1. (November 11 th 2009) Shane Mc Loughlin [email_address] IS20090 : Toys The Social, Political and Economic consequences of Web 2.0
4. - Students should become aware of wider theoretical issues concerning the impact of newer technologies on society (e.g.. 'Power', Castells 'Network society' and 'Communication power' etc) -Students should understand definitions , scope and critique of the term web 2.0 -Students should be aware of significant social issues concerning the design of these technologies. -Students should become familiar with significant theoretical and practical issues concerning the social, political and economic implications arising from web 2.0 -Students will become familiar with significant international events demonstrating the role of web 2.0 -Students should have an understanding of present figures and statistics regarding web 2.0 usage by citizens. Learning Outcomes:
7. Manuel Castells – Network Society “ The network society is a society where the key social structures and activities are organized around electronically processed information networks. So it's not just about networks or social networks, because social networks have been very old forms of social organization. It's about social networks which process and manage information and are using micro-electronic based technologies….The diffusion of a networking logic substantially modifies the operation and outcomes in processes of production, experience, power, and culture” (Castells, 1997)
8. “ For the first time the written, oral and visual modes of communication have been integrated into a single communications structure.” (Castells, 1996) “ the fundamental battle being fought in society is the battle over the minds of the people...Because Communication, and particularly socialized communication, the one that exists in the public realm, provides the support for the social production of meaning, the battle of the human mind is largely played out in the processes of communication....As a result, power relations...are increasingly shaped and decided in the communication field” (Castells, 2007).
12. Castells (2009) defined web 2.0 as: “ the cluster of technologies, devices, and applications that support the proliferation of social spaces on the Internet” (p. 65).
14. Tim Berners-Lee described the term "Web 2.0" as a "piece of jargon": "Nobody really knows what it means...If Web 2.0 for you is blogs and wikis, then that is people to people. But that was what the Web was supposed to be all along." What is Web 2.0? Criticism
16. Gartner, Inc. : Web. 2.0 technologies enable changing business models. Gardner researchers stress the need for 'flexibility' within organisations, the need for balancing control with openness and more generally the power of networking: 'Gartner predicts that by 2009, six out of 10 new collaboration-related IT projects will seamlessly incorporate supplier, partner and customer personnel, heralding a move away from the traditional, closed, inward-looking organisation to a more open, collaborative and innovative environment.' (Kennedy. John, 9-11-07, “Web 2.0 could lead to ‘openness’ in the workplace” (Web 2.0, 2007) Economic impact of Web 2.0: Operationalising Network Society Theory
17. -Empowerment? -Democratisation? -Creativity? -Exploitation? -Narcissism? -Mediocrity? -Exhibitionism? -’Over-sharing’? -Self-Monitoring? And policing? -Commoditisation and branding ourselves? -Image over substance? Simulacra -Flickering over depth? -Weak over strong relationships? Some social issues with Web 2.0?
19. Question for the group: - How might Web 2.0 enhance cultural hegemony? and how might it serve to counter it?
22. -Bottom up and top down profiling... -More and more of our lives become mediated through technology and such information can be captured by the market – 'Knowing Capitalism' “ Information about preferences, choices, and other personal details are considered valuable in an age of 'knowing capitalism' where data-mining and predictive technologies are prominent.” (Beer and Burrows, 2007) For Scott Lash the 'web 2.0 heralds “an 'age of the portal' where 'the data find you' (Lash, 2006, p.580). This is highlighted as we are frequently confronted with recommendations, news specific to our interests or about our friends, suggested purchases and other things of supposed interest. You find the data? The data finds you? Capitalism finds you?
25. However, Fuchs (2009) argues that ‘political counter power on the internet is facing a massive asymmetry that is due to the fact that the ruling powers control more resources such as money, decision making power, capacities for attention generation…power struggles may remain precarious’ (p.8) He cites how Indymedia, the most popular alternative online news platform is only ranked 4147 whereas the BBC is marked 44 Power and the web: Communication power
