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GEOGRAPHYLand Area: 356,669 sq. miles(2x the size of California)Location: Coast of West Africa AbujaCapitol City: AbujaNeighboring Countries:Benin, Niger, Chad, Cameroon*Divided into ―states‖ by thegovernment, but ethnic zones playa far more crucial role in politics
SOCIET Y Religion: 50% Muslim, 40% Population: 154.7 million Christian, 10% indigenous beliefs Birthrate: 39.8/1000 people Health: Lack of access to adequate sanitation and clean water—rural Nigerians spend Death rate: 16.4/1000 3-4 hour s/day gathering people water. Life Expectancy: 47.8 years Education: 69.1% literacy rate Gov‘t provides free schooling, but it is not Language: English compulsory. (of ficial) dozens of tribal Described as ―dysfunctional‖ by languages. Nigerian government
―There are no Nigerians in the same sense as there are ‗English‘ or ‗French.‘ The word Nigerian is merely a distinctiveETHNIC GROUPS appellation to distinguish those who live*250-400 identified ethnic groups but within thethey ―ally‖ themselves into 3 major boundaries ofsections. Nigeria and those who do not.‖
HAUSA FULANI• Predominantly subsistence farmers/herders• Follow Sharia law Women not allowed for vote freely, stoned for adultery, etc.• Remain largely in control of Nigerian politics• Strict dress code• Poorly educated
YORUBALocation:SouthwesternNigeriaPercent ofPopulation: 21%Equal number sof Muslims andChristians
YORUBA• Farmers-- SW Nigeria is prime agriculture region (Cash crops & subsistence)• Lagos is largest city in region—one of the most polluted in world• Largest region for migration• Ethnic identity is more important than religious identity• Greater diversity of opportunity and economic activity
IGBO• Primarily farmers• Most educated overall• Follow strict gender divided roles—women can only plant certain crops, men others• Known for ironsmithing and other arts• Women play prominent role in politics (esp. at the village level)
ETHNIC & CULTURAL CLEAVAGES Elite v. Masses Education Levels: ―important‖…but few children go beyond primary school schools are becoming more heavily influenced by religion but are said to promote ―democratic values‖ Relationship between farming and poverty 70% of population is below the poverty line, yet 33% of the country‘s GDP & more than 70% of the population is employed in the agricultural industry.
1800-1945 Pre-colonial Period Colonial Rule Ruled by Islamic leader s up until Establishment of indirect rule by 19 th centur y. (Accounts for the British allowed for religious rif ts in nation) traditional methods of government to per sist (still seen Slave trade began in 1650s 3.5 in some villages today) million people moved across Strengthened collective Sahara. identities formation of 3 key groups began. 1 860‘s British slave trade ended and there was a shif t towards natural resources like palm oil beginning of exploitati on of Niger Delta which still has critical political ramifications today.
1945-1979 The First Republic Civil War & Military Rule Independence granted from Igbo officials seized power in 1966 British in 1960 Igbo population attempted to secede Adopted Westminster model. from Nigeria to form their own Countr y ruled by group from the country…didn‘t work. Nor th resources unfairly Military led government attempted to distributed. hold Nigeria together 3 year long bloody civil war (at least 1 million killed) Global Oil Boom 1973-1974 General Olusegun Obasanjo peacefully ceded government power to civilian government.
1979-PRESENT 2 nd & 3 rd Republics Fourth Republic National Par ty of Nigeria – used Obasanjo reformed state and fraud and violence to win economy – removed militar y ―elections‖ of ficials from power, installed Militar y seizes power in 1983 new leader s in oil sector, and under General Buhari obtained foreign investments to Buhari refused to return to manage debt. democratic rule and decimated Rigged election of 2007 put economy Yar‘Adua into power—he quickly 1985 Buhari‘s government is rever sed several of Obasanjo‘s over thrown by Gen. Babangida— actions annulled 1993 elections Yar‘Adua dies in 2010. Goodluck 1999 power handed over to Jonathon sworn in 2011 civilian government and President Obasanjo elected