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Impact of COVID-19 on the welfare of rural households in Senegal - Fourth round data

Prepared by Wim Marivoet and Abdallah Cisse

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Impact of COVID-19 on the welfare of rural households in Senegal - Fourth round data

  1. 1. Impact of COVID-19 on the welfare of rural households in Senegal – Fourth round data Wim Marivoet (IFPRI-AFR) Abdallah Cisse (IFPRI-AFR)
  2. 2. COVID-19 in Senegal (1) ▪ First case: March 2, 2020 ▪ Swift government action: oContact tracing & isolation, testing oAirport closed, social distancing, schools and mosques closed, large gatherings banned oRestrictions on public transportation and other vehicle movement between regions oNational state of Emergency declared on 23 March 2020, lifted on 30 June 2020, and partially reintroduced in the regions of Dakar and Thies on 6 January 2021
  3. 3. COVID-19 in Senegal (2) ▪ Round 1 (June 16th) : 5247 cases, 70 deaths, 1651 in intensive care ▪ Round 2 (August 3rd): 10887 cases, 225 deaths, 3475 in intensive care ▪ Round 3 (October 1st) : 15019 cases, 311 deaths, 2169 in intensive care ▪ Round 4 (December 18th) : 17559 cases, 357 deaths, 752 in intensive care
  4. 4. Phone Survey (1) ▪ Building on a recent large, representative rural household survey conducted across the country in 2018 ▪ Data collected in FTF zones of influence; oversampling female headed households ▪ Phone credit of 1,000 FCFA offered for each completed survey ▪ First wave of phone survey conducted in June with 500 households ▪ Second wave of phone survey conducted in August with the same 501 households and an additional 255 spouses: a total of 316 women and 391 men ▪ Third wave of phone survey conducted in October with the same 494 households and an additional 253 spouses: a total of 298 women and 373 men
  5. 5. Phone Survey (2) ▪ Fourth wave of phone survey conducted in December with 444 households: a total of 139 women and 305 men ▪ Focus on agricultural practices, income changes, food and nutrition & water security, and knowledge and behavioral responses to COVID-19
  6. 6. Response rate 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% First attempt Second attempt Third attempt Positive responses Share of respondents
  7. 7. Location of respondents
  8. 8. Household descriptives ▪ 56 percent of spouses are involved in agriculture ▪ About 30 percent of spouses do not work outside the home ▪ 73 percent of spouses decide how to spend their personal income ▪ This is against 94 percent of their husbands ▪ About 72 percent of spouses earn less than their husband
  9. 9. Agriculture ▪ Average landholdings 5 hectares ▪ Most households involved in cultivation of cereals (millet, sorghum) ▪ Cultivation practices are traditional: little use of external inputs and non- mechanized ▪ Most households hold some livestock, mainly small ruminants
  10. 10. Registered income losses 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Head (June) Spouse (August) Spouse (October) Head (December) Spouse (December) Share of respondents
  11. 11. How do households deal with income loss ? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Using savings Selling assets Borrowing money Transfer from government transfer from NGO Share of respondents
  12. 12. How do households deal with income loss ? 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Electricity bill Water bill Foodstuffs Cash Other donations Share of respondents Nature of the transfers NGO Government
  13. 13. Fear of not having enough to eat 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% 90.0% Head (June) Head (August) Spouse (August) Head (October) Spouse (October) Head (December) Spouse (December)
  14. 14. Change in access to food compared to pre-COVID 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Head (June) Head (August) Spouse (August) Head (October) Spouse (October) Head (December) Spouse (December) Share of respondents Yes No
  15. 15. How has access to food changed? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Head (June) Head (August) Spouse (August) Head (October) Spouse (October) Head (December) Spouse (December) Food shortage Different source Consumed different food Consumed less food
  16. 16. Coping mechanisms to deal with food insecurity 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Head (June) Head (August) Spouse (August) Head (October) Spouse (October) Head (December) Spouse (December) Share of respondents Less nutritious foods Skipped a meal Ate less Went hungry
  17. 17. Morbidity rate 0.0% 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% 25.0% 30.0% 35.0% 40.0% 45.0% Round 2 (August) Round 3 (October) Round 4 (December) Share of households with sick members Adults Children
  18. 18. Morbidity: first symptom for adults 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Adult (August) Adult (October) Adult (December) Share of respondents Diarrhea Stomach pain Vomiting Headache Sight problems Cough Fever Diziness Fainting Pregnancy related Delivery related
  19. 19. Morbidity: first symptom for children 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Children (August) Children (October) Children (December) Share of respondents Diarrhea Stomach pain Vomiting Headache Sight problems Cough Fever Diziness Fainting
  20. 20. Care time 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Head (June) Head (August) Spouse (August) Spouse (October) Head (December) Spouse (December) Number of hours in the last 24 hours
