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Effects of Technological Device to Students

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Effects of Technological Device to Students

  2. 2. CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND IT’S BACKGROUND Introduction Today, one of the hot issues in technology is about technological devices. Broadly speaking, all cellular phones, laptop and computers belong to technological devices. There’s no denying that this technological devices has become a significant part of students’ everyday lives. But the question is, how are these devices affect the student’ learning? We are witnesses to sick on how the students learning affects by technological devices. Until now we can read in the newspapers about the good and the bad effects the technological devices may give to the learning of the students.
  3. 3. Technology has always flourished for the gain of mankind. The major achievements of technology have left man spell-bound and every part of the world today is enjoying the comforts provided by technology. Thanks to technology, all the countries are interlinked and we are now living in a global village. Modern technology has greatly improved people's lives through different fields such as medicine, work, education and industry, especially education. However, we cannot say that technology is all good in itself. It is a two-edged sword and we have to see to what extent it has really helped improved people's standard of living. There are many possible effects on using it. And it depends only on the way the users used it. They have to know how to use it for their benefit and should not abuse its use. It should be properly used rather than rely on it totally.
  4. 4. These problems inspired the researcher to conduct a study about technological devices. The researcher focused on how students should interact to those technological devices in order to attain learning with the help of it.
  5. 5. Statement of the Problem Problem: This study aimed to know the effects of educational devices in the learning performance of Information Technology (I.T.) students in PUP-Bansud Campus. Specifically, it attempts to answer the following questions. 1. What are the negative effects of common technological devices to the performance of Information Technology (I.T.) students? 2. What are the positive effects of common technological devices to the performance of Information Technology (I.T.) student? 3. Is there a significant relationship between using technological devices and the learning performance of an Information Technology (I.T.) student?
  6. 6. Statement of Hypothesis 1. There is no significant relationship between using technological devices and the performance of an Information Technology (I.T.) student. Significance of the Study This study is about the effects of technological devices on the learning performance of an information technology student for this school year 2013 - 2014 in Polytechnic University of the Philippines (PUP-Bansud Campus). This will benefit the information technology student for they will be more aware on using technological devices to enhance their learning performance and not to abuse of using it.
  7. 7. This study was also used for the sake of their task and responsibilities they may encounter in their future when they are also raising their own family. Through this study technological devices may gain insights on how to enhance the learner in using it. It may also be a great help to them in improving their skills. Most the studies deal with technological devices in the school facilities. This study also benefited the professors who also considered this study, for they will be more aware to the importance of these technological devices to enhance their performance in teaching.
  8. 8. To the future generation of students in the field of Information Technology. To motivate them how to use technological devices to fully determined and reached their own skills and to contribute to the world of Information Technology. Lastly, to the future researcher, this paper will surely contribute to our rich bulk of literature and body of knowledge. Future researchers especially those who will conduct study on the same or similar framework will gain insights from the substance of this investigation.
  9. 9. Scope and Limitation of Study This study is limited on the effects of educational devices in the learning performance of Information Technology (I.T.) students in PUP-Bansud Campus. This study focuses only to 141 information technology students of Polytechnic University of Bansud campus who are using technological devices, are the subject of the investigation. Each student will be given same set of questionnaire.
  10. 10. This is also limited to the objectives of the study since the researcher only wanted to determine the effects of using technological devices to the learning performance of the Information Technology (I.T.) students. The attainment of this study is dependent to the answers of the respondents. The respondents are composed of students in different courses, in PUP Bansud campus. The study will be conducted in this school year 2013-2014. Any changes or progress in details and updated information beyond the said point are not covered by the framework of this study.
  11. 11. Definition of Terms Listed below are terms taken from this thesis, which the researcher believe, have to be defined. This is necessary to enable the future readers of this thesis to easily understand the contents of this research. Cellular phone refers to a mobile technology that allows you to communicate with others. Computer refers to a device that helps student to do their school works and as for entertainment. Laptop/Netbook/Notebook/Palmtop refers to portable computer devices that helps student, do their school work and as for entertainment anywhere they want.
