Rethinking PES in community forestry: Understanding incentives in socio-ecological context

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
©
Cooke
Vieira
CIFOR-ICRAF
Rethinking PES in community
forestry: Understanding
incentives in socio-ecological
context
Steven Lawry
CIFOR Senior Research Associate
s.lawry@cifor-icraf.org
CGIAR Seminar Series
Payments for Ecosystem Services: Win-Win Solutions?
Co-organized by IFPRI, the CGIAR, and BMZ
21 September 2023
• REDD+/PES interventions in community forestry have performed poorly overall.
• Many forest communities know what they are doing but local management and stewardship systems are not
acknowledged in intervention design. Importance of social goals is lauded, but the roles of local social institutions and
priorities are largely overlooked or discounted by REDD+ and PES planners.
• Many communities (though not all) manage complex socio-ecological systems for multiple purposes: timber and NTFPs;
water regulation and agricultural sustainability; biodiversity; cultural identity and social solidarity. Successful
stewardship is based on an ethic of care, intrinsic knowledge of context, and agency (full exercise of which is dependent
on secure rights).
• Where good stewardship-based outcomes are already present, the carbon balance may be socially and ecologically
“optimal” and accommodating forest management and payments regimes for carbon additionality may be disruptive.
• The additionality principle rewards “deforesters” while excluding conservers; perceived by many as socially
unacceptable.
• Lack of local market-facing institutions emboldens rent-seeking intermediaries. De jure state ownership of forest land
positions governments for payment capture.
• Where communities manage wholistically, with proven beneficial social and ecological outcomes, Investments
enhancing social and environmental well-being may be preferred to PES. PES incentives may be appropriate for
”deforesters” but more sophisticated understanding of local context and deforestation drivers is needed.
The argument summarized
• Failure to account for deforestation drivers in project design. “REDD+ institutionalization [in Indonesia] has focused
mostly on technical aspects, thereby diverting the focus from addressing socioeconomic and political drivers of
deforestation and forest degradation. [T]ransformational change in the forestry and broader land-use sector is still
elusive.” Nofyanza et al (2020).
• Social and income benefits fall short. “The study [of 4,000 households in 148 villages participating in 22 REDD+
programs in 6 countries] finds that REDD+ has not contributed significantly to perceived well-being and income
sufficiency, in spite of the fact that most households have not only engaged with REDD+ interventions but view them
favorably.” Sunderlin, William D., et al. (2017)
• Evidence of limited (and overstated) reduced deforestation. A study of 26 [Verra managed]carbon payment projects
on three continents found that, “most projects have not significantly reduced deforestation. For projects that did,
reductions were substantially lower than claimed. This reflects differences between project ex ante baselines and ex
post counterfactuals according to observed deforestation in control areas.” West, T. (2023).
• Low additionality explained?: Socially unacceptable to reward deforesters while excluding conservers. “Several
studies found that the PES projects achieved low additionality. It was hard or not socially desirable to enroll only those
participants who would deforest their patch of land with high certainty in the absence of payments, in other words,
some payments were given to people who would have not deforested their land anyway.” Burivalova et al., (2019)
PES performance in community forestry
• Failure to acknowledge local management systems. “Many
external [REDD+] programmes explicitly state that local
people will serve as the main actor and indeed intend to
prioritise local interests. However, such programmes also
have a tendency in not explicitly acknowledging local
resource management and stewardship systems,
particularly the local values that underpin them.” Yuliani, E.
L., et al., (2022).
• Potential negative impacts on social-ecological resilience.
“Our meta-analysis [of 59 case studies] found that REDD+
has had mixed impacts on communities' social-ecological
resilience. through restrictions on local forest practices,
rigidity in rules, and communities' natural capital being
locked into carbon contracts, REDD+ has limited
communities' ability to manage for uncertainty. Reconciling
REDD+ goals with the need for forest communities to retain
adaptive capacity will be a challenge moving forward. Hajjar
et al (2021)
Performance (continued)
©
Chandra
S.
Karki,
CIFOR-ICRAF
• Confronting biases and supporting local problem-solving
Communities know what they are doing; local management a model of democratic
land use. Local user values, aims, and priorities should be supported. Communities
manage forests; governments can’t and markets disrupt (Yulani, et al., (2022);
Hajjar, et al. (2021)
• Re-engineer payment regimes to reward conservers.
Investments in social well-being enhance ecological outcomes, and vice-versa.
Pena, et al., (2016)
• Rights recognition catalyzes internal and external investment.
Donors can support investment readiness post-tenure reform. Baynes, et al.,
(2015); Gynch, et al., (2020)
Policy reforms and investment alternatives
References
• Baynes, et al., (2015), Key factors which influence the success of community forestry in
developing countries, Global Environmental Change, Volume 35, 2015, Pages 226-238
• Burivalova et al., (2019), What works in tropical forest conservation, and what does not:
Effectiveness of four strategies in terms of environmental, social, and economic outcomes.
Conservation Science and Practice. 2019; 1:e28. https://doi.org/10.1111/csp2.28
• Gynch, S., (2020), Is community tenure facilitating investment in the commons for inclusive and
sustainable development?, Forest Policy and Economics, Volume 111, 2020.
• Hajjar. R., et al (2021), The impacts of REDD+ on the social-ecological resilience of community
forests, Environ. Res. Lett. 16 024001
• Nofyanza, S., et al (2020) Revisiting the REDD+ experience in Indonesia, CIFOR Infobrief, 314
• Pena, Ximena, et al., (2016). "Collective Property Leads to Household Investments: Lessons
from Land Titling in Afro-Colombian Communities," Documentos CEDE 14573, Universidad de
los Andes, Facultad de Economía, CEDE.
• Sunderlin, W. D., et al. (2017), "REDD+ contribution to well-being and income is marginal: The
perspective of local stakeholders." Forests 8.4 (2017): 125
• Yuliani, E. L., et al., (2022). Relational values of forests: Value-conflicts between local
communities and external programmes in Sulawesi. People and Nature, 00, 1–
17. https://doi.org/10.1002/pan3.10389
• West, T., et al., Science 381, 873-877 (2023)
©
Yayan
Indriatmoko,
CIFOR-ICRAF
©
Axel
Fassio/CIFOR-ICRAF
Thank you
1 de 7

