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antigua roma

  1. 1. UNIT 10. Ancient Greece
  2. 2. 1. Time and place 2. Origin of Greek Civilization 3. City-states: POLEIS 4. Greek Expansion 5. Athens and Sparta 6. The Persian Wars 7. The Peloponnesian wars
  3. 3. 8. Alexander the Great (Alejandro Magno) 9. Greek Society 10. Economy in Greece 11. Religion: Greek Mythology 12. Greek Culture and legacy 13. Greek Art - Architecture - Sculpture
  4. 4.  Poleis (sing. polis)  Colony/colonisation  Agora  Acropolis  Democracy  Assembly  Parthenon  Drachmac  Order  Doric  Ionic  Corinthian  Pediment  Cornice  Architrave  Capital
  5. 5.  Stylobate  Shaft  Metopes  Naos / Cella  Opisthodomos  Kore  Kouros  Aristoi
  6. 6. Ancient Greece developed between 800 and 30 BC.
  7. 7. Hellas (Greece in Greek) Started in the south of the Balkan Peninsula and then extended to the islands and Asia Minor.
  8. 8. The natural enviorenment influences a lot the development of Ancient Greece: - Proximity to the sea: They built up commercial activities along all the Mediterranean. Specially with Egypt and Mesopotamia. - Innumerable island and mountains divided the territory and they were organised in city- states. They were never united. - Though this independence they share the culture, the language, the religion…
  9. 9.  They had discovered farming by 7000 BC.  During their Metal Ages there were two important civilizations: Crete and Mycenas.  Hellenes (Helenos, de Grecia) took important cultural aspects from these cultures: writing, commerce, art…
  10. 10.  Greeks live in city states called Poleis.  Every Polis had its own goverment, economy, laws, army, currency, way of life…  Poleis were formed by an urban centre and then farming lands around.  There were more than 200 poleis. Examples: Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Thebes, Troy, Myletus…
  11. 11.  Between the 8th and 6th centuries there was a crisis in Greece: population increased and their land was not very fertile so there was not enough food for everybody.  In consequence, many Greeks migrated and founded colonies. First in Italy, France, Spain, Libya… and then around the Black Sea.  Because of colonies Greek culture spread: use of iron, money, art… and they mixed with other peoples.
  12. 12. RESEARCH:  Who were the Phoenecians?  Where they came from?  Find five colonies founded by the Phoenecians. Could you name any in the Iberian Peninsula?  How was their culture?
  13. 13.  Nomadic shepherds.  Originally from Mesopotamia, they moved a lot because of their nomadic lifestyle.  Finally, around 1050 BC they settled in Canaan (Palestina) and created its capital: Jerusalem.  They were the only monotheistic culture in ancient times.
  14. 14. 5th and 4th centuries BC were the most splendid period of Greece. We call it the Classical Age. Athens and Sparta dominated and there were continual wars. The government of all the poleis was an oligarchy: power belongs to the aristoi (aristocracy), a few privileged men. In the classical period Athens established a new political system: democracy.
  15. 15.  In Sparta, like in other poleis, power was based on oligarchy (oligarquía): a small group of people controlled the politics.  There were two important families so there were two kings. They led the army and performed honorific and religious functions.  But there were another institutions:
  16. 16. o The Gerousia. 28 aristocrats over 60 years. They prepare the laws and the projects. o The Apella. Composed by the Spartan citizens: males over 30 with Spartan parents. They vote the laws and projects proposed by the Gerousia but they can not discuss: they only can answer ‘yes’ or ‘not’. o Ephors. Five delegates who controlled the security and the education.
  17. 17. Sparta. Theater’s Ruins.
  18. 18.  In the 7th century BC, some people in the polis protested against the abuse of power by the governing aristocracy.  As a result, SOLON (638-558 BC) gave political power to the Citizens’ Assembly or Ekklesia.  Later, CLEISTHENES (Clístenes) introduced some more reforms and democracy was created (508 BC).
  19. 19. Athenian democracy was based on three institutions. However, to participate in them you had to be a citizen: men over 18 from Athenian parents (it means only 40,000 people over a population of 500,000).
