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• Intelligences, not intelligence.
• Intelligence is:
1.The ability to solve
problems that one
encounters in real life.
2.The ability to generate
new problems to solve.
3.The ability to make
something or oﬀer service
that is valued within one’s
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• Intelligence was ﬁxed.
• Intelligence was measured by
• Intelligence was unitary.
• Intelligence was measured in
• Intelligence was used to sort out
students and predict their success.
• Intelligence can be developed.
• Intelligence is not numerically
quantiﬁable and is exhibited during
a performance or problem-solving
• Intelligence can be exhibited in
many ways - multiple intelligences.
• Intelligence is measured in context/
• Intelligence is used to understand
human capacities and the many
and varied ways students can
• Ability to: speak or write
• Sensitivity to: the sounds,
meanings, structures, and styles
• Inclination for: speaking, writing,
• Teacher, religious leader, politician,
poet, journalist, novelist,
• Soekarno, Rendra, Buya Hamka,
Shakespeare, JK Rowling, Andrea
• Ability to: work eﬀectively with numbers
and reason eﬀectively.
• Sensitivity to: patterns, numbers and
numerical data, causes and eﬀects,
objective and quantitative reasoning.
• Inclination for: ﬁnding patterns, making
calculations, forming and testing
hypotheses, using scientiﬁc method,
deductive and inductive reasoning.
• Accountant, statistician, economist,
engineer, scientist, programmer.
• Einstein, Habibie, Johannes Surya, Bill
Gates, Ibnu Sina, Newton.
• Ability to: create visually, and visualize
• Sensitivity to: colors, shapes, visual
puzzles, symmetry, lines, images.
• Inclination for: representing ideas
visually, creating mental images, noticing
visual details, drawing and sketching.
• Artist, photographer, engineer, decorator,
tour guide, scout ranger.
• Aﬀandi, Pablo Picasso, Adjie
Notonegoro, Benny & Mice, Tino Sidin.
• Ability to: create music and analyze
• Sensitivity to: tone, beat, tempo,
melody, pitch, sound.
• Inclination for: listening, singing,
playing an instrument.
• songwriter, composer, musician,
conductor, music critic.
• Ismail Marzuki, Idris Sardi, Titiek
Puspa, Melly Goeslaw, Iwan Fals,
Ahmad Dhani, Ruth Sahanaya, Vina
Panduwinata, Mozart, Beethoven,
• Ability to: use the hands to ﬁx or
create and use the body expressively.
• Sensitivity to: touch, movement,
physical self, athleticism.
• Inclination for: activities requiring
strength, speed, ﬂexibility, hand-eye
coordination, and balance.
• Mechanic, surgeon, carpenter, sculptor,
mason, dancer, athlete, actor.
• Michael Jordan, Tauﬁk Hidayat, Susi
Susanti, David Beckham, Nini Towok.
• Ability to: work with people and help
people identify and overcome problems.
• Sensitivity to: body language, moods,
• Inclination for: noticing and responding
to other people’s feelings and
• Administrator, manager, consultant,
teacher, therapist, psychologist.
• Oprah Winfrey, SBY, Tantowi Yahya,
Tukul, Barack Obama, John F. Kennedy,
Martin Luther King Jr.
• Ability to: mediate, reﬂect, exhibit self-
discipline, maintain composure, and get
the most out of oneself.
• Sensitivity to: one’s own strengths,
weaknesses, goals and desires.
• Inclination for: setting goals, assessing
personal abilities and liabilities,
monitoring one’ own thinking.
• Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela,
Bunda Theresa, Ahmad Dahlan.
• Ability to: analyze ecological and natural
situations and data, learn from living
things, and work in a natural setting.
• Sensitivity to: natural objects, plants,
animals, naturally occurring patterns,
• Inclination for: identifying and
classifying living things and natual
• Ecologists, rangers, zoologist, botanist,
veterinarian, hunter, scout.
• Charles Darwin, Galileo Galilei, Steve
Irwin, Butet Manurung.
So, what does MI mean to teaching and learning?
WHAT YOU DO &
HOW YOU DO IT!
“It’s not about how smart you are,
but how you are smart.”
• Examples of Classroom
games, using evidence,
formulating and testing
hypotheses, deductive and