IRJET- A Survey on Indoor Navigation for Blind People

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https://www.irjet.net/archives/V6/i12/IRJET-V6I12150.pdf

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 12 | Dec 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.34 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 953
A Survey on Indoor Navigation for Blind People
Nilesh Raut1, Shubham Jangam2, Labham Palve3, Piyush Ukarande4, Veena Pawar5
1,2,3,4Student, Dept. of Computer Engineering, JSPM JSCOE, Pune, Maharashtra, India
5Assistant Professor, Dept. of Computer Engineering, JSPM JSCOE, Pune, Maharashtra, India
---------------------------------------------------------------------***----------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract - Indoor navigation deals with navigation within
buildings. Because GPS signal is not available inside building
environment. There are other technologies are used for
positioning such as Wi-Fi or beacons. These technologies are
used create "indoor GPS". Today in internet era outdoor
navigation is possible due to mobile navigation application
and which are very useful for many people. These apps are
more useful in unfamiliar city to find desired destination. The
GPS positions system works very well for outdoor navigations
however GPS satellite signals are not accurately provide
navigation details and it is still easy to get lost indoors such as
shopping malls ,station etc. For many people having those are
not blind , it is difficult for them navigate properly so for
visually-impaired and blind people it is more difficult to find
their way in unfamiliar indoorenvironmentbecausetheobject
in front of them sometimes can be transparent. Orientation is
most difficult for them even at places where they previously
visited. Visually impaired people must orient themselves in a
large space. In this paper we have studied and surveyed some
already existing indoor navigation systems for visually
impaired people and also compared them from different use
scenarios.
Key Words: Indoor navigation, Sensor, Wearable Device,
Smart Stick
1. INTRODUCTION
Finding your way or navigating within public building is
many times difficult even ifwehaveaccuratemapsprovided.
Many of us have been lost is buildings such as hospitals,
stations, shopping mall or any other buildings which are
crowded. If this normally sighted people struggled in
navigation ways so we can imagine how it can be difficultfor
visually impaired or blind people
According to the World Health Organization, 253 million
people worldwide are visually impaired. They are 3 times
more likely to be hit by motorcycles, 2 times more likely to
have a fall while walking and 3 times more likely to suffer
from depression and anxiety disorders. Devising new ways
to improve the quality of and security in their everydaylives
is therefore vital. It is very critical that some of us are not
able to move securely and independently and we need to
ensuring that every person may lead to live life comfortably.
It is extreme necessity of indoor navigation systems for
visually impaired people to live their daily life otherwiseit is
more difficult which can be stressful. There are variety
approaches are already proposed which actually helps in
indoor navigation. One such approach is wearable devices.
Now a day’s variety wearable assistance devices were
introduced for navigation of blindpeople. Anorientation and
navigation are the main problems or difficulties, and these
are because of missing known landmarks. This can lead to
risk overcoming obstacles. Not all the visually impaired
people can read Braille tags and the higher cost of the
existing indoor navigation systems makeitimpossibleto use
by the people with visual disabilities
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
A] Multiple Distance Sensors Based Smart Stick for
Visually Impaired People
In this paper the author proposed a smart stick which
visually impaired person holds and walk with it, this stick
assist person while walking in indoor environment. In this
project author choose outdoor context and created a
prototype that actually useful for blind people in outdoor
environment. This system comprises ultrasonic sensor and
Bluetooth module. The ultrasonic sensor detects obstacle of
any height in front or slightly sideways of the person. Thenit
calculates the distance between object and the person. This
system notifies to person about obstacles using vibrations
and audio alert. [1]
B] Navigational AssistanceSystemForVisuallyImpaired
In this paper authors created a smart walking stick which
having different sensors on it whichhelpsdetectobstacles to
visually impaired persons. The proposed system basically
consists of two main units one is sensor unit and another is
GPS unit. The system used a IR sensor for obstacle detection.
This system also use water sensor to detect the presence of
water in front of the user. The GPS module is used toidentify
the geographical location of the user. When system detects
obstacle, pit or water in front of persons then it sends audio
alerts to person such as “Wet Floor” and “Pit Found Better
Go Back” [2]
C] The Assistance System using RGB-D Sensor with
Range Expansion
In this paper authors proposed a new system which refers
Navigation Assistance for Visually Impaired (NAVI) nothing
but a system which assists blind persons in navigation using
different sound commands.Theproposedsystemisbasedon
visual and range information provided by RGB-D camera.
