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Poverty and Disability:  Looking inside a tie that really binds               Cameron Crawford           (Director of Rese...
Who are we talking about?• People who say they have any difficulty hearing,  seeing, communicating, walking, climbing stai...
Who are we talking about?• People who said yes to any of those questions  on Statistics Canada’s Participation and  Activi...
Who are we talking about?• Working-age people (15 to 64 years)  – 2.4 million working-age people with    disabilities  – 1...
What’s the LICO?• Basically, it’s where a household spends 20%  or more of its income than the average for  similar househ...
Why only working-age people?• The low income rates for seniors with and  without disabilities are very similar and are  ge...
Why only working-age people?                    After tax low income status of people with and without disabilities,      ...
Why only working-age?           Percent with and without disabilities liv ing below the "pov erty                     line...
What’s the employment situation –employment rates?• Low levels of                              Em ploy m ent rates by disa...
What’s the employment situation –worked all year?• Much lower                                    Worked 49 – 52 weeks in 2...
What’s the employment situation –accommodations?                                          Need and unm et need for one or•...
What’s the employment situation –earnings?• Where working:                                         Av erage and m edian   ...
What’s the total income situation?• People with an                                             Av erage and m edian  intel...
What about social assistance?• People with an                                          Received social assist ance, 2005  ...
How suitable is the housing?• People with any form of                              Housing in need of m ajor repairs  lear...
What’s the poverty situation –ingeneral?                                                       Pov erty rates by disabilit...
What’s the poverty situation –byliving arrangements?• People with                                        Pov erty rates by...
What’s the poverty situation –byhousing tenure?• People with                                    Disability and low incom e...
What do we know more generallyabout poverty and disability?
Low income, disability and visibleminority status• Visible minority                            Low incom e, disability and...
Low income, disability andAboriginal person status• Aboriginal persons                                     Low incom e, di...
Low income, disability and gender• Disability rather                         Low incom e, disability and gender  than gend...
Low income, disability and level ofeducation• Level of education is a               Low income, disability and level of   ...
Low income and degree of disability• As the severity of                                        Percet below the after-tax ...
Low income and general health                                                    Disability and low incom e by• Generally,...
Low income and help needed witheveryday activities• The likelihood of          Low income and help needed with  living in ...
Low income and type of community• People with and              Low income, disability and type of                         ...
Low income and all-yearemployment• People with and                  Low income, disability and all-year                   ...
How many people with disabilities are atheightened risk of living in poverty?• Have less than high       • Say they are in...
How many people with disabilities are atREALLY heightened risk of living inpoverty?• Have less than high       • Say they ...
Heightened and very high risks ofpoverty• Poverty rate among   • Poverty rate among  heightened risk        very high risk...
Finding a sizeable middle ground• How many people with disabilities fall  somewhere between these extremes?• Who are these...
IRIS – Institute for Research &Development on Inclusion & Society• Began in 1969 – as National Institute on Mental  Retard...
