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  1. 2. Human Resource Management JOB ANALYSIS PRESENTED BY: MAYA
  2. 3. What is a job? <ul><li>J0b </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group of related activities and duties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic elements of jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ what gets done” </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. The JOB ANALYSIS <ul><li>A job analysis is the process used to collect information about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills, outcomes, and work environment of a particular job. </li></ul><ul><li>Process of defining a job in terms of its component tasks or duties and the knowledge or skills required to perform them </li></ul><ul><li>DECISION IS MADE TO CHECK THAT: </li></ul><ul><li>Whether already existing post is valuable or not. </li></ul><ul><li>To create a Post. </li></ul>
  5. 7. What to do?? <ul><li>Discuss the nature of job analysis, including what it is and how it’s used. </li></ul><ul><li>Use at least three methods of collecting job analysis information, including interviews, questionnaires, and observation. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain job analysis in a “jobless” world, including what it means and how it’s done in practice. </li></ul>
  7. 10. Steps in Job Analysis Process <ul><li>Job descriptions—Task requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement that explains duties working conditions, etc. of a job </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job specifications—Person requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement of what a job demands of the incumbent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., knowledge, skills, abilities (KSAs) and other characteristics required to perform job </li></ul></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>Performance standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is expected of workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JA may provide performance standards for job where performance is readily quantified, measurable, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May need to be augmented – e.g., participative goal-setting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All of these uses form foundation for various HRM systems </li></ul>
  9. 12. Important Applications of Job Analysis <ul><li>The Job Analysis provides the foundation for almost everything HR is involved in. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee Selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance Appraisals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Design and Redesign </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. Reasons For Conducting Job Analysis <ul><li>Training & Development </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation </li></ul><ul><li>& Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Safety and Health </li></ul><ul><li>Employee and </li></ul><ul><li>labor relation ship </li></ul>
  11. 14. METHODS <ul><li>Direct observation </li></ul><ul><li>Interview of existing post holder </li></ul><ul><li>Interview of immediate supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Previous studies </li></ul><ul><li>Work dairies </li></ul>
  12. 15. Methods of Job Analysis: Observation <ul><li>Information Source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observing and noting the physical activities of employees as they go about their jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides first-hand information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces distortion of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>information </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. Observation: <ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time consuming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty in capturing entire job cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of little use if job involves a high level of mental activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observer’s Difference of mental disposition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyst’s caliber should match employee’s caliber </li></ul></ul>
  14. 17. Methods of Job Analysis: The Interview <ul><li>Information Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual employees (existing job holder) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate boss (Supervisors ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with knowledge of the job. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interview format </li></ul><ul><li>Structured </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured </li></ul>
  15. 18. The Interviews: <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick, direct way to find overlooked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>information required. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exaggeration or depreciation of importance of job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In case of supervisor, he may not be interesting in the JD of the subordinates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitude may not be supportive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difference in perception, attitude and aptitude of the interviewee. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyst’s caliber should match employee’s caliber. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 19. Methods of Job Analysis: Questionnaires <ul><li>Information Source: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have employees fill out questionnaires to describe their job-related duties and responsibilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires format: </li></ul><ul><li>Structured checklist.( to identify the task performed) </li></ul><ul><li>Open ended questions </li></ul>
  17. 20. Questionnaires <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick and efficient way to gather information from large numbers of employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick and economical to use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expense and time consumed in preparing and testing the questionnaire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Becomes less useful where the employees lack verbal skills. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 21. Methods of Job Analysis: Previous studies <ul><li>Information source: </li></ul><ul><li>Past record of any employee. </li></ul><ul><li>The analyst keeps the past record of the employees and keeps the previous experiences and issues related to the job analysis process of the organization. </li></ul>
  19. 22. Previous studies <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to use this method. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to find out that whether it is beneficial or not </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong assessment of previous post </li></ul><ul><li>Bad performance of previous employee </li></ul>
  20. 23. Methods of Job Analysis: Work Diaries <ul><li>Information Source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers keep a chronological diary/ log of what they do and the time spent on each activity. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 24. Work Diaries <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces a more complete picture of the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintained on daily basis. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distortion of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends upon employees to accurately recall their activities </li></ul></ul>
  22. 25. Methods of Job Analysis: Manager trying the job <ul><li>This method is used to check the new post. </li></ul><ul><li>In this method the manager start a new job to check that whether this job is beneficial or not. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a risky step to take because it may cause many fundamental problems. </li></ul>
  23. 26. Advantages and disadvantages <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Very fruitful if the manager is an experienced analyst and strategic risk taker. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Very expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Risky </li></ul><ul><li>Time consuming </li></ul>
  24. 27. <ul><li>The person who conducts job analysis is interested in gathering data on what is involved in performing a particular job. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of data collected, that may help in analysis are, </li></ul><ul><li>( WORK ACTIVITIES,WORK PERFORMANCES,WORK SCHEDULES,PERSONAL REQUIRMENTS). </li></ul>
  25. 28. Human resource experts cannot rely on individual job analysis techniques so normally all the methods are used collectively.