The camera captures scene in front of blind person and
provide to system for further processing. This camera
provides long-range visual information which is useful in
getting depth information. The proposed systemdetectsand
classifies the main structural elements of the scene and
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 12 | Dec 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.34 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 954
provides safe paths to navigate comfortably across any
unknown environments. [3]
D] Smart Phone Application to Assist Visually Impaired
People
In this paper, the authors Laviniu Tepelea, Loan Gavrilut &
Alexandru Gacsadi proposed a system comprises smart
phone application to assist visually impaired people. Now a
day’s smart phone is household item and use of this to assist
blind people will be easy. The mobile application developed
by authors is having special interface which is very efficient
for blind people to do daily phone related tasks such as
making phone calls, reading articles and also work as travel
guide. All information is provided to blind person by audio
commands. This system also has sensors which transmits
collect useful information from environment and
commutates to phone application via Bluetooth and Wi-Fi.
The information collected by sensors such as obstacle in
front of blind person and warns user. In case, blind person
fall down this can be detected by accelerator meter and
automatic phone call will bemadetofavouritenumbersaved
by person. The authors claimed that proposed system is
portable, low-cost, small-scale and efficient solution for
visually impaired people.[4]
E] Novel Indoor Navigation System
In this paper ,the authors Kabalan Chaccour & Georges Badr
proposed system for indooe navigationforvisuallyimpaired
people. A smart phone application is used to assist blind
people. This system comprises two modules one is mobile
application and second is remote processing system. The
mobile application work as interactive interface to blind
person. The blind person can send voice commands. The
mobile application consists of two basic functionalities: the
speech to text and the text to speech function. When person
send voice commands then the speech to text function
convert this audio in text. This converted text transmittedto
processing system with the help of Wi-Fi connection. The
indoor environmenthascamerasinstalledwhichtakephotos
and sends to image analytics algorithms. These photos are
scaled and processed to compute the orientation of the
visually impaired and guide him to his destination safely. So
user sends voice commands i.e. destination where user
wishes to go and system responds with audio commands
that is useful to safely navigate. The texttospeechfunctionis
used to convert processed navigation text commands to
audio or voice commands. [5]
F] Smart Guiding Glasses
In this paper the authors proposed a indoor navigation
system for visually impaired system whichconsistsofpairof
display glasses and sensors. This system helps blind people
to move safely and efficiently in indoor environment. This
system uses depth image and the multi-sensor fusion based
algorithms to tackle the problems of identifying obstacles.
They had tested three auditory cues for different scenarios.
For obstacle detection a ultrasonic sensor is mounted on
guiding glasses. The depth cameras are mounted on glasses
to take depth image of environment. In depth-based way-
finding an algorithm uses depth image to find different
traversing directions. In some scenarios the obstacle can be
transparent, in such scenarios only depth image based
algorithm wont works for that they also used ultrasonic
sensor along with depth cameras, this functionalitycalledas
multi-sensor fusion based obstacle avoiding. Notall thetime
people uses such systems supposed to be totally blinded,
some people may have weak sight,forthosepeopleARbased
technique is proposed. The proposed smart guiding glasses
can enhance the traveling experience of the blind people.
The sensors used in this system are low-cost sensors which
possibly makes it widely adaptive.[6]
3. COMPARISON OF THE REVIEWED SYSTEMS
Table -1: Comparison Table
System Collision
Avoidance
& Object
Detection
(Yes/No)
Guiding
Feedback
Method &
Device &
Sensors Used
Feature
1. Multiple
Distance
Sensors
Based
Smart
Stick for
Visually
Impaired
People
1.Yes
2.Yes
1.Audio
2.Microcontro
ller, Ultra
Sonic sensor,
Bluetooth
module,
Vibration
motor
[1] Accurate
coordination
and
communicati
on among
sensors,
motor,
controller,
Bluetooth
modules and
other
components
to build a
smart stick
for the blind
people.
2.Navigati
onal
Assistance
System
For
Visually
Impaired
1.Yes
2.Yes
1.Audio
2.IR
Sensor(30cm),
Water Sensor,
Pit Sensor,
GPS,
[2] It focuses
on barrier
recognition,
pit detection,
water
recognition
and finding a
location to
weaken
navigational
difficultiesfor
visually
impaired
people.