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Poverty and Disability

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Poverty and Disability

  1. 1. Poverty and Disability: Looking inside a tie that really binds Cameron Crawford (Director of Research, IRIS)
  2. 2. Who are we talking about?• People who say they have any difficulty hearing, seeing, communicating, walking, climbing stairs, bending, learning or doing any similar activities, and/or• People who say they have a physical condition, mental condition or health problem that reduces the amount or kind of activity they can do in any of the following: – At home – At school or work – In other activities (e.g., transportation, leisure) 2
  3. 3. Who are we talking about?• People who said yes to any of those questions on Statistics Canada’s Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS) of 2001 or 2006 are flagged as having a ‘disability’ – Includes people with an intellectual disability and general learning difficulties (will show some breakout data)• Others are flagged as not having a disability 3
  4. 4. Who are we talking about?• Working-age people (15 to 64 years) – 2.4 million working-age people with disabilities – 18.7 million working-age people without disabilities• People whose household incomes fall below the Low Income Cut-Off (LICO) 4
  5. 5. What’s the LICO?• Basically, it’s where a household spends 20% or more of its income than the average for similar households for food, shelter and clothing• There is a before-tax and after-tax LICO• I’m using the after-tax LICO because it takes into account tax credits that can leave a little more cash in people’s pockets  People living on incomes below the LICO are sometimes said to be living below the “poverty line” 5
  6. 6. Why only working-age people?• The low income rates for seniors with and without disabilities are very similar and are generally lower than for working-age people• There are large numbers of seniors with disabilities• To have included seniors would have ‘understated’ the extent of low income among people with disabilities 6
  7. 7. Why only working-age people? After tax low income status of people with and without disabilities, by 5-year age groups (S ource: PALS 2006)Percent below the 25.0 after tax LICO 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 + 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 l 85 ta -1 -2 -2 -3 -3 -4 -4 -5 -5 -6 -6 -7 -7 -8 To 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 Age group No disab. W/ disab. 7
  8. 8. Why only working-age? Percent with and without disabilities liv ing below the "pov erty line", including and not including seniors2 5 .0% 2 0.5 %2 0 .0% 1 4 .4 %1 5 .0 % 9 .7 % 1 0.2 %1 0.0 % 5 .0% 0 .0% No disa b. W /disa b. No disa b. W /disa b. In clu din g sen ior s Not in clu din g sen ior s 8
  9. 9. What’s the employment situation –employment rates?• Low levels of Em ploy m ent rates by disability status, 2001 and 2006 employment for people with an In t ell. 2 5 .5 % Disability status intellectual disability disa b. 2 7 .3 % 4 6 .5 % A n y disa b. 4 3 .5 % 7 5 .5 % No disa b. 7 3 .7 % 0 .0 % 2 0 .0 % 4 0 .0 % 6 0 .0 % 8 0 . 0% % em ploy ed 2 001 2 006 9
  10. 10. What’s the employment situation –worked all year?• Much lower Worked 49 – 52 weeks in 2005, by disability status likelihood of full- time or part-time In t ell. work for 49 to 52 1 3 .0 % 5 .0 % Disability status disa b. weeks of the year A n y disa b. 2 8 .0 % 5 .9 % for people with an intellectual disability No disa b. 4 6 .0 % 6 .2 % (18% vs. 33.9% and 0 .0 % 2 0 .0 % 4 0 .0 % 6 0 .0 % % em ploy ed 52.2%) W or ked fu ll-t im e W or ked pa r t -t im e 10
  11. 11. What’s the employment situation –accommodations? Need and unm et need for one or• Quite widespread m ore job accom m odations, 2006 need and unmet need for job Disability status In t ell. 2 0 .8 % accommodations disa b. 3 1 .5 % among people with an intellectual A n y disa b. 1 3 .5 % 2 7 .1 % disability 0 .0% 2 0 .0 % 4 0 .0% Need job a ccom . Un m et n eed 11
  12. 12. What’s the employment situation –earnings?• Where working: Av erage and m edian (m iddle v alue) earnings, – People with any by disability status (2005)* disability draw about In t ell. $1 3 ,6 9 3 70% of the earnings Disability status disa b. $1 8 ,0 4 7 of people without A n y disa b. $1 8 ,5 2 1 $2 6 ,6 2 2 disabilities No disa b. $2 7 ,4 9 6 $3 7 ,3 8 4 – People with an $0 $2 0,0 0 0 $4 0 ,0 0 0 intellectual disability * For people 15 years and older draw about 50% A v er a g e Media n 12
