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THE EFFECTS OF
DEVICES TO THE
Polytechnic University of the
Philippines- Bansud Campus
October 09, 2013
THE PROBLEM AND IT’S BACKGROUND
Today, one of the hot issues in technology is about
technological devices. Broadly speaking, all cellular phones,
laptop and computers belong to technological devices. There’s
no denying that this technological devices has become a
significant part of students’ everyday lives. But the question is, how
are these devices affect the student’ learning?
We are witnesses to sick on how the students learning
affects by technological devices. Until now we can read in the
newspapers about the good and the bad effects the
technological devices may give to the learning of the students.
Technology has always flourished for the gain of mankind.
The major achievements of technology have left man spell-bound
and every part of the world today is enjoying the comforts
provided by technology. Thanks to technology, all the countries
are interlinked and we are now living in a global village. Modern
technology has greatly improved people's lives through different
fields such as medicine, work, education and industry, especially
education. However, we cannot say that technology is all good in
itself. It is a two-edged sword and we have to see to what extent it
has really helped improved people's standard of living. There are
many possible effects on using it. And it depends only on the way
the users used it. They have to know how to use it for their benefit
and should not abuse its use. It should be properly used rather than
rely on it totally.
These problems inspired the researcher to conduct a study
about technological devices. The researcher focused on how
students should interact to those technological devices in order to
attain learning with the help of it.
Statement of the Problem
Problem: This study aimed to know the effects of educational
devices in the learning performance of Information Technology
(I.T.) students in PUP-Bansud Campus. Specifically, it attempts to
answer the following questions.
1. What are the negative effects of common technological
devices to the performance of Information Technology (I.T.)
2. What are the positive effects of common technological devices
to the performance of Information Technology (I.T.) student?
3. Is there a significant relationship between using technological
devices and the learning performance of an Information
Technology (I.T.) student?
Statement of Hypothesis
1. There is no significant relationship between using technological
devices and the performance of an Information Technology (I.T.)
Significance of the Study
This study is about the effects of technological devices on
the learning performance of an information technology student for
this school year 2013 - 2014 in Polytechnic University of the
Philippines (PUP-Bansud Campus).
This will benefit the information technology student for they
will be more aware on using technological devices to enhance
their learning performance and not to abuse of using it.
This study was also used for the sake of their task and responsibilities
they may encounter in their future when they are also raising their
own family. Through this study technological devices may gain
insights on how to enhance the learner in using it. It may also be a
great help to them in improving their skills. Most the studies deal
with technological devices in the school facilities.
This study also benefited the professors who also
considered this study, for they will be more aware to the
importance of these technological devices to enhance their
performance in teaching.
To the future generation of students in the field of
Information Technology. To motivate them how to use
technological devices to fully determined and reached their own
skills and to contribute to the world of Information Technology.
Lastly, to the future researcher, this paper will surely
contribute to our rich bulk of literature and body of knowledge.
Future researchers especially those who will conduct study on the
same or similar framework will gain insights from the substance of
Scope and Limitation of Study
This study is limited on the effects of educational devices in
the learning performance of Information Technology (I.T.) students
in PUP-Bansud Campus.
This study focuses only to 141 information technology
students of Polytechnic University of Bansud campus who are using
technological devices, are the subject of the investigation. Each
student will be given same set of questionnaire.
This is also limited to the objectives of the study since the
researcher only wanted to determine the effects of using
technological devices to the learning performance of the
Information Technology (I.T.) students. The attainment of this study
is dependent to the answers of the respondents. The respondents
are composed of students in different courses, in PUP Bansud
The study will be conducted in this school year 2013-2014.
Any changes or progress in details and updated information
beyond the said point are not covered by the framework of this
Definition of Terms
Listed below are terms taken from this thesis, which the
researcher believe, have to be defined. This is necessary to enable
the future readers of this thesis to easily understand the contents of
Cellular phone refers to a mobile technology that allows
you to communicate with others.