3.The
assistance
system
using
RGB-D
1.Yes
2.Yes
1.Audio
2.Wearable
Device,RGB-D
Sensor
[3]Floor
Segmentation
with 99%
accuracy
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 12 | Dec 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.34 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 955
Sensor
withrange
expansion
4.Smart
Phone
Applicatio
n to Assist
Visually
Impaired
People
1.Yes
2.Yes
1. Audio
2. Camera,
Light Sensor,
GPS Sensor,
GSM Module,
Arduino,
Raspberry Pi.
[4] Small in
size, Low
weight, Easy
to use
5.Novel
indoor
navigation
system
1.Yes
2.Yes
1. Audio
2. PIC
Controller,
Beep
Vibrating
Motor,
Ultrasonic
Sensor
[5] More
efficient to
collision
detection
6.Smart
Guiding
Glasses
1.Yes
2.Yes
1.Audio
2.Wearable
Device,
ultrasonic
sensors, RGB-
D camera
[6]Small and
Transparent
collision
detection
4. CONCLUSION
In this study, we have reviewed and examined different
approaches used to assist visually impaired people for safe
navigation in indoor environments. This study suggested
that sensors play vital role to achieve goal. The survey
focuses on the study of various techniques used for indoor
navigation and also discussed their advantages and
disadvantages.
REFERENCES
[1] Sharang Sharma, Manind Gupta, Amit Kumar,
MeenakshiTripathi, Manoj Singh Gaur, “Multiple
Distance SensorsBasedSmartStick forVisuallyImpaired
People.”, 2017.
[2] M.MichealPriyanka, M.MichaelDharsana, “Navigational
Aiding System For Visually Impaired", Third
International Conference On Science Technology
Engineering And Management (ICONSTEM), 2017.
[3] A. Aladrén, G. López-Nicolás, Luis Puig, and Josechu J.
Guerrero, "Navigation Assistance for the Visually
Impaired Using RGB-D Sensor with Range Expansion."
IEEE Systems Journal 2014.
[4] Laviniu _epelea, IoanGavrilu_, AlexandruGacsádi,
“Smartphone Application to Assist Visually Impaired
People”, 14th International Conference on Engineering
of Modern Electric Systems (EMES), 2017.
[5] KabalanChaccour and Georges Badr," Novel indoor
navigation for Visually Impaired and blind people",
2015.
[6] JinqiangBai, ShiguoLian, Zhaoxiang Liu, Kai Wang, and
Dijun Liu, "Smart Guiding Glasses for Visually Impaired
People in Indoor Environment", IEEE Transactions on
Consumer Electronics, Vol. 63, No. 3, August
2017,pp.258-266.

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IRJET- A Survey on Indoor Navigation for Blind People

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 06 Issue: 12 | Dec 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.34 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 953 A Survey on Indoor Navigation for Blind People Nilesh Raut1, Shubham Jangam2, Labham Palve3, Piyush Ukarande4, Veena Pawar5 1,2,3,4Student, Dept. of Computer Engineering, JSPM JSCOE, Pune, Maharashtra, India 5Assistant Professor, Dept. of Computer Engineering, JSPM JSCOE, Pune, Maharashtra, India ---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - Indoor navigation deals with navigation within buildings. Because GPS signal is not available inside building environment. There are other technologies are used for positioning such as Wi-Fi or beacons. These technologies are used create "indoor GPS". Today in internet era outdoor navigation is possible due to mobile navigation application and which are very useful for many people. These apps are more useful in unfamiliar city to find desired destination. The GPS positions system works very well for outdoor navigations however GPS satellite signals are not accurately provide navigation details and it is still easy to get lost indoors such as shopping malls ,station etc. For many people having those are not blind , it is difficult for them navigate properly so for visually-impaired and blind people it is more difficult to find their way in unfamiliar indoorenvironmentbecausetheobject in front of them sometimes can be transparent. Orientation is most difficult for them even at places where they previously visited. Visually impaired people must orient themselves in a large space. In this paper we have studied and surveyed some already existing indoor navigation systems for visually impaired people and also compared them from different use scenarios. Key Words: Indoor navigation, Sensor, Wearable Device, Smart Stick 1. INTRODUCTION Finding your way or navigating within public building is many times difficult even ifwehaveaccuratemapsprovided. Many of us have been lost is buildings such as hospitals, stations, shopping mall or any other buildings which are crowded. If this normally sighted people struggled in navigation ways so we can imagine how it can be difficultfor visually impaired or blind people According to the World Health Organization, 253 million people worldwide are visually impaired. They are 3 times more likely to be hit by motorcycles, 2 times more likely to have a fall while walking and 3 times more likely to suffer from depression and anxiety disorders. Devising new ways to improve the quality