1. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSRJHSS)
ISSN: 2279-0845 Volume 1, Issue 4 (Sep.-Oct. 2012), PP 54-58
Determinants of Extension Service Needs Of Catfish Farmers in
Oyo State, Nigeria (A case study of Ido local Government Area.)
Adebayo, Oyefunke Olayemi.
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomoso,
Abstract: The Study examined extension service needs of catfish farmers in Oyo State. Specifically, it examined
socio economic characteristics, sources of information as well as extension service needs and constraints
encountered by catfish farmers. Primary data were obtained from 120 respondents using multistage random
sampling technique by means of structured questionnaire. Analysis of data was done using frequency counts;
percentages, mean scores and PPMC statistics. The study showed that most (70.6%) of the respondents were
male whose age range between 30 and 50 years. Majority (74.8%) of the respondents identified radio
programmes as sources of information. The major problems encountered by respondents include poor weather
82.5%, lack of credit facilities (76.7%) inadequate extension contact (71.7%). The results of tested hypothesis
showed that age, gender and year of schooling was significantly related to extension services needs. The study
recommended that provision of effective extension service to disseminate relevant and timely information
technologies to catfish farmer should be encouraged.
Keywords: Extension, needs, Catfish, determinants
Captured fisheries accounted for about 97% of the bulk of the total fish production, while cultured
fisheries contributed a mere 3% of the fish produced in the country in the last decade (Federal Department of
Fisheries, FDF 1995). According to Wurts (2004) small scale and homestead catfish farming are significantly
more sustainable than intensive production, because inputs are minimize and cost of production are
substantially reduced. Fish farming is the world’s fastest growing source of animal food, outpacing terrestrial
meat production and the captured fisheries (FAO, 1991). Fish processing and marketing in Nigeria enjoy wide
spread acceptability since no religious or cultural belief place any taboo against it (Ala and Umar 2002).
The extension service has a vital role of increasing and improving fish production through their linkage
between researchers and end-users. Without extension services most research endeavour will be futile exercise
(Adebolu and Ikotun 2001) According to Akinbode (1982) rather than engage in direct production, the
Agricultural Development (ADP) was designed to stimulate and motivate small-scale farmers to the use of
modern techniques of fish farming through farm extension education. However, with shortage of extension
personnel, the inaccessibility of large numbers of farmers living in rural areas and poor communication
infrastructure, farmers’ access to information has been limited. Poor extension services due to low contact with
farmers have been reported. Agbamu (1998) noted that poor performance of extension services was due to low
extension agent farmers ratio; which is 1:2100 in Edo State, 1:2131 in Ogun State, 1:16917 in Oyo State, 1:1496
in Lagos State Adebowale et al; (2006).
Nigeria has potential to expand its fisheries if properly managed. The nation’s annual yield is estimated
to be 1:830994m tons in the nineties (Adedokun, 2005). Agricultural extension service is widely recognised as
the mechanism for the delivery of proven information and advice to farmers for improved productivity. With
adequate and relevant information required for improved production, there will be opportunity to earn more
income for improved living. It is against this background that this study sought to investigate the extension
service needs of Catfish farmers in the study area.
Objectives of the study: The major objective is to determine the extension service needs of Catfish farmers in
the study area. The specific objectives are to:
(i) identify the socio-economic characteristics of catfish farmers in the study area.
(ii) investigate the various sources of information available to catfish farmers.
(iii) determine the extension service needs of catfish farmers.
(iv) identify the constraints militating against catfish production in the study area.
Hypothesis of the study: There is no significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics of catfish
farmers and extension service needs.
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2. Determinants Of Extension Service Needs Of Catfish Farmers In Oyo State, Nigeria
The Study was carried out in Ido Local Government Area of Oyo State, Oyo State is an inland state in
South-Western Nigeria, with its capital at Ibadan. It is bounded in the north by Kwara State, in the east by Osun
State, in the South by Ogun State and in the West partly by Ogun State and partly by the Republic of Benin. Ido
Local Government is surrounded by forest reserve such as Ijaye forest Reserve. It has an area of 986cm3 and a
population of 103,261 at the 2006 census. The population of the study consists of Catfish farmers living in the
study area. The people of the study area are predominantly subsistence farmers. Crop grown include tubers,
cereals, cassava and guinea corn; sheep and goat poultry, cattle, fish can also be found in a sizeable number.