28. Question for the group: - How might symbolic violence be a relevant theory to understand social life on facebook?
30. The “New” Public Sphere: John Keane “ 'The old dominance of state structured and territorially bounded public life mediated by radio, television, newspapers, and books is coming to an end. Its hegemony is rapidly being eroded by the development of a multiplicity of networked spaces of communication... fragmenting anything formerly resembling a single, spatially integrated public sphere within a nation state framework...public life is today subject to refeudalisation , not in the sense in which Habermas...used the term, but in the different sense of the development of a complex mosaic of differently sized, overlapping, and interconnected public spheres that force us radically to revise our understanding of public life and its partner terms such as public opinion, the public good, and the public private distinction” (Keane in Webster et al, 2004, p366) Keane proposes Micro, meso and macro understanding of public spheres
33. - Mark Granovetter is an American sociologist at Stanford University who has created theories in modern sociology since the 1970s. He is best known for his work in social network theory and in economic sociology, particularly his theory on the spread of information in social networks known as "The Strength of Weak Ties" (1973). - Your relationships with others, or 'ties' range from strong ties to weak ties: - Strong ties are those relationship with people you are emotionally close to. They tend to be multi-stranded, frequently maintained and intimate. It is argued that strong ties were common in traditional communities. - Weak ties are connections with people emotionally distant to oneself, e.g. acquaintances. These ties are generally single-stranded, infrequently maintained and non-intimate - In his famous article The Strength of Weak Ties, Granovetter (1982) stresses the importance of weak ties as they enable people to seek out new resources, new information and diversity of information one doesnt get from strong ties Strength of weak ties
37. Are there disparities amongst citizens contributing on the web, creating new differential power relations?
38. - 1% of users participate a lot and account for most contributions - 9% of users contribute from time to time, but other priorities dominate their time. - 90% of users are lurkers (i.e., read or observe, but don’t contribute). Impact of Web 2.0: Contributing on blogs, wikis, Microblogging
42. “ Most blogs are of personal character. According to the Pew Internet & American Life Project, 52% of bloggers say that they blog mostly for themselves, while 32% blog for their audience. 31 Thus, to some extent, a good share of this form of mass self-communication is closer to “ electronic autism ” than to actual communication. “ (Castells, 2007)
44. McKinsey Quarterly – Business survey 2009 Found that successful companies not only tightly integrate Web 2.0 technologies with the work flows of their employees but also create a “networked company,” linking themselves with customers and suppliers through the use of Web 2.0 tools. - High-technology companies are most likely to report measurable benefits from Web 2.0 across the board, followed by those at companies offering business, legal, and professional services. -Companies most often report greater ability to share ideas; improved access to knowledge experts; and reduced costs of communications, travel, and operations - Highest on that list of benefits is the ability to gain access to expertise outside company walls more quickly . These respondents also cite lower costs of communication with business partners and lower travel costs - Respondents say informal incentives incorporating the Web ethos, such as ratings by peers and online recognition of status, have been most effective in encouraging Web 2.0 adoption. They also say role modelling—active Web use by executives—has been important for encouraging adoption internally Impact of Web 2.0: Business value
45. Mc Kinsey Survey Continued… -The survey results suggest that networked organizations have created processes and Web platforms that serve to manage significant portions of these external ties. - Respondents reporting measurable benefits say their companies, on average, have Web 2.0 interactions with 35 percent of their customers. -The more heavily used technologies are blogs, wikis, and podcasts—the same tools that are popular among consumers—(Exhibit 2). - those capturing benefits in their dealings with suppliers and partners, the tools of choice again are blogs, social networks -- allow companies to distribute product information more readily and, perhaps more critically, they invite customer feedback and even participation in the creation of products Impact of Web 2.0: Business value
52. References: Alexa (2009) Alexa Research. Available at; http://www.alexa.com/ Barzilai-Nahon, K (2004) Gatekeepers and gatekeeping mechanisms in networks. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel. Beer, D., & Burrows, R. (2007) Sociology and, of and in Web 2.0: Some Initial Considerations. Sociological Research Online, 12(5). Bourdieu, P. (1977) Outline of a theory of practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Bourdieu, P. (1986) The forms of capital. In J. G. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (pp. 241-258). New York: Greenwood. Castells, M., (1996) The rise of the network society. Malden, Mass: Blackwell Publishers. Castells, M. (2004) “Informationalism, Networks, And The Network Society: A Theoretical Blueprint”. In Castells, M. (Ed.), The Network Society: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar. Castells, Manuel. (2007). Communication, Power and Counter-power in the Network Society, International Journal of Communication 1 (2007), 238-266 Available Online : http://ijoc.org/ojs/index.php/ijoc/article/view/46/35