Computer refers to a device that helps student to do their
school works and as for entertainment.
Laptop/Netbook/Notebook/Palmtop refers to portable
computer devices that helps student, do their school work and as
for entertainment anywhere they want.
Multimedia refers to combined use of media, such as
videos, movies, music, games, presentation, print papers, and the
Internet, as for education or entertainment. Also interactive.
Negative Effects of Technological Devices refers to the
factors that the researcher believes, technological devices
degrade the learning performance of the students.
Positive Effects of Technological Devices refers to the
factors that the researcher believes, technological devices
improves and enhance the learning performance of the students.
Technological device refers to any device that helps you
to do school work as and as for entertainment. It is technology
that allows those tasks to be performed via cellular phone, PDA,
vehicles, laptops, and computer.
This parts deal with the theories and concepts related to
According to Austin (2009), he explains the bases of
Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) is based on three
cognitive science principles of learning: the human information
processing system includes dual channels for visual/pictorial and
auditory/verbal processing (i.e., dual-channels assumption); each
channel has limited capacity for processing (i.e., limited capacity
assumption); and active learning entails carrying out a
coordinated set of cognitive processes during learning (i.e., active
processing assumption). The cognitive theory of multimedia
learning specifies five cognitive processes in multimedia learning:
selecting relevant words from the presented
text or narration, selecting relevant images from the presented
illustrations, organizing the selected words into a coherent verbal
representation, organizing selected images into a coherent pictorial
representation, and integrating the pictorial and verbal representations
and prior knowledge.
Mayer (2010), the three cognitive principles of learning, the
CTML outlines seven factors of multimedia design, multimedia principle
(people learn better from words and pictures than from words alone);
spatial contiguity principle (people learn better when related words and
pictures are in close proximity); temporal contiguity principle (people
learn better when related words and pictures are close together in time);
words, pictures, and sounds are eliminated from the presentation);
modality principle (people learn better from narration and animation
than from text and animation); redundancy principle (people learn
animation, narration, and text); and individual differences principle
(individuals with low prior content knowledge and individuals with high
spatial skills benefit most from animation and narration-presented), and
evaluated these principles based on transfer.
Based on Osman (2008)-Transfer Theory, the effect
perspective: Positive vs. Negative Transfer. Given that the purpose
of the current study focused on transfer, it is important to note how
transfer can elicit both positive as well as negative outcomes.
Positive transfer is the primary goal of education. What is learned in
one context helps enhance learning in a different context. In
contrast, negative transfer is a type of error in learning where a
previously learned context interferes with the acquisition of an
adaptive response to a new context that is similar to the first (Cree
& Macaulay, 2000). Negative interpretations prevent relevant skill
knowledge from being applied to practiced and unpracticed
goals which leads to negative transfer, whereas positive
assessments will enable the transfer of relevant skilled knowledge
to different goals.
Figure 1 shows hypothesized relation between variables on the
Effect of Technological Devices to the performance of I.T. students.
Independent variables are the technological devices
(computer, laptop, net book, notebook, cellular phone, and tablet).
These technological devices are the response variable which is observed
and measured to determine the performance of the students, which is
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents a review of local and foreign literature
and studies which have relevance to study.
Technology aids student expression. Present what they have
learned. They can use software to make presentations and projects. This
makes them more interested in the subject and leads to better retention
of information. With technological aids, they can make easy-toremember notes and a creative presentation of the information they
have acquired. It won't be wrong to say that application of technology
has made a student's life easy. It's easier for students to carry a PDA than
carrying big fat books to school. An iPad is less bulky than a pile of
notebooks or an eBook reader much lighter than a book. (Andersen and
Due to the rapid expansiveness of technology and its wide
array of uses, the incorporation of technology in learning has
become a viable and inexpensive option. Almost three-quarters of
Americans, 73% believe that investing in innovation and advanced
technology sciences in education is the key to the country’s longterm success (Harris Interactive, 2009).