Recomendados

Global Comparative Study on REDD+: Inputs for ASEAN region por
Global Comparative Study on REDD+: Inputs for ASEAN regionGlobal Comparative Study on REDD+: Inputs for ASEAN region
Global Comparative Study on REDD+: Inputs for ASEAN regionCIFOR-ICRAF
39 vistas22 diapositivas
Unfcccsideeventreddonthegroundnovember302011final 111201035213-phpapp02 por
Unfcccsideeventreddonthegroundnovember302011final 111201035213-phpapp02Unfcccsideeventreddonthegroundnovember302011final 111201035213-phpapp02
Unfcccsideeventreddonthegroundnovember302011final 111201035213-phpapp02theREDDdesk
356 vistas53 diapositivas
How is REDD+ unfolding on the ground? por
How is REDD+ unfolding on the ground?How is REDD+ unfolding on the ground?
How is REDD+ unfolding on the ground?CIFOR-ICRAF
1.4K vistas53 diapositivas
Transforming REDD+ lessons learned and way forward por
Transforming REDD+ lessons learned and way forwardTransforming REDD+ lessons learned and way forward
Transforming REDD+ lessons learned and way forwardCIFOR-ICRAF
939 vistas33 diapositivas
L4L2018 - Dr Matthew Quinn, Cardiff University - How AONBs can deliver on sus... por
L4L2018 - Dr Matthew Quinn, Cardiff University - How AONBs can deliver on sus...L4L2018 - Dr Matthew Quinn, Cardiff University - How AONBs can deliver on sus...
L4L2018 - Dr Matthew Quinn, Cardiff University - How AONBs can deliver on sus...NAAONB landscapesforlife
406 vistas9 diapositivas
Transforming REDD+ Lessons and new direction por
Transforming REDD+ Lessons and new directionTransforming REDD+ Lessons and new direction
Transforming REDD+ Lessons and new directionCIFOR-ICRAF
443 vistas31 diapositivas