Nonfarm activities and civil service jobs can be found in the area. A list of registered catfish farmers was
collected from the local government headquarters. The list of catfish farmers were extracted from the register
and a systematic random sampling technique was used to select 120 catfish farmer from the list. The data for
this study were collected from primary sources through the use of structured questionnaire containing both open
ended and closed ended questions. The questionnaire elicited information on respondents’ socio-economic
characteristics, sources of information, and extension services needs. The dependent variable of the study is the
extension service needs, measured on a three point scale to indicate the degree of his/her information of Catfish
production needs. The three points scale was weighted as follows: 0 = Not well informed, 1 = averagely
informed and 2 = very well informed. The mean score of extension needs for each aspect was calculated for
each respondent. Frequency distribution, tables and percentages were used to describe the socio economic
characteristics of the Catfish farmers in the study area.
Information sources; this was measured by considering the frequency of contact with the various
sources of information, this was measured at four points namely not at all=0, rarely=1, frequently =2 and very
frequently =3. The mean score of sources of information was later calculated.
PPMC was used to test significant relationship between socio economic characteristics of respondents and
III. Results and Discussion
Socio economic characteristics of the respondents
Table 1 shows that majority of the respondents (70.6%) were males. This shows that catfish production
is male dominant in the study area. It was also shown that 60.3% of the sampled catfish farmers were between
the ages of 30 and 50 years, with mean age of 42.5. Thus majority of the sampled farmers were middle aged
which could result in a positive effect on their production. The result also indicates that majority (74.8%) of the
respondents were married. This shows that respondents in the study area will have additional responsibility to
their family. Moreover, the results further showed that only 24.4% had no formal education. In essence (75.6%)
of the respondents had one form of education or the other. This could enhance adoption of improve catfish
production technologies through extension activities in the study area. Moreover, the results revealed further
that 58.9% of the respondents had contact with extension agents in the study area. Table 1 further shows that
more than half (57.4%) of the respondents had household size of 6 and10 people living in their house with mean
value of 6 people. This large family size can serve as sources of free and cheap labour.
IV. Sources of Information
Table 2 shows catfish farmers source of information. The most important sources of information to
catfish farmers on extension needs are Radio (2.82) followed by friends/relatives (2.8) and Extension agent
(2.31). However the use of newspaper (1.27), telephone/GSM (1.21) and Bulletin/handbills (0.91) provide little
source of information to catfish farmers. This result implies that catfish in the study area utilized different
source of information on the basis of frequency of contact. This implies that catfish farmers utilize any
information that will increase their production. The results show that radio is one of the effective medium of
disseminating new agricultural innovation to the farmers. This is in line with Adekunle, (1996) and Nwachukwu
2003 findings which state that radio is the cheapest and quickest means of passing information to farmers and
effective medium of disseminating agricultural information in Nigeria.
V. Extension Service Needs
Table 3 elicits the extension service needs of catfish farmers: Marketing, Time of Stocking, Sources of
Credit, Record keeping and Time of feeding were ranked 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. Least extension service
needs were site selection, pricing, farmers association and general management with ranks of 10, 11, 12 and 13.
The relative high rank of marketing may be due to the fact that marketing of produce plays on
important role in agricultural development. This may encourage them to increase their production which will
increase their income.
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3. Determinants Of Extension Service Needs Of Catfish Farmers In Oyo State, Nigeria
VI. Constraints Faced By Catfish Farmers
Table 4 shows constraints experienced by Catfish farmer during fish production. This includes poor
weather (82.5%) lack of credit (76.7%), High Cost of feeds (58.3%) poor transportation 56.7%. The result
reveals that majority of the respondents faced one problem or the other which may hinder their production.
Relationship Between Socio-Economic Characteristics And Extension Service Needs
The data in Table 5 show that age (r = 0.532), Gender (r = 0.195) and years of schooling (r = 0.324)
showed that there were significant relationship between these variable and extension service needs.
This implies that as age increases there will be increase in extension services needs of respondents
likewise other variables that are significant.
