Traditional virtualization technologies have been used by cloud infrastructure providers for many years in providing isolated environments for hosting applications. These technologies make use of full-blown operating system images for creating virtual machines (VMs). According to this architecture, each VM needs its own guest operating system to run application processes. More recently, with the introduction of the Docker project, the Linux Container (LXC) virtualization technology became popular and attracted the attention. Unlike VMs, containers do not need a dedicated guest operating system for providing OS-level isolation, rather they can provide the same level of isolation on top of a single operating system instance.
An enterprise application may need to run a server cluster to handle high request volumes. Running an entire server cluster on Docker containers, on a single Docker host could introduce the risk of single point of failure. Google started a project called Kubernetes to solve this problem. Kubernetes provides a cluster of Docker hosts for managing Docker containers in a clustered environment. It provides an API on top of Docker API for managing docker containers on multiple Docker hosts with many more features.