  21. 21. Care time of spouses – compared to before COVID-19 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Round 2 (August) Round 3 (October) round 4 (December) Share of respondents More than Same Less than
  22. 22. Workload of spouses - compared to before COVID-19 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Round 2 (August) Round 3 (October) round 4 (December) Share of respondents More than Same Less than
  23. 23. Mobility: leave the house to…. in the last 7 days (yes) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Buy food Sell food Work Medical care Meeting Socialize Collect water/firewood Share of respondants Head (June) Head (August) Spouse (August) Head (October) Spouse (October) Head (December) Spouse (December)
  24. 24. Food consumption in the last 24 hours 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Grains, roots and tubers Legumes Nuts and seed Dairy Meat, poultry and fish Eggs Dark leafy greens and Vegetables Other vitamins A-rich fruits and Vegetables Other Vegetables Other fruits Head (June) Head (August) Spouse (August) Head (October) Spouse (October) Head (December) Spouse (December)
  25. 25. Dietary diversity score 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Head (June) Head (August) Spouse (August) Head (October) Spouse (October) Head (December) Spouse (December) Diversity score
  26. 26. Adequate dietary diversity score (>=5/10) 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Head (June) Head (August) Spouse (August) Head (October) Spouse (October) Head (December) Spouse (December) Share of adequate diversity score dietary
  27. 27. Reasons for not going back to school (December) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Not sure with covid-19 Too expensive Help for family business Need help at home Wanted to give up studies Was looking for work / had started No more money for tuition Other Number of people not going back to school girls boys
  28. 28. Migration: Part of migrants going back home because of Covid-19 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% FATICK KAFFRINE KAOLACK KEDOUGOU KOLDA MATAM SEDHIOU ZIGUINCHOR
  29. 29. Migration : Transfers after Covid-19 60.7% 39.3% Less than before Same
  30. 30. Conflict issues in December 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Occurrence of disputes Solving of disputes Fear of partner Fear of other family members Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always
  31. 31. Household Water Source 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Head (August) Spouse (August) Head (October) Spouse (October) Head (December) Spouse (December) Share of respondents Running water in the concession Dug well Water purchased at the store (ex kirène) Rainwater harvesting Home water distribution Water distribution station Surface water (river, lake, etc.)
  32. 32. Household Water Access in December 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Before covid Currently Share of respondents More than 30 min Less than 30 min
  33. 33. Household Water Insecurity Experience Scale - 1/4 (HWISE) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Head (June) Head (August) Spouse (August) Head (October) Spouse (October) Head (December) Spouse (December) Frequency of worrying about water availability Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always
  34. 34. Household Water Insecurity Experience Scale - 2/4 (HWISE) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Head (June) Head (August) Spouse (August) Head (October) Spouse (October) Head (December) Spouse (December) Frequency of changing plans due to water availability Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always
  35. 35. Household Water Insecurity Experience Scale - 3/4 (HWISE) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Head (June) Head (August) Spouse (August) Head (October) Spouse (October) Head (December) Spouse (December) Availability of drinking water Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always
  36. 36. Household Water Insecurity Experience Scale - 4/4 (HWISE) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Head (June) Head (August) Spouse (August) Head (October) Spouse (October) Head (December) Spouse (December) Frequency of not washing hands when necessary Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always
  37. 37. COVID-19 and household welfare for the fourth round ▪ Fear of not having enough to eat has markedly declined from 73 percent in October to 63 percent of respondents in December ▪ About 75 percent of respondents felt their access to food had changed since COVID-19, which also represents a decline compared to the previous round ▪ The main changes experienced were food shortage and decreased consumption ▪ To cope with food insecurity, households reduced their consumption of nutritious foods or of food in general. Heads go hungry more often compared to spouses. ▪ The morbidity rate in December was 26 percent for children and 35 percent for adults. The main first symptom was fever, followed by headache for adults and diarrhea for children
  38. 38. COVID-19 and household welfare for the fourth round ▪ Spouses spent five hours caring in the past 24 hours compared to two hours by their husbands. ▪ On average, workload of spouses was slightly lower than before COVID-19, care time has increased. ▪ Dietary diversity has also further improved between October and December; it however remains structurally lower among spouses compared to household heads ▪ Water insecurity has slightly increased again, especially for men, which might relate to lack of rainfall to support horticultural activities.

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