Más contenido relacionado

Similar a Rethinking PES in community forestry: Understanding incentives in socio-ecological context

Moving from readiness to performance-based payments por
Moving from readiness to performance-based paymentsMoving from readiness to performance-based payments
Moving from readiness to performance-based paymentsCIFOR-ICRAF
403 vistas39 diapositivas
The State of Jurisdictional Sustainability: Synthesis for Practitioners and P... por
The State of Jurisdictional Sustainability: Synthesis for Practitioners and P...The State of Jurisdictional Sustainability: Synthesis for Practitioners and P...
The State of Jurisdictional Sustainability: Synthesis for Practitioners and P...CIFOR-ICRAF
214 vistas30 diapositivas
Perspective30 boissiere et al. eng por
Perspective30 boissiere et al. engPerspective30 boissiere et al. eng
Perspective30 boissiere et al. engDr Lendy Spires
26 vistas4 diapositivas
The role of Integrated Conservation-Development Projects (ICDPs) in sustainab... por
The role of Integrated Conservation-Development Projects (ICDPs) in sustainab...The role of Integrated Conservation-Development Projects (ICDPs) in sustainab...
The role of Integrated Conservation-Development Projects (ICDPs) in sustainab...Siang Yang
320 vistas4 diapositivas
The REDD+ Policy Arena: where are the bridges and brokers ? por
 The REDD+ Policy Arena: where are the bridges and brokers ? The REDD+ Policy Arena: where are the bridges and brokers ?
The REDD+ Policy Arena: where are the bridges and brokers ?CIFOR-ICRAF
773 vistas24 diapositivas
Walking the REDD+ line: Insights from CIFOR's REDD+ Global Comparative Study por
Walking the REDD+ line: Insights from CIFOR's REDD+ Global Comparative StudyWalking the REDD+ line: Insights from CIFOR's REDD+ Global Comparative Study
Walking the REDD+ line: Insights from CIFOR's REDD+ Global Comparative StudyCIFOR-ICRAF
1.7K vistas41 diapositivas

Similar a Rethinking PES in community forestry: Understanding incentives in socio-ecological context (20)