Based on Freeman Dyson, 2008 he stated that
―Technology is a teaching aid: Computers offer an interactive
audio-visual medium. PowerPoint presentations and animation
software can be used to present information in an interactive way.
Owing to the audio-visual effects, this way of teaching invites
greater interest from students. The method is equally helpful for
teachers. Projectors and screens facilitate simultaneous
viewing of information by a large number of students. Addressing
systems using microphones and speakers make it possible for
teachers to reach a larger number of students simultaneously.
These teaching aids have led to improvements in student
attendance and their attentiveness in class. Interactive media
have proven to be useful in increasing students' concentration
levels.‖ It only means that through using those technological
devices the students may improve their learning performance.
Technology has revolutionized the field of education. The
importance of technology in schools cannot be ignored. In fact,
with the onset of computers in education, it has become easier for
teachers to impart knowledge and for students to acquire it. The
use of technology has made the process of teaching and learning
enjoyable. (Muir-Herzig, 2008)
E-Reader devices like the iPad are in demand in our
current society. The ability to gather textual information with a
single touch on a screen makes e-reader devices highly valued.
The pad has the advantages of the book without its drawbacks—
the bulk, the limitations on how much text can be made to fit into
a single volume, and the problem that annotating a paper book
means, in some ways, ruining it (Ragen, 2008).
However, it is important to realize that failure to present
multimedia technology in an appropriate form can lead to
negative results. The perception of display on a multimedia
application is of significant importance in terms of transfer learning.
In fact, too much multimedia stimulation can interfere with the
deeper cognitive processing that is critical to learning (Mayer,
Griffith, Jurkowitz, & Rothman, 2008).
According to them technological devices may affect the
learning performance of the student in negative result if they failed
to use properly those devices in a right way.
Guide for Designing Interactive Teaching for the World
guide Web the Internet used to exchange Information in hyper
formats and a dynamic electronic network that permits computers
connected anywhere on that network to exchange information. It
is different from World Wide Web, but for the project, we will use
them synonym and hypermedia-based instructional program
which utilizes the attributes of resources to create a meaningful
learning environment where learning is fostered and supported.
(David W. Brooks, 2007)
As what Brooks explained, he simply says that through the
use of technological devices the learning performance of the
students may affect through interactive teaching for the world
―Most of our youth and students today are found of going
into internet shop to use computer, without knowledge of their
knowledge of their parents what they are up to you. They will ask
money from their parents telling that they have something to
search in the internet for their project or assignments, although
others do so, but there are some who just make it as an alibi so that
they can competent skills with their peers through playing games
online like for example war craft, battle realms, etc‖. (Khan, 2007)
In the field of Computer-Assisted Language Learning
(CALL), the term ―Net Gerneration‖ has been clearly defined by
Prensky (2010) who states that Net Generation members are
―digital natives‖ since they ―spent their entire lives surrounded by
and using computers, videogames, digital music players, video
cams, cell phones, and all the other toys and tools of the digital
age‖ which make them different from the baby boomer
Those who are eager to learn more about the language
learning needs and necessities of the Net Generation, the edited
book by Oxford and Oxford (2009), entitled Net Generation is a
must-read resource. The book describes empirical studies involving
different innovative technologies and state-of-the-art tools,
offering pedagogical ideas , effective strategies, and useful
suggestions on how these technologies could be applied to
enhance language teaching and learning. Also, educational
technology usage in practice teaching can make instruction to be
much more interesting and enjoyable. The changing images and
use of special effects, among others can reduce boredom on the
part of learners. Furthermore, classroom interaction can be
interactive. Technology can promote student-student interaction,
student-teacher interaction, and teacher-student interaction, if
pre- instructional planning incorporates principles such as stimulus
variation, feedback, reinforcement, learner’ participation and so
on. (Weiner, 2009)
It's easier to store information: Computers enable better
and more robust storage of information. Compact memory
devices have replaced notebooks and a keyboard and computer
mouse are the new writing devices. What may have required
hundred pages of a book can be compacted into a tiny memory
chip. It can take hours to write, but it takes only seconds to type.