of and security in their everydaylives is therefore vital. It is very critical that some of us are not able to move securely and independently and we need to ensuring that every person may lead to live life comfortably. It is extreme necessity of indoor navigation systems for visually impaired people to live their daily life otherwiseit is more difficult which can be stressful. There are variety approaches are already proposed which actually helps in indoor navigation. One such approach is wearable devices. Now a day’s variety wearable assistance devices were introduced for navigation of blindpeople. Anorientation and navigation are the main problems or difficulties, and these are because of missing known landmarks. This can lead to risk overcoming obstacles. Not all the visually impaired people can read Braille tags and the higher cost of the existing indoor navigation systems makeitimpossibleto use by the people with visual disabilities 2. LITERATURE REVIEW A] Multiple Distance Sensors Based Smart Stick for Visually Impaired People In this paper the author proposed a smart stick which visually impaired person holds and walk with it, this stick assist person while walking in indoor environment. In this project author choose outdoor context and created a prototype that actually useful for blind people in outdoor environment. This system comprises ultrasonic sensor and Bluetooth module. The ultrasonic sensor detects obstacle of any height in front or slightly sideways of the person. Thenit calculates the distance between object and the person. This system notifies to person about obstacles using vibrations and audio alert. [1] B] Navigational AssistanceSystemForVisuallyImpaired In this paper authors created a smart walking stick which having different sensors on it whichhelpsdetectobstacles to visually impaired persons. The proposed system basically consists of two main units one is sensor unit and another is GPS unit. The system used a IR sensor for obstacle detection. This system also use water sensor to detect the presence of water in front of the user. The GPS module is used toidentify the geographical location of the user. When system detects obstacle, pit or water in front of persons then it sends audio alerts to person such as “Wet Floor” and “Pit Found Better Go Back” [2] C] The Assistance System using RGB-D Sensor with Range Expansion In this paper authors proposed a new system which refers Navigation Assistance for Visually Impaired (NAVI) nothing but a system which assists blind persons in navigation using different sound commands.Theproposedsystemisbasedon visual and range information provided by RGB-D camera. The camera captures scene in front of blind person and provide to system for further processing. This camera provides long-range visual information which is useful in getting depth information. The proposed systemdetectsand classifies the main structural elements of the scene and
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 06 Issue: 12 | Dec 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.34 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 954 provides safe paths to navigate comfortably across any unknown environments. [3] D] Smart Phone Application to Assist Visually Impaired People In this paper, the authors Laviniu Tepelea, Loan Gavrilut & Alexandru Gacsadi proposed a system comprises smart phone application to assist visually impaired people. Now a day’s smart phone is household item and use of this to assist blind people will be easy. The mobile application developed by authors is having special interface which is very efficient for blind people to do daily phone related tasks such as making phone calls, reading articles and also work as travel guide. All information is provided to blind person by audio commands. This system also has sensors which transmits collect useful information from environment and commutates to phone application via Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. The information collected by sensors such as obstacle in front of blind person and warns user. In case, blind person fall down this can be detected by accelerator meter and automatic phone call will bemadetofavouritenumbersaved by person. The authors claimed that proposed system is portable, low-cost, small-scale and efficient solution for visually impaired people.