Moving from readiness to performance-based payments por CIFOR-ICRAF
Moving from readiness to performance-based paymentsMoving from readiness to performance-based payments
Moving from readiness to performance-based payments
CIFOR-ICRAF403 vistas
The State of Jurisdictional Sustainability: Synthesis for Practitioners and P... por CIFOR-ICRAF
The State of Jurisdictional Sustainability: Synthesis for Practitioners and P...The State of Jurisdictional Sustainability: Synthesis for Practitioners and P...
The State of Jurisdictional Sustainability: Synthesis for Practitioners and P...
CIFOR-ICRAF214 vistas
Perspective30 boissiere et al. eng por Dr Lendy Spires
Perspective30 boissiere et al. engPerspective30 boissiere et al. eng
Perspective30 boissiere et al. eng
Dr Lendy Spires26 vistas
The role of Integrated Conservation-Development Projects (ICDPs) in sustainab... por Siang Yang
The role of Integrated Conservation-Development Projects (ICDPs) in sustainab...The role of Integrated Conservation-Development Projects (ICDPs) in sustainab...
The role of Integrated Conservation-Development Projects (ICDPs) in sustainab...
Siang Yang320 vistas
The REDD+ Policy Arena: where are the bridges and brokers ? por CIFOR-ICRAF
 The REDD+ Policy Arena: where are the bridges and brokers ? The REDD+ Policy Arena: where are the bridges and brokers ?
The REDD+ Policy Arena: where are the bridges and brokers ?
CIFOR-ICRAF773 vistas
Walking the REDD+ line: Insights from CIFOR's REDD+ Global Comparative Study por CIFOR-ICRAF
Walking the REDD+ line: Insights from CIFOR's REDD+ Global Comparative StudyWalking the REDD+ line: Insights from CIFOR's REDD+ Global Comparative Study
Walking the REDD+ line: Insights from CIFOR's REDD+ Global Comparative Study
CIFOR-ICRAF1.7K vistas
Edwin Pynegar's Presentation at the ICCB 2019, Kuala Lumpur por EdwinPynegar
Edwin Pynegar's Presentation at the ICCB 2019, Kuala LumpurEdwin Pynegar's Presentation at the ICCB 2019, Kuala Lumpur
Edwin Pynegar's Presentation at the ICCB 2019, Kuala Lumpur
EdwinPynegar196 vistas
Session 4 - Measuring natural capital and biodiversity por OECD Environment
Session 4 - Measuring natural capital and biodiversitySession 4 - Measuring natural capital and biodiversity
Session 4 - Measuring natural capital and biodiversity
OECD Environment166 vistas
The Forests Dialogue (TFD) & IUCNREDD’s impact on Communities, Capacity and C... por The Forests Dialogue
The Forests Dialogue (TFD) & IUCNREDD’s impact on Communities, Capacity and C...The Forests Dialogue (TFD) & IUCNREDD’s impact on Communities, Capacity and C...
The Forests Dialogue (TFD) & IUCNREDD’s impact on Communities, Capacity and C...
The Forests Dialogue1.5K vistas
CIFOR and Global Comparative Study on REDD+ por CIFOR-ICRAF
CIFOR and Global Comparative Study on REDD+CIFOR and Global Comparative Study on REDD+
CIFOR and Global Comparative Study on REDD+
CIFOR-ICRAF560 vistas
CIFOR’s contribution to ASFCC: Results from Phase 1 and Plan of work for Phase 2 por CIFOR-ICRAF
CIFOR’s contribution to ASFCC: Results from Phase 1 and Plan of work for Phase 2CIFOR’s contribution to ASFCC: Results from Phase 1 and Plan of work for Phase 2
CIFOR’s contribution to ASFCC: Results from Phase 1 and Plan of work for Phase 2
CIFOR-ICRAF1.6K vistas
A Dominican Republic Case: Demonstrating Sustainable Land Management in the U... por Iwl Pcu
A Dominican Republic Case: Demonstrating Sustainable Land Management in the U...A Dominican Republic Case: Demonstrating Sustainable Land Management in the U...
A Dominican Republic Case: Demonstrating Sustainable Land Management in the U...
Iwl Pcu399 vistas
Forests, People, and the rest of the world: local participation in REDD+ Meas... por CIFOR-ICRAF
Forests, People, and the rest of the world: local participation in REDD+ Meas...Forests, People, and the rest of the world: local participation in REDD+ Meas...
Forests, People, and the rest of the world: local participation in REDD+ Meas...
CIFOR-ICRAF658 vistas
Increasing Access to sustainable and Renewable Energy Alternatives in the Alb... por Dr. Joshua Zake
Increasing Access to sustainable and Renewable Energy Alternatives in the Alb...Increasing Access to sustainable and Renewable Energy Alternatives in the Alb...
Increasing Access to sustainable and Renewable Energy Alternatives in the Alb...
Dr. Joshua Zake119 vistas
Integrated landscape approaches: Lessons learned from COLANDS por CIFOR-ICRAF
Integrated landscape approaches: Lessons learned from COLANDSIntegrated landscape approaches: Lessons learned from COLANDS
Integrated landscape approaches: Lessons learned from COLANDS
CIFOR-ICRAF33 vistas