Storing data has become much easier, owing to technology.
(Parsad and Jones, 2008)
Information is easily accessible: The Internet is a huge
information base. It can be used an effective tool for acquiring
knowledge. All a web user needs to do is to key in queries to
search engines. Users are presented with thousands of search
results. There are several websites and web directories that offer
information on literally everything in the world. And all this is just a
few clicks away. Both teachers and students can benefit from this.
Technology has eliminated space and time constraints:
Online education and distance learning have given a new
dimension to education and higher learning. Even if students are
geographically far away from each other, they can be a part of
one classroom. Though not physically but virtually, they can. Many
educational institutes offer online courses, which eliminates time
and space constraints in acquiring education. Universities offer
online educational programs wherein students can interact with
their teachers over the Internet, access reference material from
the University website and earn degrees online. (Trotter, 2008)
Technology also saves teaching time as they require shorttime to present large information. They can be used to reveal
needs and stimulate students’ question. Thus learners’ interest can
be aroused, maintained, and stimulated to promote their
imaginative power. On the whole, media ensure the application of
classroom-oriented communication techniques. Therefore, learners
should be assisted, encouraged and motivated not only to
learn, but also to continue to learn. (Demegilio, 2009)
Based on Demeligio he only means that technology is a
factor to the learning of the student, not only to learn but also to
renew something to learn.
On the Journal of Athens Academy pp-66, 2009 refers that
educational technology can make student study more interesting
and enjoyable. The changing images and use of special effects,
among others, can reduce boredom on the part of learners.
Furthermore, classroom interaction can be interactive. Technology
can also promote student- student interaction, student-teacher
interaction, and teacher –student interaction, if pre-instructional
planning incorporates principles such as stimulus variation,
feedback, reinforcement, and learner’ participation.
According to Ryan T. Gertner in 2011, on his study about
―The effects of multimedia technology on learning‖ he concludes
that multimedia gives light on some possible effects of it to the
learning of students. This means that technological devices may
affects the learning performance of a student.
The recent increase in use of digital devices such as laptop
computers, iPads, and web-enabled cell phones has generated
concern about how technologies affect student performance.
Combining observation, survey, and interview data, this research
assesses the effects of technology use on student attitudes and
learning. Data were gathered in eight introductory science courses
at a major university.
Results show a significant negative correlation between in-class
phone use and final grades, with use of cell phones corresponding to a
drop of negative correlation between in-class phone use and final
grades, with use of cell phones corresponding to a drop of 0.36 ± 0.08 on
a 4-point scale where 4.0 = A. These findings are consistent with research
(Ophir, Nass, and Wagner 2009, Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences, 106, 15583) suggesting students cannot multitask nearly as
effectively as they think they can. negative correlation between in-class
phone use and final grades, with use of cell phones corresponding to a
drop of 0.36 ± 0.08 on a 4-point scale where 4.0 = A. These findings are
consistent with research (Ophir, Nass, and Wagner 2009, Proceedings of
the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 15583) suggesting students
cannot multitask nearly as effectively as they think they can. While 75% of
students reported regular cell phone use, observation suggests
undergraduates typically underreport the frequency of their in-class use
of digital devices. (The American Astronomical Society, 2012)
One important reason for this shortfall is that not enough
dialogue to enable reflective adaptation takes place between
those attempting to implement exemplary practice and the
original innovators. The Center for Learning Technologies in Urban
Schools is developing a ―Living Curriculum‖ collaborative
relationship between developers and teachers, initially through
face-to-face interaction, but increasingly through new interactive
media and the formation of virtual communities for innovation. This
evolution into knowledge networking is crucial for the widespread
scaling-up of best practices. Gomez (2010)
On-line Learning is one of the newest terms used
frequently and is defined as a ―delivery of learning through the use
of information communication technology via the internet where
learners and instructors are physically separated‖ (Chongwony,
It realized that most the definitions refer to a situation in
which the teacher and the learner are separated and instructional
materials are conveyed through telecommunication systems. It
can also be elicited that the learner has the flexibility of adjusting
herself/himself to the schedule and physical location of classes. In
this article, ―distance education‖ is the terminology chosen to be
used. (Rosal, 2009)
The important distinctions between media as symbol
systems and technologies as tools or vehicles for sharing media will
be used throughout this report. However, many, if not most, of the
research and evaluation studies that are cited in this report are not
informed by this distinction, an inconsistency that is frustrating, but
inevitable. Even people who prepare dictionaries are
uncomfortable with the term "media." Salomon’s (2009).