  20. 20. INSTITUTIONS  Ekklesia or assembly. Greatest power: they decided about laws, war and peace, etc. Composed by all the citizens.  Boule or Council of 500. They prepared the issues that were going to be debated in the Assembly and it had 500 members.  Magistrates. They controlled the enforcement (cumplimiento) of laws.
  21. 21. In Spanish Guerras Médicas. In 494 Persians controlled the Greek Poleis of Asia Minor and then they tried to conquer continental Greece and islands. Athens organised an association of city-states, to fight together against the Persians.  The First Persian War: Darius attacked Athens. It ended in 490 BC with the greek victory in the Battle of Marathon.
  22. 22.  The Second Persian War: Xerxes (Jerjes) attacked Greece again in 480 BC. Athens was destroyed but then the Persians were defeated at the Battles of Thermopylae (Termópilas) and Salamis (Salamina). Persian soldiers
  23. 23. LEÓNIDAS
  24. 24. Las Guerras del Peloponeso BACKGROUND. ATHENS: After the Persian Wars Athens became the richest and most influential polis. The fifth century BC was their most splendorous period. Under its leader PERICLES democracy was reinforced. In this period Athens produced brilliant artists (e.g. Phidias), philosophers (Socrates), dramatists (Sophocles, Euripides), etc.
  25. 25. PERICLES
  26. 26. The dominant position of Athens was a menace (amenaza) to other important poleis such as Sparta. Some poleis supported Sparta and others Athens. Finally, there was a war where Sparta won and became the most powerful polis. Meanwhile, Macedon (Macedonia) organised a great army.
  27. 27. Introduction Macedon was a monarchy in the north of Greece. They were strongly influenced by Greek culture. The wars between poleis had weakened Greece and Philip II (Filipo II de Macedonia) took advance of that. By 338 BC he dominated all Greece except Sparta. Philip was assassinated and his young son Alexander succeeded him at the age of 20.
  28. 28. He continued the territorial expansion that his father had started. First, he unified the Greeks against the Persian. Then, after defeating the Persians, he continued conquering Mesopotamia, Egypt, etc., reaching the Indo River. Alexander created the largest Empire of the Ancient World until Rome. He founded many cities so Greek Culture
  29. 29. He founded many cities so Greek Culture spread to the East. At the same time, Greek culture mixed with Oriental culture, creating a new epoch called Hellenism. The most important city was Alexandria, in Egypt, symbol of the new civilization. This city had a lot of important buildings, including the lighthouse (one of the Seven Wonders of Ancient World), the library, etc. [The Spanish movie Agora is based on Alexandria]
  30. 30. He died at the age of 33 in Babylon (323 BC). His generals divided the Empire into three large kingdoms and made themselves kings. Lands:  Macedonia and Greece  Old Persian Empire (Asia Minor, Mesopotamia…)  Egypt. Between 2nd and 1st centuries BC Rome took control of the Greek territories.
  31. 31. There was a high level of inequality in Greece. Greek society was based in two groups:  Citizens: Aristocrats, merchants and farmers. They have rights, they can took part in politics and they paid some taxes.  Non-citizens: Not allowed to take part in politics. There were 3 different categories:
  32. 32.  Non-citizens (cont.):  Foreigners: They were free but they paid more taxes and fought in the army. They can not allow land or houses. They usually worked in trade and crafts.  Slaves: They had no rights and freedom. They were a property of a family and they worked for them. Usually war prisoners.  Women: With no rights, they couldn’t hold political positions, vote or go to public shows. Always under the rule of a man: first the father, then the husband.
  33. 33. SLAVE. Hellenistic sculpture.
  34. 34. Main Economical Activities:  Long distance trade: Rich merchants with ships, trade along the Mediterranean Sea and with the colonies. They import (buy) food, wood, cooper… and export (sell) pottery, textiles, perfumes…  Local commerce: Small shops in cities or markets. They used silver coins called drachmas.