  13. 13. What’s the total income situation?• People with an Av erage and m edian intellectual disability (m iddle v alue) total incom e, by disability status (2005)* have a total income from all sources of about 40% In t ell. $1 0 ,4 1 5 Disability status disa b. $1 5 ,2 4 7 of the total income of $1 9 ,1 9 9 A n y disa b. people without $2 8 ,5 0 3 disabilities No disa b. $2 7 ,4 9 6 $3 7 ,3 0 9 – About 40.9% of the average $0 $2 0 ,0 0 0 $4 0 ,0 0 0 and 37.9% of the median * For people 15 years and older (middle value) A v er a g e Media n 13
  14. 14. What about social assistance?• People with an Received social assist ance, 2005 intellectual disability are quite likely to be In t ell. attached to provincial Disability status 4 5 .5 % disa b. social assistance systems (45.5% vs. 17% of people A n y disa b. 1 7 .0 % with any disability) 0 .0 % 2 0 .0 % 4 0 .0 % 6 0 .0 % 14
  15. 15. How suitable is the housing?• People with any form of Housing in need of m ajor repairs learning difficulty are more likely to be living in Any places that require major 1 3 .2 % Disability status lea r n in g repairs (e.g., structural, A n y disa b. 1 2 .1 % wiring, plumbing) No disa b. 6 .6 % 0 .0 % 1 0 .0 % 2 0 .0 % 15
  16. 16. What’s the poverty situation –ingeneral? Pov erty rates by disability status,• People with disabilities 2006 are twice as likely to be living below the poverty In t ell. line (20.5% vs. 10.2%) 2 6 .8 % Disability status disa b. – 500,000 working-age A n y disa b. 2 0 .5 % people with disabilities are in low income No disa b. 1 0 .2 % situations 0 .0 % 2 0 .0 % 4 0 .0 %• People with an intellectual % below a ft er -t a x LICO disability are almost three times more likely (26.8%) In g en er a l 16
  17. 17. What’s the poverty situation –byliving arrangements?• People with Pov erty rates by disability status and disabilities living selected liv ing arrangem ents, 2006 alone or with 6 0.0 % unrelated others are In t ell. disa b. 5 2 .7 % 7 3 .2 % Disability status most likely to be A n y disa b. 5 5 .0 % 6 1 .2 % living below the 2 7 .4 % 5 3 .5 % poverty line No disa b. 2 3 .3 % 3 6 .9 %• People with an 0.0% 2 0 .0 % 4 0 .0 % 6 0 .0% 8 0 .0% intellectual disability % below a ft er -t a x LICO are particularly so A lon e A lon e or w ith u n r ela ted W ith on e or m or e u n r ela t ed 17
  18. 18. What’s the poverty situation –byhousing tenure?• People with Disability and low incom e by housing tenure disabilities living Ow n ed by in rental housing 1 2 .6 % som eon e in 1 0 .1 % Housing tenure the 5 .5 % are much more h ou seh old 5 1 .9 % likely to be living Ren t ed 2 4 .7 % 4 4 .0 % in poverty (44%) 0 .0 % 2 0 .0 % 4 0 .0 % 6 0 .0 % % bel ow a ft er -t a x LICO No disa b. A n y disa b. Lea r n in g diffic. 18
  19. 19. What do we know more generallyabout poverty and disability?
  20. 20. Low income, disability and visibleminority status• Visible minority Low incom e, disability and v isible m inority status status rather than disability seems to No disa bilit y 1 0 .2 % Disability status be key to whether No disa bilit y , v isible m in or it y 2 2 .3 % people live in A n y disa bilit y 2 0 .5 % poverty A n y disa bilit y , v isible m in or it y 2 1 .8 % 0 .0 % 1 0 .0 % 2 0 .0 % 3 0 .0 % % below a ft er -t a x LICO 20
  21. 21. Low income, disability andAboriginal person status• Aboriginal persons Low incom e, disability and with disabilities are Aboriginal Person status quite likely to have No dis a bility 1 0.2 % low incomes (38.1%) Disability status No dis a bility, Abo rigina l pe rs o n 1 9 .5 % Any dis a bility 2 0 .5 % Any dis a bility, Abo rigina l pe rs o n 3 8 .1 % 0 .0 % 2 0 .0 % 4 0 .0 % % below a ft er -t a x LICO 21
  22. 22. Low income, disability and gender• Disability rather Low incom e, disability and gender than gender seems to be a stronger No disa bilit y , m en 9 .3 % Disability status predictor of low No disa bilit y , w om en 1 1 .1 % income A n y disa bilit y , m en 1 9 .6 % A n y disa bilit y , w om en 2 1 .3 % 0 .0 % 2 0 .0 % 4 0 .0 % % below a ft er -t a x LICO 22
