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Measuring 
Interpupillary Distance 
Indra Prasad Sharma 
Optometrist, ERRH Mongar
Anatomic pupillary distance 
Distance from centre of one pupil to the centre of the 
other pupil 
Measured in millimeter...
Sharma IP, 
Why to measure IPD?
Instruments for measuring PD 
PD ruler 
Rodenstock Interpupillary gauge 
Pupillometer (Elissor pupillometer) 
Topcon D...
Instruments for measuring PD 
Cal coast PD Meter Digital Essilor Pupillometer 
Sharma IP, 
PD ruler
We can use this 
Sharma IP,
Binocular Distance IPD 
Sharma IP,
Sharma IP, 
A: Between center of two pupil 
B: Right temporal pupillary margin to left nasal 
pupillary margin 
C:Right...
Technique 
Steps in Measuring binocular distance PD using a ruler 
1.Dispenser position at 40 cm(16 inches) 
2.Dispenser c...
Common difficulties and their 
solution 
Sharma IP, 
Problem Solution 
1.Dispenser cannot close one eye Occlude the eye wi...
Sharma IP, 
Monocular Distance IPD
Technique 
Steps in Measuring monocular distance PD using a ruler 
1.Measure the binocular PD using center of pupil as ref...
Near PD 
Sharma IP,
Near PD 
Required for single vision reading glasses or for 
multifocal lenses 
Can be either measured or calculated 
Sha...
Technique 
Steps in Measuring near PD using a ruler 
1.Dispenser places his/her dominant eye in front of the subject’s nos...
Calculating near PD 
Most commonly used is called three -quarter rule 
It states that “for every diopter of dioptric dem...
Example 
A spectacle lens wearer has the following prescription: 
OD: -1.00 DS 
OS: -1.00 DS 
Add: +2.00DS 
Distance PD i...
Solution: 
Dioptric demand=1/0.40 =2.50 D 
Insert per lens =2.50 x (3/4) =1.9mm 
= 2.00mm (approx) 
We need to deduct 2 mm...
Orthoptics as a career (ZG)
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Simple techniques for measurement of inter-pupillary distance.

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Measuring interpupillary distance

  1. 1. Measuring Interpupillary Distance Indra Prasad Sharma Optometrist, ERRH Mongar
  2. 2. Anatomic pupillary distance Distance from centre of one pupil to the centre of the other pupil Measured in millimeters(mm) Sharma IP,
  3. 3. Sharma IP, Why to measure IPD?
  4. 4. Instruments for measuring PD PD ruler Rodenstock Interpupillary gauge Pupillometer (Elissor pupillometer) Topcon Digital PD meter, Model PD 5 Cal coast PD ruler Sharma IP,
  5. 5. Instruments for measuring PD Cal coast PD Meter Digital Essilor Pupillometer Sharma IP, PD ruler
  6. 6. We can use this Sharma IP,
  7. 7. Binocular Distance IPD Sharma IP,
  8. 8. Sharma IP, A: Between center of two pupil B: Right temporal pupillary margin to left nasal pupillary margin C:Right temporal limbus to left nasal limbus
  9. 9. Technique Steps in Measuring binocular distance PD using a ruler 1.Dispenser position at 40 cm(16 inches) 2.Dispenser closes right eye , patient fixes at dispensers open left eye 3.Dispenser lines up the ruler zero point on the subject’s right pupil, left pupillary border or left limbus. 4. Dispenser closes left eye , patient fixes at dispensers open right eye 5.Dispenser reads scale directly in line with subject’s left pupil center ,left pupillary border or left limbus 6.Dispenser closes right eye, opens left; subject fixates on dispenser’s left eye 7.Dispenser checks to make sure that zero point is still correct Sharma IP,
  10. 10. Common difficulties and their solution Sharma IP, Problem Solution 1.Dispenser cannot close one eye Occlude the eye with free hand 2.Subject is strabismic Cover the subjects eye not been observed 3.Subject is uncooperative child Take a canthus- canthus measurement
  11. 11. Sharma IP, Monocular Distance IPD
  12. 12. Technique Steps in Measuring monocular distance PD using a ruler 1.Measure the binocular PD using center of pupil as reference point 2.Before moving the ruler, note the reading at the center of the nose. This is the monocular PD of one eye 3.Stbtract this reading from the binocular reading to obtain the reading of the other eye. Sharma IP,
  13. 13. Near PD Sharma IP,
  14. 14. Near PD Required for single vision reading glasses or for multifocal lenses Can be either measured or calculated Sharma IP,
  15. 15. Technique Steps in Measuring near PD using a ruler 1.Dispenser places his/her dominant eye in front of the subject’s nose at the subjects near working distance 2.Dispenser close the non-dominant eye 3.Subject fixates on dispenser’s open eye. 4.Dispenser places zero point of the PD ruler at the center of subject’s right pupil. 5.Scale reading at the center of the subject’s left eye is read. Sharma IP,
  16. 16. Calculating near PD Most commonly used is called three -quarter rule It states that “for every diopter of dioptric demand, the optical center of each reading lens, or the geometrical center of each bifocal addition, should be insert 0.75(three-quarters) mm.” Dioptric demand =inverse of reading distance in meters and is independent of actual bifocal addition power Sharma IP,
  17. 17. Example A spectacle lens wearer has the following prescription: OD: -1.00 DS OS: -1.00 DS Add: +2.00DS Distance PD is 64mm. What is the near PD at 40 cm? Sharma IP,
  18. 18. Solution: Dioptric demand=1/0.40 =2.50 D Insert per lens =2.50 x (3/4) =1.9mm = 2.00mm (approx) We need to deduct 2 mm from each lens i.e 4 mm from the distance IPD Near IPD= 64mm- 64 mm =60mm Easiest Solution: Deduct 4 mm from distance PD for normal working distance Sharma IP,
  19. 19. Orthoptics as a career (ZG)
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Simple techniques for measurement of inter-pupillary distance.

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