53. Castells, M. (2009) Communication Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Comscore (2009) Comscore Statistics. Available at: http://www.comscore.com/ Fuchs, C. (2009) Some Reflections on Manuel Castells Book “Communication Power”, TripleC-Cognition, Communication, Co-operation, 7(1). Granovetter, M. S. (1982) The strength of weak ties: A network theory revisited. In P. V. Marsden & N. Lin (Eds.), Social structure and network analysis: 105-130. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Giddens, A. (2006) Sociology. 5th ed. / Anthony Giddens edn. Cambridge: Polity. Habormas, J. (ed.) (1976) Was heist Universalpragmatik?, in K. O. Apel Sprachpragmatik und Philosphie. Frankfurt am main: Suhrkamp McKinsey (2009) McKinsey Quarterly, Available at; http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/home.aspx Pisani, F. (2007) 'Networks as a unifying pattern of life involving different processes at different levels – An interview with Fritjof Capra' International Journal of Communication 1, Feature 5-25 Pew Research (2009) Pew Research. Available at: http://pewresearch.org/ Tapscott, Don; Williams, A. (2007) Wikinomics. How mass collaboration changes everything. Penguin Books Ltd Technocrati (2009) Technocrati. Available at: http://www.technocrati.com
54. Web 2.0, (2007) 'Web 2.0 could lead to ‘openness’ in the workplace'. Silicon Republic, URL: http://www.siliconrepublic.com/news/news.nv?storyid=single960 Webster, F et al (ed.) (2004) The Information Society Reader. Routledge: USA
Notas del editor
“ Castells refers to “the new media and the diversification of mass audience24. This process began in the 1980s with a personalization of technology attempting to compensate for the unidirectional nature of traditional mass media communication to that point.” (Castells, 1997
- According to Giddens; in the 1960s, Burns and Stalker conclude that traditional bureaucratic structures can stifle innovation and creativity in cutting edge industries. Today organisations adopt 'horizontal', collaborative models in order to become more flexible and responsive to fluctuating markets' (Giddens, 2006, p664). Specifically, Manuel Castells points to networked organisations becoming the most efficient organisational types thanks to their inherent; 'flexibility, scalability and survivability' (Castells, 2004, p6) - Castells believes “'the network enterprise' is the organizational form best suited to a global, information economy” (Giddens, 2006, p673) and supplants traditional rational bureaucracy. Thus far this form of organisation has capitalised on advances in ICT technologies and infrastructure. Development and application of Web 2.0 and open-source technologies, suggest that further re-engineering of organisations is possible (indeed underway) and that new means for innovation are realisable as a consequence of opening up and extending the capacity for information flow
Within the research community, this everyday use of the term has led to various constructs, synonyms, and related terms, such as cognitive overload (Vollmann, 1991), sensory overload (Libowski, 1975), communication overload (Meier, 1963), knowledge overload (Hunt & Newman, 1997), and information fatigue syndrome (Wurman, 2001).
- one of the world’s leading information technology research and advisory companies recently spoke about a new era of innovation that can arise from the proliferation of
was an Italian philosopher and political theorist. Common sense is coloured with cultural norms and values - Cultural hegemony is the concept that a diverse culture can be ruled or dominated by one group or class, that everyday practices and shared beliefs provide the foundation for complex systems of domination. The analysis of hegemony (or &quot;rule&quot;) was formulated by Antonio Gramsci to explain why predicted communist revolutions had not occurred where they were most expected, in industrialized Europe . Marx and his followers had advanced the theory that the rise of industrial capitalism would create a huge working class and cyclical People concentrate their attention upon their immediate concerns and problems, i.e. their lives (systematically troubled, preoccupied, absorbed and lost in the daily routines), rather than (attentive, intent, focused) upon the fundamental sources of (their) social and economic oppression , and be focused to solve their particular fundamental problems -To the passive user of the web, and even contributors of the web, they serve to accept and even reproduce and amplify this cultural hegemony. --- XFACTOR most trending topic on twitter
The talk of marketing and advertising at the moment is social media, how can they monitor, control, capture audience, build relationships with audiences using social media. Big bloggers working with large firms Large corporations making their presence on web 2.0 Businesses are scrabbling to develop strategies to handle what people are posting about them on social networking sites before negative comments snowball out of control (independent, 2009) While there was a lot of humour behind Carroll’s YouTube video, few people were laughing in April when a video appeared on the same site purporting to show staff at a branch of Domino’s Pizza in the US doing all manner of disgusting things to food – including adding the contents of their noses to sandwiches – before delivering them to unsuspecting consumers. In less than a week, the video had been viewed more than a million times on YouTube while Twitter was abuzz with talk of the incident. It did untold, long-term damage to Domino’s reputation – research firm YouGov, which carries out online surveys amongst thousands of consumers in the US daily for hundreds of brands, found that almost overnight the perception of Domino’s quality went from positive to negative. The video was pulled from YouTube, the staff involved were sacked and charged with delivering prohibited foods – they subsequently claimed it had all been a prank. In an effort to manage the PR crisis, the company’s president, Patrick Doyle, made a YouTube video of his own in which he defended the company’s hygiene policy and described himself as sickened that “the actions of two people could impact our great system”.