Más de International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

Targeting in Development Projects: Approaches, challenges, and lessons learned por
Targeting in Development Projects: Approaches, challenges, and lessons learnedTargeting in Development Projects: Approaches, challenges, and lessons learned
Targeting in Development Projects: Approaches, challenges, and lessons learnedInternational Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
14 vistas48 diapositivas
Prevalence and Impact of Landmines on Ukrainian Agricultural Production por
Prevalence and Impact of Landmines on Ukrainian Agricultural ProductionPrevalence and Impact of Landmines on Ukrainian Agricultural Production
Prevalence and Impact of Landmines on Ukrainian Agricultural ProductionInternational Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
16 vistas11 diapositivas
Global Markets and the War in Ukraine por
Global Markets and  the War in UkraineGlobal Markets and  the War in Ukraine
Global Markets and the War in UkraineInternational Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
27 vistas12 diapositivas
Impact of the Russian Military Invasion on Ukraine’s Agriculture and Trade por
Impact of the Russian Military Invasion on Ukraine’s Agriculture and Trade Impact of the Russian Military Invasion on Ukraine’s Agriculture and Trade
Impact of the Russian Military Invasion on Ukraine’s Agriculture and Trade International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
46 vistas14 diapositivas
Mapping cropland extent over a complex landscape: An assessment of the best a... por
Mapping cropland extent over a complex landscape: An assessment of the best a...Mapping cropland extent over a complex landscape: An assessment of the best a...
Mapping cropland extent over a complex landscape: An assessment of the best a...International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
8 vistas13 diapositivas
Examples of remote sensing application in agriculture monitoring por
Examples of remote sensing application in agriculture monitoringExamples of remote sensing application in agriculture monitoring
Examples of remote sensing application in agriculture monitoringInternational Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
5 vistas18 diapositivas

Más de International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)(20)

Último

2023 Q1-Q2 Newsletter - First Tee Puerto Rico por
2023 Q1-Q2 Newsletter - First Tee Puerto Rico2023 Q1-Q2 Newsletter - First Tee Puerto Rico
2023 Q1-Q2 Newsletter - First Tee Puerto RicoFirst Tee Puerto Rico
36 vistas15 diapositivas
UAE's 52nd National Day, 2023 por
UAE's 52nd National Day, 2023UAE's 52nd National Day, 2023
UAE's 52nd National Day, 2023sri24ram2024
6 vistas58 diapositivas
Arrow Adoption Training for Kinship Families por
Arrow Adoption Training for Kinship FamiliesArrow Adoption Training for Kinship Families
Arrow Adoption Training for Kinship FamiliesArrowMarketing
40 vistas46 diapositivas
Managing drinking water infrastructure in West Bengal Gram Panchayats_Sujata ... por
Managing drinking water infrastructure in West Bengal Gram Panchayats_Sujata ...Managing drinking water infrastructure in West Bengal Gram Panchayats_Sujata ...
Managing drinking water infrastructure in West Bengal Gram Panchayats_Sujata ...India Water Portal
9 vistas12 diapositivas
How to Find Contractors and Architects for Your Historic Home Renovation por
How to Find Contractors and Architects for Your Historic Home RenovationHow to Find Contractors and Architects for Your Historic Home Renovation
How to Find Contractors and Architects for Your Historic Home RenovationNational Trust for Historic Preservation
115 vistas8 diapositivas
AABS project overview por
AABS project overviewAABS project overview
AABS project overviewWorldFish
26 vistas17 diapositivas

Último(20)