  23. 23. Low income, disability and level ofeducation• Level of education is a Low income, disability and level of education strong predictor of low income 0.0% % below after-tax LICO 1 0.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0%• As education level 14.2% Less than high school 28.7% increases, the likelihood 31.0% of living in poverty High school 11.1% 20.2% 29.0% decreases Trades certificate or diploma 9.2% 17.8% 25.5%  However, this is less 8.3% College 17.0% clearly the case 27.8% where people have University 8.2% 12.4% 19.9% learning difficulties No disab. Any disab. Any learning diffic. 23
  24. 24. Low income and degree of disability• As the severity of Percet below the after-tax LICO, by degree of disability disability increases, so does the V er y sev er e 3 0 .7 % likelihood of living Degree of disability Sev er e 2 5 .5 % in poverty Moder a te 1 8 .3 % Mild 1 4 .5 % 0.0% 1 0.0% 2 0 .0 % 3 0.0% 4 0 .0 % 24
  25. 25. Low income and general health Disability and low incom e by• Generally, as their general health level of general health gets poorer, Fa ir or poor 2 7 .8 % there is increased General health Good 1 2 .2 % likelihood that people with Ex cellen t or v er y g ood 1 3 .3 % disabilities will live 0 .0 % 1 0 .0 % 2 0 .0 % 3 0 .0 % in poverty % bel ow t h e a ft er -t a x LICO 25
  26. 26. Low income and help needed witheveryday activities• The likelihood of Low income and help needed with living in poverty everyday activities increases as the gap 0.0% % below after-tax LICO 20.0% 40.0% widens between help Neither receive nor need needed and help help 1 6.8% received with Receive all the help needed 1 8.5% everyday activities Receive only some of the 24.8% help needed Receive none of the help 35.8% needed 26
  27. 27. Low income and type of community• People with and Low income, disability and type of community without disabilities are more likely to be 0.0% % below after-tax LICO 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% living in poverty if in urban communities Rural 5.6% 1 1 .4% (cities, towns) than rural (e.g., farming) 1 1 .3% Urban communities 22.9% No disab. Any disab. 27
  28. 28. Low income and all-yearemployment• People with and Low income, disability and all-year employment without disabilities are less likely to be 0.0% % below after-tax LICO 5.0% 1 0.0% 1 5.0% 20.0% 25.0% living in poverty if 4 .0 % employed all year 49-52 weeks FT 5 .8 % 9 .4 % 49-52 weeks PT 1 5 .8 % 1 0 .2 % Total 2 0.5 % No disab. Any disab. 28
  29. 29. How many people with disabilities are atheightened risk of living in poverty?• Have less than high • Say they are in fair to school graduation, or poor health, or• Need more help than • Are not working, or they receive, or • Last worked more• Have a severe to very than a year ago or severe level of never worked, or disability, or • Live alone or with unrelated others• Most working-age people with disabilities (82.7%or 2 million) meet at least one of these criteria 29
  30. 30. How many people with disabilities are atREALLY heightened risk of living inpoverty?• Have less than high • Say they are in fair to school graduation, poor health) and and • (Are not working, or• Need more help than • Last worked more they receive, and than a year ago or• (Have a severe to very never worked) and severe level of • Live alone or with disability or unrelated others• 45,ooo people with disabilities (1.8%) meet allof these criteria and so are at very high risk 30
  31. 31. Heightened and very high risks ofpoverty• Poverty rate among • Poverty rate among heightened risk very high risk group group with with disabilities: disabilities:• 23.9% vs. 20.5% • 89.1% vs. 20.5% 31
  32. 32. Finding a sizeable middle ground• How many people with disabilities fall somewhere between these extremes?• Who are these people?• Where would it be best to target policy and program efforts to ensure good returns for the public investment to help people with disabilities avoid and get out of poverty?• Stay tuned for more! 32
  33. 33. IRIS – Institute for Research &Development on Inclusion & Society• Began in 1969 – as National Institute on Mental Retardation – human resources training, service development and program evaluation based on ‘Principles of Normalization’• 1986 – The Roeher Institute – Policy research, information & training – cross-disability• 2008 – IRIS – focus on research and social development to advance inclusion – links between disability, gender, ethno-racial-cultural status 33

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