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How Gas Turbine Engine Works

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The basic principle of the gas turbine engine

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How Gas Turbine Engine Works

  1. 1. HOW GAS TURBINE ENGINE WORKS Indra Yudhipratama XI-KI
  2. 2. Introduction Most commercial jets are powered by turbofan engines, and turbofans are one example of gas turbine engines. You may have never heard of gas turbine engines, but they are used in all kinds of un­ expected places.
  3. 3. Types of Turbine There are many different kinds of turbines:  Steamturbine. The steam runs through a huge and very carefully designed multi-stage turbine to spin an output shaft that drives the plant's generator.
  4. 4.  Hydroelectric dams use waterturbines in the same way to generate power. This turbines look completely different from a steam turbine because water is so much denser (and slower moving) than steam, but it is the same principle.
  5. 5.  Wind turbines, also known as wind mills, use the wind as their motive force. A wind turbine looks nothing like a steam turbine or a water turbine because wind is slow moving and very light, but again, the principle is the same.
  6. 6. A gas turbine is using the same concept. In all modern gas turbine engines, the engine produces its own pressurized gas, and it does this by burning something like propane, natural gas, kerosene or jet fuel. The heat that comes from burning the fuel expands air, and the high- speed rush of this hot air spins the turbine.
  7. 7. Part of Gas Turbine Engine Gas turbine engines are, theoretically, extremely simple. They have three parts:  Compressor- Compresses the incoming air to high pressure  Combustion area - Burns the fuel and produces high- pressure, high-velocity gas  Turbine - Extracts the energy from the high-pressure,
  8. 8. Compressor The compressor is basically a cone-shaped cylinder with small fan blades attached in rows. Assuming the light blue represents air at normal air pressure, then as the air is forced through the compression stage its pressure rises significantly. The high- pressure air produced by the compressor is shown
  10. 10. Axial vs. Radial  Axial  Advantages: simple and inexpensive light weight  Disadvantages: less efficient large frontal area limited compression ratio (4:1 ratio) • RadialRadial – Advantages:Advantages: •efficientefficient •highhigh compressioncompression ratios (20:1)ratios (20:1) – Disadvantages:Disadvantages: •complexcomplex •expensiveexpensive
  11. 11. GTE AIR Compressed Air Distribution: – Primary Air - 30% of the compressed air is supplied directly to the combustion chamber – Secondary Air - 65% of the air provides cooling for the combustion chamber – Film Cooling Air - 5% of the air provides cooling directly to the turbine blades
  12. 12. Combustion Area The high-pressure air then enters the combustion area, where a ring of fuel injectors injects a steady stream of fuel. The special piece that located in combustion area called a "flame holder," or sometimes a "can." The can is a hollow, perforated piece of heavy metal. The injectors are at the right. Compressed air enters through the perforations. Exhaust gases exit at the left.
  13. 13. Turbine At the far left is a final turbine stage, shown here with a single set of vanes. It drives the output shaft. This final turbine stage and the output shaft are a completely stand-alone, freewheeling unit. They spin freely without any connection to the rest of the engine. And that is the amazing part about a gas turbine engine.
  14. 14. Gas Turbine Cycle The cycle usually describes the relationship between the space occupied by the air in the system. The Brayton cycle (1876), shown in graphic form as a pressure-volume diagram, is a representation of the properties of a fixed amount of air as it passes through a gas turbine in operation.
  15. 15. Advantages of Gas Turbine Engines There are two big advantages of the turbine over the diesel:  Gas turbine engines have a great power-to-weight ratio compared to reciprocating engines. That is, the amount of power you get out of the engine compared to the weight of the engine itself is very good.  Gas turbine engines are smallerthan their reciprocating counterparts of the same power.
  16. 16. Disadvantages of Gas Turbine Engines The main disadvantage of gas turbines is that, compared to a reciprocating engine of the same size,  They are expensive  Tend to use more fuel when they are idling  They prefer a constant rather than a fluctuating load.
  17. 17. Airplane
  18. 18. What is the Goal of Gas Turbine Engine in Aircraft  The goal of a turbofan engine is to produce thrust.  Generated under Newton's Third Law.  Generally measured in pounds in the United States.
  19. 19. How Thrust can be Produce?
  20. 20. Engine Performance Press. (psi) 0 50 100 150 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Press (psi) Engine Performance Temp. (R) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Temp (R)
  21. 21. GENX The GEnx is expected to produce thrust from 53,000 to 75,000 lbf (240 to 330 kN). Boeing predicts reduced fuel consumption of up to 20%. Type Turbofan Manufacturer GE Aviation First run 2000s Major applications Boeing 747-8 Boeing 787 Developed from General Electric GE90
  22. 22. CCGT Power Plant The Combined Cycle power plant is a combination of a fuel-fired turbine with a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) and a steam powered turbine. These plants are very large, typically rated in the hundreds of mega-watts. Depending on the power requirements at the time, the combined cycle plant may operate only the fired turbine and divert the exhaust.
  23. 23. M-1 Tank Engine Honeywell AGT1500C multi-fuel turbine engine 1,500 hp (1,119 kW) Power/weight 24.5 hp/metric ton Transmission Allison DDA X-1100-3B Fuel capacity 500 gal (1,892 liters) Operational range 289 mi (465.29 km) With NBC system: 279 mi (449.19 km) Speed Road: 42 mph (67.7 km/h) Off-road: 30 mph (48.3 km/h)
  24. 24. QuestionQuestion andand AnswerAnswer
  25. 25. Thank You For YourThank You For Your AttentionAttention