  12. 12. Multimedia refers to combined use of media, such as videos, movies, music, games, presentation, print papers, and the Internet, as for education or entertainment. Also interactive. Negative Effects of Technological Devices refers to the factors that the researcher believes, technological devices degrade the learning performance of the students. Positive Effects of Technological Devices refers to the factors that the researcher believes, technological devices improves and enhance the learning performance of the students. Technological device refers to any device that helps you to do school work as and as for entertainment. It is technology that allows those tasks to be performed via cellular phone, PDA, vehicles, laptops, and computer.
  13. 13. Theoretical Framework This parts deal with the theories and concepts related to the study. According to Austin (2009), he explains the bases of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) is based on three cognitive science principles of learning: the human information processing system includes dual channels for visual/pictorial and auditory/verbal processing (i.e., dual-channels assumption); each channel has limited capacity for processing (i.e., limited capacity assumption); and active learning entails carrying out a coordinated set of cognitive processes during learning (i.e., active processing assumption). The cognitive theory of multimedia learning specifies five cognitive processes in multimedia learning: selecting relevant words from the presented
  14. 14. text or narration, selecting relevant images from the presented illustrations, organizing the selected words into a coherent verbal representation, organizing selected images into a coherent pictorial representation, and integrating the pictorial and verbal representations and prior knowledge. Mayer (2010), the three cognitive principles of learning, the CTML outlines seven factors of multimedia design, multimedia principle (people learn better from words and pictures than from words alone); spatial contiguity principle (people learn better when related words and pictures are in close proximity); temporal contiguity principle (people learn better when related words and pictures are close together in time); coherence principle (people learn better when irrelevant words, pictures, and sounds are eliminated from the presentation); modality principle (people learn better from narration and animation than from text and animation); redundancy principle (people learn better from narration and animation compared to animation, narration, and text); and individual differences principle (individuals with low prior content knowledge and individuals with high spatial skills benefit most from animation and narration-presented), and evaluated these principles based on transfer.
  15. 15. Based on Osman (2008)-Transfer Theory, the effect perspective: Positive vs. Negative Transfer. Given that the purpose of the current study focused on transfer, it is important to note how transfer can elicit both positive as well as negative outcomes. Positive transfer is the primary goal of education. What is learned in one context helps enhance learning in a different context. In contrast, negative transfer is a type of error in learning where a previously learned context interferes with the acquisition of an adaptive response to a new context that is similar to the first (Cree & Macaulay, 2000). Negative interpretations prevent relevant skill knowledge from being applied to practiced and unpracticed goals which leads to negative transfer, whereas positive assessments will enable the transfer of relevant skilled knowledge to different goals.
  16. 16. Conceptual Framework IV Technological Devices (computer, laptop. cellphone) DV Learning Performance of Information Technology students Figure 1 shows hypothesized relation between variables on the Effect of Technological Devices to the performance of I.T. students. Independent variables are the technological devices (computer, laptop, net book, notebook, cellular phone, and tablet). These technological devices are the response variable which is observed and measured to determine the performance of the students, which is dependent variable.