For Giddens, power is ‘transformative capacity’, the capability to intervene in a given set of events so as in some way to alter them’ (Giddens, 1985, p.7), the ‘capability to effectively decide about the courses of events, even where others might contest such decisions’ -indexing is connected to what Herman and ChomtripleC 7(1): 94-108, 2009 CC: Creative Commons License, 2009. 98 sky (1988)2 have termed the third filter in media manipulation: the tendency of mass media to rely on information that is provided by powerful actors (such as governments and corporations). -Castells shows the communication power of framing and the counter-power of counter-framing with the example of the framing of the US public in the Iraq war.
Fragmentation from a politically focused, national citizens, to issue centred and niche public interests Polarisation; as like minded individuals become more staunch in their opinions upon conversing with like minded others (Cass Sunstein) Tribalisation (seth godin and others); internet allows for tribes of interests, all competing for a voice, recruits and influence
- “Lash's ( 2006 ) emphasis is upon the importance of 'the feed' and the image of the data actively 'finding' us. The movement toward the user-generated profile as commodity, and even the collaborative accumulation of repositories of the wiki, folksonomy and mashup, may be understood in broader terms as a part of the 'changes in the form of the commodity [that] point to the increasingly active role that the consumer is often expected to take.' ( Thrift, 2005 : 7).” Where, as Lash puts it, ‘forms of life become technological’, as we see illustratedquite clearly by SNS, ‘we make sense of the world through technological systems.’(Lash, 2002: 15). We can imagine this as a recursive process where SNS come to challenge and possibly even mutate understandings of friendship. It is conceivable then that understandings and values of friendship may be altered by engagements with SNS. As time goes by and as young people spend longer with such technologies in their lives, so these types of recursive questions will need to find a place on the research agenda – to make 2007) . These mobile, locative and integrated technologies lead to an increasingly mediated way of life with little if any unmediated room outside. Lash’s now widely cited claim is that the ‘information order is inescapable’ and as such it ‘gives us no longer an outside place to stand’ (Lash, 2002: xii). At issue here is the ‘remediation’ (Graham, 2004a) or ‘meditization’ (Lash, 2007a) of everyday life. As Nigel Thrift has put it, ‘software has come to intervene in nearly all aspects of everyday life and has begun to sink into its taken-for-granted background.’ (Thrift, 2005: 153). This then is an alternative vision in which virtually all, if not all, aspects of our lives are mediated by software, often when and where we are not aware of it. -
Katrinalist was a people finder for victims and family members after the hurricane. It was developed in the space of a few days by the crowdsourcing of software developers - It pulled together scattered data on different websites
- Worry that what the web facilitates is a reproduction and enhancement of capitalist, hegemoic and cultural values.
- It is violence which is exercised upon a social agent with his or her complicity. However Bourdieu makes clear that it does not constitute a Gramscian form of hegemony because it doe not involve the negotiated construction of ideological consensus. -Legitimation of the social order is not… the product of a deliberate and purposive action of propaganda or symbolic imposition, it results from the fact that agents apply to objective structures of the social world structures of perception and appreciation which are issued out of these very structures and which tend to picture the world as evident” (Bourdieu, 1989, p.21) Symbolic violence is not necessarily imposed from above.
Micro public sphere relate to vital features of all social movements. Social movements normally comprise low profile networks of small groups, organisation, initiatives, local contacts and friendships Meso public sphere are those spaces of controversy about power that encompass millions of people watching, listening, or reading across vast distances. They are mediated by network tv and circulated newspapers International and regional in scope, EU etc It might involve multinational media empires. Examples Tiananomen square The internet allows for macro public spheres of imagined communities concerned with power and principles
Thus, with the onset of the internet and web 2.0, individuals can increasingly take charge of their ‘information space’. They can become producers as well as consumers, they can pick and choose from the internet what information they wish to receive.
Twitter research found 10% of users post the majority of content Only 1 percent of wikipedia users contribute
There is some difference though with Nielson and Comscore regarding time spent on these with Nielson quoting 6 hours for Facebook and Comscore quoting 4.6 hours for social networking sites in aggregate. But if you look at the nielson figures, its shows only facebook manages 6 hours with myspace, bebo hovering around 2 hours. Thus, in reality, the figures for both studies would seem to correlate. And, it seems to indicate that UK users of facebook spend more time on facebook than those in the US.