  35. 35. Main Economical Activities (cont.):  Crafts: Greeks produce excellent pottery and sculpture which exported. They worked also with leader, textiles, etc.  Agriculture: Done by the poorest people. Based on the ‘Mediterranean Triad’: wheat, vines and olives (trigo, vid y olivo).  Livestock: sheep, goats, pigs, mules…
  36. 36. GODS The Greeks were polytheistic: they believed in many gods. The gods have human appearance and feelings but different powers. The most important god was Zeus (King of gods, sky and thunder/trueno). Each god represented a natural force or a human activity. They lived on Mount Olympus.
  37. 37. HEROES Sons of gods and humans. E. g.: Hercules, Ulysses (Ulises), Achilles (Aquiles)… They were very powerful but mortal. The tales of gods and heroes are known as mythology. They also believed in fantastic creatures such as centaurs, cyclopes… This religion was later adopted by the Romans, who only changed the names.
  38. 38. HEROES OF TROY
  39. 39. RITUALS Gods had the same needs than humans. So Greeks give them food and presents. They believed that gods live in temples. Priest and priestesses were their servants. Gods could help or harm human beings. The Greeks try to know the opinion of the gods using oracles (oráculos). The most famous one was in Delphi (Delfos).
  40. 40. Greek Culture has been the foundation of Western Culture. Greeks were the first on using logic and reasoning to explain the phenomena. So they are considered the fathers of science and philosophy. They also developed mathematics, physics, medicine, astronomy, literature, theatre… Some examples: Socrates, Aristotle
  41. 41. Some examples:  Philosophy: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle (Sócrates, Platón y Aristóteles).  Literature: They had Epic Poems like the Iliad and the Odyssey by Homer. They also invented theatre (Sophocles, Euripides).  History: Herodotus is considered the first historian.  Physics and Maths: Archimedes, Pythagoras…
  42. 42. Greeks were very concerned about get these characteristics:  Proportion  Visual Balance  Beauty  Harmony  Symmetry CANON
  43. 43. Usually they used white marble painted in colours (but these have disappeared with time). There are some important elements:  Columns: provide support for a building. In Greece there are three styles depending on the type of column: orders.  Double-sloped roof (tejado a dos aguas).  Pediment (frontón): Triangular structure placed above a horizontal structure.
  44. 44.  Doric (Dórico): The simplest. The column has no base. The capital is smooth.  Ionic (Jónico): The column has a base. The capital is decorated with scrolls (volutas). The shaft (fuste) is taller than the Doric.  Corinthian (Corintio): More decorative, the capital is adorned with acanthus leaves (hojas de acanto). The shaft is thinner
  45. 45. There are a lot: temples, tombs, theatres, stadiums, hippodromes, gymnasiums… The most important ones were temples and theatres. Temples: Houses of gods. Inside was the statue of the gos and the treasure. They were rectangular and surrounded by columns. The most famous ones are located in the acropolis of Athens, like the Parthenon.
  46. 46.  Peristyle: row of columns.  Pronaos: Entrance Hall  Naos or cella: In the centre. Contained the statue of the godto whom the temple waas dedicated.  Opisthodomos: Opposite to pronaos. Room where the treasure was kept.
  47. 47.  Built using hillsides.  The seats were located in the slopes and forming a semi-circle.  The skene (escena) and the orchestra were at the bottom.
  48. 48.  Function: principally to decorate buildings.  Themes: Mainly deities and heroes, but also athletes, priests, etc.  Materials: wood, marble (mármol) or bronze. Then painted in bright colours.  Focus on: human form, usually naked, the ideal of beauty and proportion.
  49. 49.  Rigid pose.  Faces with big eyes.  Forced smile (archaic smile/sonrisa arcaica)  Long hair with diferent styles.  Egyptian influence.  Women dressed. Men naked.
  50. 50.  Always young  Perfectly proportioned bodies.  Faces with a serene expression.  Some more movement.  Important artists: Myron, Phidias, Polykleitos (Policleto), Praxiteles…
  51. 51.  Sculptures expressed feelings.  They are more realistic.  Also children and elderly were represented.  Portraits.

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