[4] E] Novel Indoor Navigation System In this paper ,the authors Kabalan Chaccour & Georges Badr proposed system for indooe navigationforvisuallyimpaired people. A smart phone application is used to assist blind people. This system comprises two modules one is mobile application and second is remote processing system. The mobile application work as interactive interface to blind person. The blind person can send voice commands. The mobile application consists of two basic functionalities: the speech to text and the text to speech function. When person send voice commands then the speech to text function convert this audio in text. This converted text transmittedto processing system with the help of Wi-Fi connection. The indoor environmenthascamerasinstalledwhichtakephotos and sends to image analytics algorithms. These photos are scaled and processed to compute the orientation of the visually impaired and guide him to his destination safely. So user sends voice commands i.e. destination where user wishes to go and system responds with audio commands that is useful to safely navigate. The texttospeechfunctionis used to convert processed navigation text commands to audio or voice commands. [5] F] Smart Guiding Glasses In this paper the authors proposed a indoor navigation system for visually impaired system whichconsistsofpairof display glasses and sensors. This system helps blind people to move safely and efficiently in indoor environment. This system uses depth image and the multi-sensor fusion based algorithms to tackle the problems of identifying obstacles. They had tested three auditory cues for different scenarios. For obstacle detection a ultrasonic sensor is mounted on guiding glasses. The depth cameras are mounted on glasses to take depth image of environment. In depth-based way- finding an algorithm uses depth image to find different traversing directions. In some scenarios the obstacle can be transparent, in such scenarios only depth image based algorithm wont works for that they also used ultrasonic sensor along with depth cameras, this functionalitycalledas multi-sensor fusion based obstacle avoiding. Notall thetime people uses such systems supposed to be totally blinded, some people may have weak sight,forthosepeopleARbased technique is proposed. The proposed smart guiding glasses can enhance the traveling experience of the blind people. The sensors used in this system are low-cost sensors which possibly makes it widely adaptive.[6] 3. COMPARISON OF THE REVIEWED SYSTEMS Table -1: Comparison Table System Collision Avoidance & Object Detection (Yes/No) Guiding Feedback Method & Device & Sensors Used Feature 1. Multiple Distance Sensors Based Smart Stick for Visually Impaired People 1.Yes 2.Yes 1.Audio 2.Microcontro ller, Ultra Sonic sensor, Bluetooth module, Vibration motor [1] Accurate coordination and communicati on among sensors, motor, controller, Bluetooth modules and other components to build a smart stick for the blind people. 2.Navigati onal Assistance System For Visually Impaired 1.Yes 2.Yes 1.Audio 2.IR Sensor(30cm), Water Sensor, Pit Sensor, GPS, [2] It focuses on barrier recognition, pit detection, water recognition and finding a location to weaken navigational difficultiesfor visually impaired people. 3.The assistance system using RGB-D 1.Yes 2.Yes 1.Audio 2.Wearable Device,RGB-D Sensor [3]Floor Segmentation with 99% accuracy
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 06 Issue: 12 | Dec 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.34 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 955 Sensor withrange expansion 4.Smart Phone Applicatio n to Assist Visually Impaired People 1.Yes 2.Yes 1. Audio 2. Camera, Light Sensor, GPS Sensor, GSM Module, Arduino, Raspberry Pi. [4] Small in size, Low weight, Easy to use 5.Novel indoor navigation system 1.Yes 2.Yes 1. Audio 2. PIC Controller, Beep Vibrating Motor, Ultrasonic Sensor [5] More efficient to collision detection 6.Smart Guiding Glasses 1.Yes 2.Yes 1.Audio 2.Wearable Device, ultrasonic sensors, RGB- D camera [6]Small and Transparent collision detection 4. CONCLUSION In this study, we have reviewed and examined different approaches used to assist visually impaired people for safe navigation in indoor environments. This study suggested that sensors play vital role to achieve goal. The survey focuses on the study of various techniques used for indoor navigation and also discussed their advantages and disadvantages. REFERENCES [1] Sharang Sharma, Manind Gupta, Amit Kumar, MeenakshiTripathi, Manoj Singh Gaur, “Multiple Distance SensorsBasedSmartStick forVisuallyImpaired People.”, 2017. [2] M.MichealPriyanka, M.MichaelDharsana, “Navigational Aiding System For Visually Impaired", Third International Conference On Science Technology Engineering And Management (ICONSTEM), 2017. [3] A. Aladrén, G. López-Nicolás, Luis Puig, and Josechu J. Guerrero, "Navigation Assistance for the Visually Impaired Using RGB-D Sensor with Range Expansion." IEEE Systems Journal 2014. [4] Laviniu _epelea, IoanGavrilu_, AlexandruGacsádi, “Smartphone Application to Assist Visually Impaired People”, 14th International Conference on Engineering of Modern Electric Systems (EMES), 2017. [5] KabalanChaccour and Georges Badr," Novel indoor navigation for Visually Impaired and blind people", 2015. [6] JinqiangBai, ShiguoLian, Zhaoxiang Liu, Kai Wang, and Dijun Liu, "Smart Guiding Glasses for Visually Impaired People in Indoor Environment", IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 63, No. 3, August 2017,pp.258-266.