  17. 17. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents a review of local and foreign literature and studies which have relevance to study. Foreign Literature Technology aids student expression. Present what they have learned. They can use software to make presentations and projects. This makes them more interested in the subject and leads to better retention of information. With technological aids, they can make easy-toremember notes and a creative presentation of the information they have acquired. It won't be wrong to say that application of technology has made a student's life easy. It's easier for students to carry a PDA than carrying big fat books to school. An iPad is less bulky than a pile of notebooks or an eBook reader much lighter than a book. (Andersen and Becker, 2009)
  18. 18. Due to the rapid expansiveness of technology and its wide array of uses, the incorporation of technology in learning has become a viable and inexpensive option. Almost three-quarters of Americans, 73% believe that investing in innovation and advanced technology sciences in education is the key to the country’s longterm success (Harris Interactive, 2009). Based on Freeman Dyson, 2008 he stated that ―Technology is a teaching aid: Computers offer an interactive audio-visual medium. PowerPoint presentations and animation software can be used to present information in an interactive way. Owing to the audio-visual effects, this way of teaching invites greater interest from students. The method is equally helpful for teachers. Projectors and screens facilitate simultaneous
  19. 19. viewing of information by a large number of students. Addressing systems using microphones and speakers make it possible for teachers to reach a larger number of students simultaneously. These teaching aids have led to improvements in student attendance and their attentiveness in class. Interactive media have proven to be useful in increasing students' concentration levels.‖ It only means that through using those technological devices the students may improve their learning performance. Technology has revolutionized the field of education. The importance of technology in schools cannot be ignored. In fact, with the onset of computers in education, it has become easier for teachers to impart knowledge and for students to acquire it. The use of technology has made the process of teaching and learning enjoyable. (Muir-Herzig, 2008)
  20. 20. E-Reader devices like the iPad are in demand in our current society. The ability to gather textual information with a single touch on a screen makes e-reader devices highly valued. The pad has the advantages of the book without its drawbacks— the bulk, the limitations on how much text can be made to fit into a single volume, and the problem that annotating a paper book means, in some ways, ruining it (Ragen, 2008). However, it is important to realize that failure to present multimedia technology in an appropriate form can lead to negative results. The perception of display on a multimedia application is of significant importance in terms of transfer learning. In fact, too much multimedia stimulation can interfere with the deeper cognitive processing that is critical to learning (Mayer, Griffith, Jurkowitz, & Rothman, 2008).
  21. 21. According to them technological devices may affect the learning performance of the student in negative result if they failed to use properly those devices in a right way. Guide for Designing Interactive Teaching for the World guide Web the Internet used to exchange Information in hyper formats and a dynamic electronic network that permits computers connected anywhere on that network to exchange information. It is different from World Wide Web, but for the project, we will use them synonym and hypermedia-based instructional program which utilizes the attributes of resources to create a meaningful learning environment where learning is fostered and supported. (David W. Brooks, 2007) As what Brooks explained, he simply says that through the use of technological devices the learning performance of the students may affect through interactive teaching for the world guide web.
  22. 22. ―Most of our youth and students today are found of going into internet shop to use computer, without knowledge of their knowledge of their parents what they are up to you. They will ask money from their parents telling that they have something to search in the internet for their project or assignments, although others do so, but there are some who just make it as an alibi so that they can competent skills with their peers through playing games online like for example war craft, battle realms, etc‖. (Khan, 2007)
  23. 23. Foreign Studies In the field of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL), the term ―Net Gerneration‖ has been clearly defined by Prensky (2010) who states that Net Generation members are ―digital natives‖ since they ―spent their entire lives surrounded by and using computers, videogames, digital music players, video cams, cell phones, and all the other toys and tools of the digital age‖ which make them different from the baby boomer generation.
  24. 24. Those who are eager to learn more about the language learning needs and necessities of the Net Generation, the edited book by Oxford and Oxford (2009), entitled Net Generation is a must-read resource. The book describes empirical studies involving different innovative technologies and state-of-the-art tools, offering pedagogical ideas , effective strategies, and useful suggestions on how these technologies could be applied to enhance language teaching and learning. Also, educational technology usage in practice teaching can make instruction to be much more interesting and enjoyable. The changing images and use of special effects, among others can reduce boredom on the part of learners. Furthermore, classroom interaction can be interactive. Technology can promote student-student interaction, student-teacher interaction, and teacher-student interaction, if pre- instructional planning incorporates principles such as stimulus variation, feedback, reinforcement, learner’ participation and so on. (Weiner, 2009)
  25. 25. It's easier to store information: Computers enable better and more robust storage of information. Compact memory devices have replaced notebooks and a keyboard and computer mouse are the new writing devices. What may have required hundred pages of a book can be compacted into a tiny memory chip. It can take hours to write, but it takes only seconds to type. Storing data has become much easier, owing to technology. (Parsad and Jones, 2008) Information is easily accessible: The Internet is a huge information base. It can be used an effective tool for acquiring knowledge. All a web user needs to do is to key in queries to search engines. Users are presented with thousands of search results. There are several websites and web directories that offer information on literally everything in the world. And all this is just a few clicks away. Both teachers and students can benefit from this.