UAE's 52nd National Day, 2023 por sri24ram2024
UAE's 52nd National Day, 2023UAE's 52nd National Day, 2023
UAE's 52nd National Day, 2023
sri24ram20246 vistas
Arrow Adoption Training for Kinship Families por ArrowMarketing
Arrow Adoption Training for Kinship FamiliesArrow Adoption Training for Kinship Families
Arrow Adoption Training for Kinship Families
ArrowMarketing40 vistas
Managing drinking water infrastructure in West Bengal Gram Panchayats_Sujata ... por India Water Portal
Managing drinking water infrastructure in West Bengal Gram Panchayats_Sujata ...Managing drinking water infrastructure in West Bengal Gram Panchayats_Sujata ...
Managing drinking water infrastructure in West Bengal Gram Panchayats_Sujata ...
AABS project overview por WorldFish
AABS project overviewAABS project overview
AABS project overview
WorldFish26 vistas
Ms. Julie Collins - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx por AKADEMIYA2063
Ms. Julie Collins - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxMs. Julie Collins - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Ms. Julie Collins - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
AKADEMIYA206312 vistas
Social behavioural change to drive community ownership_ Divyang Waghela_Tata ... por India Water Portal
Social behavioural change to drive community ownership_ Divyang Waghela_Tata ...Social behavioural change to drive community ownership_ Divyang Waghela_Tata ...
Social behavioural change to drive community ownership_ Divyang Waghela_Tata ...
India Water Portal10 vistas
UNiTE- Invest to Prevent Violence against Women & Girls! por Christina Parmionova
UNiTE- Invest to Prevent Violence against Women & Girls!UNiTE- Invest to Prevent Violence against Women & Girls!
UNiTE- Invest to Prevent Violence against Women & Girls!
Dr. Ousmane Badiane - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx por AKADEMIYA2063
Dr. Ousmane Badiane - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Ousmane Badiane - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Ousmane Badiane - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
AKADEMIYA20638 vistas
Case study of Gokarna Multi-village scheme, Kumta, Karnataka_IIM-B_2023.pdf por India Water Portal
Case study of Gokarna Multi-village scheme, Kumta, Karnataka_IIM-B_2023.pdfCase study of Gokarna Multi-village scheme, Kumta, Karnataka_IIM-B_2023.pdf
Case study of Gokarna Multi-village scheme, Kumta, Karnataka_IIM-B_2023.pdf
Taking care for elders por SERUDS INDIA
Taking care for eldersTaking care for elders
Taking care for elders
SERUDS INDIA14 vistas
Dr Getaw Tadesse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference .pptx por AKADEMIYA2063
Dr Getaw Tadesse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference .pptxDr Getaw Tadesse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference .pptx
Dr Getaw Tadesse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference .pptx
AKADEMIYA206311 vistas
Mrs. Tsitsi Makombe - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference por AKADEMIYA2063
Mrs. Tsitsi Makombe - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference Mrs. Tsitsi Makombe - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference
Mrs. Tsitsi Makombe - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference
AKADEMIYA20636 vistas
ΕΚΘΕΣΗ ΚΟΜΙΣΙΟΝ ΓΙΑ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΑ por ssuser9e6212
ΕΚΘΕΣΗ ΚΟΜΙΣΙΟΝ ΓΙΑ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΑΕΚΘΕΣΗ ΚΟΜΙΣΙΟΝ ΓΙΑ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΑ
ΕΚΘΕΣΗ ΚΟΜΙΣΙΟΝ ΓΙΑ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΑ
ssuser9e6212171 vistas

Rethinking PES in community forestry: Understanding incentives in socio-ecological context