The study concluded that radio, friends and relatives and farmers association were major sources of
information to catfish farmers in Ido Local Government area of Oyo State. Also various constraints faced
includes poor weather, lack of credit and high cost of feeds. The following are recommended based on the
Mobilization of catfish farmers into economic groups, so as to improve their access to resources such as
credit and agriculture extension trainings.
Provision of effective extension service to disseminate relevant and timely information.
Adequate technologies and best fish production practices should be encouraged. These will enhance
production and productivity in the study area.
Extension agent should be encouraged to establish contacts with many more catfish farmer since this will
likely encourage farmers to take the extension service needs on catfish farming.
Catfish farmers in the study area should intensify efforts to seek information relevant for their production.
Provision of basic amenities and necessary inputs that will make catfish farming easy should be provided
for farmers in the study area.
Table 1: Socio Economic Characteristics of Respondents N-120
Variable Frequency Percentage Mean Value
Male 84 70.0
Female 36 30.0
Less than 21 5 4.2
21-30 18 15
31-40 36 30
41-50 40 30.3 44
51-60 14 11.7
Above 60 7 5.8
Contact with extension
Yes 72 60
No 48 40
1-5 36 30
6-10 68 56.7 6
11-15 16 13.3
Years spent in school
0 29 24.4
1-6 9 6.7
7-12 40 33.6
13 and above 42 35.6 13.2
Source Field Survey: 2011
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4. Determinants Of Extension Service Needs Of Catfish Farmers In Oyo State, Nigeria
Table 2: Distribution of Respondents Sources of Information
Frequency of Contact
Very freq. Freq. Rarely Not at all Total Mean score Score
Information Source (F) (%) (F) (%) (F) (%) (F) (%)
Friends/Relatives 96 (80.0) 24 (20.0) - - 336 2.8
Radio 98 (81.7) 22 (18.3) - - 338 2.82
T.V 32 (26.7) 13 (10.8) 45 (35.5) 30 (25.0) 135 1.13
Farmers Association 38 (31.7) 47 (39.2) 13 (10.8) 19 (15.8) 185 1.54
Workshops 15 (12.5) 27 (22.5) 36 (30.0) 42 (35.0) 135 1.13
Newspaper 23 (19.2) 26 (21.7) 32 (26.7) 39 (32.5) 153 1.27
Extension Agent 68 (56.7) 22 (18.3) 30 (25.0) 278 2.31
Telephone/GSM 17 (14.2) 33 (27.5) 28 (23.3) 42 (35.0) 145 1.21
Agric show 22 (18.3) 47 (39.2) 33 (27.5) 18 (15.0) 193 1.61
Bulletin/Handbills 18 (15.0) 25 (20.8) 35 (29.1) 42 (35.0) 109 0.91
Source: Field Survey; 2011
Table 3: Distribution of Respondents According to Extension Service needs
Extension Service Needs Frequency Percentage
Marketing 1.74 1st
Time of Stocking 1.70 2nd
Source of Credit 1.61 3rd
Record Keeping 1.58 4th
Time of Feeding 1.51 5th
Breeding of Fingerlings 1.50 6th
Feed Management 1.44 7th
Water conservation 1.43 8th
Catfish Techniques 1.41 9th
Site Selection 1.40 10th
Pricing 1.29 11th
Farmers Association 1.23 12th
General Management 1.22 13th
Source: Field Survey; 2011
Table 4: Distribution of Respondents According to Problem Faced
Constraints Frequency Percentage
Poor Weather 75 62.5
Lack of Credit 92 76.7
High cost of feeds 70 58.3
Poor transportation 68 56.7
Inadequate extension contact 86 71.7
Poor management skills 50 42.6
Lack of good practices 56 46.7
Water Scarcity 82 68.3
Poor Marketing Channel 88 73.3
Inadequate Information 63 52.5
Inadequate supply of good quality feeds 73 60.8
Source: Field Survey; 2011
Table 5: Summary of Pearson Correlation Showing Relationship between respondents selected personal
characteristics and extension service needs.
Variable r-value Remark
Gender 0.193* Significant
Age 0.532** Significant
Years spent in school 0.324** Significant
* significant at 0.05 level
* Significant at 0.01 level
Source: Field Survey; 2011
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5. Determinants Of Extension Service Needs Of Catfish Farmers In Oyo State, Nigeria
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