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Survey studies are usually used to find the
fact by collecting the data directly from
population or sample.
A means of gathering information by asking a
set of questions to a sample of respondents
who represent a population with specific
Survey method based on following steps
Constructing the instrument
Constructing the survey
Processing the data
Survey research begins with a question that
the researcher believes can be answered
most appropriately by means of the survey
The researcher needs to decide on the data-
gathering technique that will be used.
The researcher must make decisions about
the sampling procedure that will be used
and the size of the sample to survey.
If one is to generalize the sample findings
to the population, it is essential that the
sample selected be representative of that
CONSTRUCTING THE INSTRUMENT
A major task in survey research is the
construction of the instrument that will be
used to gather the data from the sample.
CONDUCTING THE SURVEY
Once the data-gathering instrument is
prepared, it must be field-tested to determine
if it will be provide the desired data.
Also included in this step would be training
of the users of the instrument, interviewing
subjects or distributing questionnaires to
them, and verifying the accuracy of the data
PROCESSING THE DATA
The last step includes:
Coding the data,
Interpreting the results
Reporting the findings.
Validity is the extent to which the survey information
is relevant to the conclusion being drawn and is
sufficiently accurate and complete to support the
Reliability, is the degree to which the questions used
in a survey elicit the same type of information each
time they are used under the same conditions.
It is charged that survey information touches
only the surface of the research field and does
not make a deeper thrust into it.
Sometimes if sample information's have not
been collected very carefully, the magnitude
of sampling error may be too large to render
the sample results reasonably accurate.
It is also charged with demanding of more
time, effort and money.
Insecurity limiting access to the population
The lack of funding necessary to carry out
ETHICS IN SURVEY METHOD
No harm is done to any survey respondent,
No survey respondent is unduly pressured or
made to feel obligated to participate in a survey.
Respondents should be informed about the
purpose of the survey and have the option not to
participate or not to disclose information that he
or she feels not comfortable with
The names and addresses of survey
respondents should not be made available
to anyone outside those involved in the
survey after the responses have been entered
into the computer
No individual suffers any adverse
consequences as a result of the survey.
Questionnaire Questionnaires are usually
paper-and-pencil instruments that the
Group Administered Questionnaire
Household Drop-off Survey Questionnaire
Often much of the same information can be
obtained by means of a questionnaire that is
mailed to each individual in the sample,
with a request that it be completed and
returned at a given date.
A more recent method of data collection is using
the web. The questionnaire is uploaded to a
website such as Survey Monkey and
QuestionPro and respondents are invited to
respond to the questionnaire.
This questionnaire is administered
to a group of people at a certain
place for a specific purpose.
In this approach, a researcher goes to the
respondent's home or business and hands the
respondent the instrument.
STRENGTHS OF SURVEY METHOD
Convenient Data Gathering
Good Statistical Significance
Little or No Observer Subjectivity
WEAKNESSES OF SURVEY METHOD
Not Ideal for Controversial Issues
Possible Inappropriateness of Questions