  • 1. © Cooke Vieira CIFOR-ICRAF Rethinking PES in community forestry: Understanding incentives in socio-ecological context Steven Lawry CIFOR Senior Research Associate s.lawry@cifor-icraf.org CGIAR Seminar Series Payments for Ecosystem Services: Win-Win Solutions? Co-organized by IFPRI, the CGIAR, and BMZ 21 September 2023
  • 2. • REDD+/PES interventions in community forestry have performed poorly overall. • Many forest communities know what they are doing but local management and stewardship systems are not acknowledged in intervention design. Importance of social goals is lauded, but the roles of local social institutions and priorities are largely overlooked or discounted by REDD+ and PES planners. • Many communities (though not all) manage complex socio-ecological systems for multiple purposes: timber and NTFPs; water regulation and agricultural sustainability; biodiversity; cultural identity and social solidarity. Successful stewardship is based on an ethic of care, intrinsic knowledge of context, and agency (full exercise of which is dependent on secure rights). • Where good stewardship-based outcomes are already present, the carbon balance may be socially and ecologically “optimal” and accommodating forest management and payments regimes for carbon additionality may be disruptive. • The additionality principle rewards “deforesters” while excluding conservers; perceived by many as socially unacceptable. • Lack of local market-facing institutions emboldens rent-seeking intermediaries. De jure state ownership of forest land positions governments for payment capture. • Where communities manage wholistically, with proven beneficial social and ecological outcomes, Investments enhancing social and environmental well-being may be preferred to PES. PES incentives may be appropriate for ”deforesters” but more sophisticated understanding of local context and deforestation drivers is needed. The argument summarized
  • 3. • Failure to account for deforestation drivers in project design. “REDD+ institutionalization [in Indonesia] has focused mostly on technical aspects, thereby diverting the focus from addressing socioeconomic and political drivers of deforestation and forest degradation. [T]ransformational change in the forestry and broader land-use sector is still elusive.” Nofyanza et al (2020). • Social and income benefits fall short. “The study [of 4,000 households in 148 villages participating in 22 REDD+ programs in 6 countries] finds that REDD+ has not contributed significantly to perceived well-being and income sufficiency, in spite of the fact that most households have not only engaged with REDD+ interventions but view them favorably.” Sunderlin, William D., et al. (2017) • Evidence of limited (and overstated) reduced deforestation. A study of 26 [Verra managed]carbon payment projects on three continents found that, “most projects have not significantly reduced deforestation. For projects that did, reductions were substantially lower than claimed. This reflects differences between project ex ante baselines and ex post counterfactuals according to observed deforestation in control areas.” West, T. (2023). • Low additionality explained?: Socially unacceptable to reward deforesters while excluding conservers. “Several studies found that the PES projects achieved low additionality. It was hard or not socially desirable to enroll only those participants who would deforest their patch of land with high certainty in the absence of payments, in other words, some payments were given to people who would have not deforested their land anyway.” Burivalova et al., (2019) PES performance in community forestry
  • 4. • Failure to acknowledge local management systems. “Many external [REDD+] programmes explicitly state that local people will serve as the main actor and indeed intend to prioritise local interests. However, such programmes also have a tendency in not explicitly acknowledging local resource management and stewardship systems, particularly the local values that underpin them.” Yuliani, E. L., et al., (2022). • Potential negative impacts on social-ecological resilience. “Our meta-analysis [of 59 case studies] found that REDD+ has had mixed impacts on communities' social-ecological resilience. through restrictions on local forest practices, rigidity in rules, and communities' natural capital being locked into carbon contracts, REDD+ has limited communities' ability to manage for uncertainty. Reconciling REDD+ goals with the need for forest communities to retain adaptive capacity will be a challenge moving forward. Hajjar et al (2021) Performance (continued) © Chandra S. Karki, CIFOR-ICRAF
  • 5. • Confronting biases and supporting local problem-solving Communities know what they are doing; local management a model of democratic land use. Local user values, aims, and priorities should be supported. Communities manage forests; governments can’t and markets disrupt (Yulani, et al., (2022); Hajjar, et al. (2021) • Re-engineer payment regimes to reward conservers. Investments in social well-being enhance ecological outcomes, and vice-versa. Pena, et al., (2016) • Rights recognition catalyzes internal and external investment. Donors can support investment readiness post-tenure reform. Baynes, et al., (2015); Gynch, et al., (2020) Policy reforms and investment alternatives
  • 6. References • Baynes, et al., (2015), Key factors which influence the success of community forestry in developing countries, Global Environmental Change, Volume 35, 2015, Pages 226-238 • Burivalova et al., (2019), What works in tropical forest conservation, and what does not: Effectiveness of four strategies in terms of environmental, social, and economic outcomes. Conservation Science and Practice. 2019; 1:e28. https://doi.org/10.1111/csp2.28 • Gynch, S., (2020), Is community tenure facilitating investment in the commons for inclusive and sustainable development?, Forest Policy and Economics, Volume 111, 2020. • Hajjar. R., et al (2021), The impacts of REDD+ on the social-ecological resilience of community forests, Environ. Res. Lett. 16 024001 • Nofyanza, S., et al (2020) Revisiting the REDD+ experience in Indonesia, CIFOR Infobrief, 314 • Pena, Ximena, et al., (2016). "Collective Property Leads to Household Investments: Lessons from Land Titling in Afro-Colombian Communities," Documentos CEDE 14573, Universidad de los Andes, Facultad de Economía, CEDE. • Sunderlin, W. D., et al. (2017), "REDD+ contribution to well-being and income is marginal: The perspective of local stakeholders." Forests 8.4 (2017): 125 • Yuliani, E. L., et al., (2022). Relational values of forests: Value-conflicts between local communities and external programmes in Sulawesi. People and Nature, 00, 1– 17. https://doi.org/10.1002/pan3.10389 • West, T., et al., Science 381, 873-877 (2023) © Yayan Indriatmoko, CIFOR-ICRAF