  26. 26. Technology has eliminated space and time constraints: Online education and distance learning have given a new dimension to education and higher learning. Even if students are geographically far away from each other, they can be a part of one classroom. Though not physically but virtually, they can. Many educational institutes offer online courses, which eliminates time and space constraints in acquiring education. Universities offer online educational programs wherein students can interact with their teachers over the Internet, access reference material from the University website and earn degrees online. (Trotter, 2008)
  27. 27. Local Literature Technology also saves teaching time as they require shorttime to present large information. They can be used to reveal needs and stimulate students’ question. Thus learners’ interest can be aroused, maintained, and stimulated to promote their imaginative power. On the whole, media ensure the application of classroom-oriented communication techniques. Therefore, learners should be assisted, encouraged and motivated not only to learn, but also to continue to learn. (Demegilio, 2009) Based on Demeligio he only means that technology is a factor to the learning of the student, not only to learn but also to renew something to learn.
  28. 28. On the Journal of Athens Academy pp-66, 2009 refers that educational technology can make student study more interesting and enjoyable. The changing images and use of special effects, among others, can reduce boredom on the part of learners. Furthermore, classroom interaction can be interactive. Technology can also promote student- student interaction, student-teacher interaction, and teacher –student interaction, if pre-instructional planning incorporates principles such as stimulus variation, feedback, reinforcement, and learner’ participation.
  29. 29. Local Studies According to Ryan T. Gertner in 2011, on his study about ―The effects of multimedia technology on learning‖ he concludes that multimedia gives light on some possible effects of it to the learning of students. This means that technological devices may affects the learning performance of a student. The recent increase in use of digital devices such as laptop computers, iPads, and web-enabled cell phones has generated concern about how technologies affect student performance. Combining observation, survey, and interview data, this research assesses the effects of technology use on student attitudes and learning. Data were gathered in eight introductory science courses at a major university.
  30. 30. Results show a significant negative correlation between in-class phone use and final grades, with use of cell phones corresponding to a drop of negative correlation between in-class phone use and final grades, with use of cell phones corresponding to a drop of 0.36 ± 0.08 on a 4-point scale where 4.0 = A. These findings are consistent with research (Ophir, Nass, and Wagner 2009, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 15583) suggesting students cannot multitask nearly as effectively as they think they can. negative correlation between in-class phone use and final grades, with use of cell phones corresponding to a drop of 0.36 ± 0.08 on a 4-point scale where 4.0 = A. These findings are consistent with research (Ophir, Nass, and Wagner 2009, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 15583) suggesting students cannot multitask nearly as effectively as they think they can. While 75% of students reported regular cell phone use, observation suggests undergraduates typically underreport the frequency of their in-class use of digital devices. (The American Astronomical Society, 2012)
  31. 31. One important reason for this shortfall is that not enough dialogue to enable reflective adaptation takes place between those attempting to implement exemplary practice and the original innovators. The Center for Learning Technologies in Urban Schools is developing a ―Living Curriculum‖ collaborative relationship between developers and teachers, initially through face-to-face interaction, but increasingly through new interactive media and the formation of virtual communities for innovation. This evolution into knowledge networking is crucial for the widespread scaling-up of best practices. Gomez (2010) On-line Learning is one of the newest terms used frequently and is defined as a ―delivery of learning through the use of information communication technology via the internet where learners and instructors are physically separated‖ (Chongwony, 2010).
  32. 32. It realized that most the definitions refer to a situation in which the teacher and the learner are separated and instructional materials are conveyed through telecommunication systems. It can also be elicited that the learner has the flexibility of adjusting herself/himself to the schedule and physical location of classes. In this article, ―distance education‖ is the terminology chosen to be used. (Rosal, 2009) The important distinctions between media as symbol systems and technologies as tools or vehicles for sharing media will be used throughout this report. However, many, if not most, of the research and evaluation studies that are cited in this report are not informed by this distinction, an inconsistency that is frustrating, but inevitable. Even people who prepare dictionaries are uncomfortable with the term "media." Salomon’s (2009).
