire, to avoid conspirations, and Napoleon proclamed himself emperor of France.
  6. 6. Napoleon against Europe Napoleon wanted to defeat England, he needed the sea control to invade England, so he asked Spain to figth against England, but the two naval armies were defeated in Trafalgar battle. After that, Napoleon forgot his rivality with England and he decided to invade Europe, he conquered the Naples Kingdom, finishing with the United Provinces and founding the Holland Kingdom and the Rihne Confederation. Prusia and Russia attacked the Confederation but Napoleon defeated the two armies, so he expanded the empire with Westfalia and some Prusian’s territories, and he had the main harbours of Europe under his control. The biggest expansion of the empire was in 1810 with an alliance with Austria and the support of the Irilic Provinces, Bremen, Lubeck and all the Papal States.
  7. 7. Independence War Napoleon wanted to isolate England from Europe and the only country loyal to England was Portugal, so he decided to attack Portugal. To attack Portugal he had to pass through Spain, and he made an alliance with Spain, but Napoleon decided to include Spain in his empire, and Jose, his brother, was proclaimed king of Spain. The people didn’t accept the new king, and the war against Napoleon was official. In that war, Napoleon put his best troops, but he had to figth with another countries and he withdrew the army from Spain where he lost part of his army, and at the end Jose was deposed.
  8. 8. The Russian Campaign Napoleon was angry with the Tzar because he didn’t make the maritime blockade against England, so he decided to invade Russia the 23th of June of 1812. The Russian army decided to go back and avoid the figth, Napoleon won some battles but when he arrived to Moscow, the city was burned and he must return to France with the problem of the Russian winter. Napoleon started this campaign with 670.000 soldiers, only 40.000 returned to France.
  9. 9. The end of the empire After the defeat with Russia, Russia, Austria, Sweden, Spain, Portugal and the United Kingdom created an alliance against Napoleon. In Leipzig, Napoleon fougth against the alliance, that doubled the French army, and Napoleon was defeated, losing 120000 soldiers. With an army of 100.000, France couldn’t resist the attacks of the alliance. After that defeat, Napoleon was exiled to Elba island.
  10. 10. But Napoleon returned to Paris where he prepared an army of 200.000 soldiers to fight against England, Prussia and Holland in the Belgian campaign, but Napoleon was defeated in the battle of Waterloo. Finally, Napoleon was exiled to the Saint Helena island, where he died in 1821 at the age of 51 years old.

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