  33. 33. Bringing the electronic media into the schools could capitalize on the strong motivation qualities that these media have for children. Many children who are turned off by school are not turned off by one or another of the electronic media; quite the opposite. An educational system that capitalized on this motivation would have a chance of much greater success. Each medium has its own profile of cognitive advantages and disadvantages, and each medium can be used to enhance the impact of others. (Chaves, 2008)
  34. 34. CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY In this part the researcher discussed the methods used and the procedure applied to obtain the data needed in this study. Research Method The method used by the researcher in this study is the descriptive survey. A descriptive research involves description, analysis and interpretation of conditions that now exist. If often involves the comparison and contrast and attempted to discover the cause and effect relationship that exist in the study.
  35. 35. The descriptive survey estimated the extent to which different variables are located to each other. The distinguishing characteristics are the effort to estimate the relationship or distinguished from sample description. Descriptive research describes the nature of the situation as it exists at the time of the study and explores the cause of the particular phenomenon. The descriptive method was used to achieve the goal of this study. This method seeks to describe the present existing conditions, which in this research are the effects of technological devices to the learning performance of Information Technology (I.T.) students. In addition, it also seeks to answer questions to real facts relating to existing condition.
  36. 36. Research Design The subjects of the study are, the students of PUP Bansud campus, school year 2013-2014. They were from all levels of Information Technology (I.T.) department consisting of one hundred forty-one (141) students. The researchers used the unrestricted random sampling under scientific design. This is the best random sampling design due to no restrictions imposed; each member in the population is given an equal chance of being included in the sample.
  37. 37. Respondents of the Study The respondents of the study are, one hundred forty-one (141) I.T. students of PUP Bansud Campus which are present by the time of distribution of the questionnaire. Table 1 shows the Information Technology students of PUP Bansud Campus, the list of students who are present in conducting of this study. PUP BANSUD I.T. STUDENTS First Year I.T. Second Year I.T. Third Year I.T. Fourth Year I.T. NO. OF STUDENTS Total(n) : 30 24 55 33 141
  38. 38. Data Gathering Instruments The researchers developed a questionnaire with rating scales to gather the required information. The questionnaire was the main instrument in gathering data. Aside from the questionnaire, documentary analysis, and observation were used to gather the information needed in this study. The researcher adopted the mentioned instrument and techniques which were most appropriate for gaining insights on the effects of technological devices to the performance level of Information Technology students. The questionnaire has two parts: the students’ profile and the questions for them. The first question involves the personal data about them; second part is effects of technological devices to the students as they perceived.
  39. 39.
  40. 40. Data Gathering Procedure The needed data for the study was securing a permit in the school administration to conduct a survey. After securing the said permit, the researchers will administer the questionnaires to the respondents after giving them some background information of what are our intentions and what is study all about. The respondents will be given only 15 minutes to complete their answers and the mean is appropriate for scale option. Statistical Treatment of Data Individual responses were put in table for the statistical treatment. Mean was utilized to quantify the data gathered for subproblems 1 and 2 and Total Mean for sub problem 3. Mean is the appropriate statistical tool because there is only one descriptive interpretation that describes the availability of using technological devices of Information Technology students.
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  42. 42.
  43. 43. The following scales were used by the researcher to rate the educational technology that affects the students learning performance as: SCALES 1 2 3 4 DESCRIPTION Always Sometimes Seldom Never The variable of the study includes students’ variables and the technological devices. These are the profile of selected one hundred forty one (141) students.
  44. 44. BIBLIOGRAPHY Gertner-2011. ―THE EFFECTS OF MULTIMEDIA TECHNOLOGY ON LEARNING‖. Abilene Christian University. pp. 7-11 Drain, Drain, Sun-2012. ―IS THE GROWING USE OF ELECTRONIC DEVICES BENEFICIAL TO ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE? RESULTS FROM ARCHIVAL DATA AND A SURVEY‖. Washburn University. Volume 13, Issue . pp. 225-231 tsstudents.html