Bringing the electronic media into the schools could
capitalize on the strong motivation qualities that these media have
for children. Many children who are turned off by school are not
turned off by one or another of the electronic media; quite the
opposite. An educational system that capitalized on this
motivation would have a chance of much greater success. Each
medium has its own profile of cognitive advantages and
disadvantages, and each medium can be used to enhance the
impact of others. (Chaves, 2008)
In this part the researcher discussed the methods used and
the procedure applied to obtain the data needed in this study.
The method used by the researcher in this study is the
description, analysis and interpretation of conditions that now exist.
If often involves the comparison and contrast and attempted to
discover the cause and effect relationship that exist in the study.
The descriptive survey estimated the extent to which
different variables are located to each other. The distinguishing
characteristics are the effort to estimate the relationship or
distinguished from sample description. Descriptive research
describes the nature of the situation as it exists at the time of the
study and explores the cause of the particular phenomenon.
The descriptive method was used to achieve the goal of
this study. This method seeks to describe the present existing
conditions, which in this research are the effects of technological
devices to the learning performance of Information Technology
(I.T.) students. In addition, it also seeks to answer questions to real
facts relating to existing condition.
The subjects of the study are, the students of PUP Bansud
campus, school year 2013-2014. They were from all levels of
Information Technology (I.T.) department consisting of one
hundred forty-one (141) students.
The researchers used the unrestricted random sampling
under scientific design. This is the best random sampling design
due to no restrictions imposed; each member in the population is
given an equal chance of being included in the sample.
Respondents of the Study
The respondents of the study are, one hundred forty-one
(141) I.T. students of PUP Bansud Campus which are present by the
time of distribution of the questionnaire.
Table 1 shows the Information Technology students of PUP
Bansud Campus, the list of students who are present in conducting
of this study.
PUP BANSUD I.T. STUDENTS
First Year I.T.
Second Year I.T.
Third Year I.T.
Fourth Year I.T.
NO. OF STUDENTS
Data Gathering Instruments
The researchers developed a questionnaire with
rating scales to gather the required information.
The questionnaire was the main instrument in
gathering data. Aside from the questionnaire, documentary
analysis, and observation were used to gather the information
needed in this study. The researcher adopted the mentioned
instrument and techniques which were most appropriate for
gaining insights on the effects of technological devices to the
performance level of Information Technology students.
The questionnaire has two parts: the students’ profile
and the questions for them. The first question involves the personal
data about them; second part is effects of technological devices
to the students as they perceived.
Data Gathering Procedure
The needed data for the study was securing a permit in the
school administration to conduct a survey. After securing the said permit,
the researchers will administer the questionnaires to the respondents after
giving them some background information of what are our intentions
and what is study all about. The respondents will be given only 15 minutes
to complete their answers and the mean is appropriate for scale option.
Statistical Treatment of Data
Individual responses were put in table for the statistical
treatment. Mean was utilized to quantify the data gathered for subproblems 1 and 2 and Total Mean for sub problem 3.
Mean is the appropriate statistical tool because there is only
one descriptive interpretation that describes the availability of using
technological devices of Information Technology students.
The following scales were used by the researcher to rate
the educational technology that affects the students learning
The variable of the study includes students’ variables and
the technological devices. These are the profile of selected one
hundred forty one (141) students.
Gertner-2011. ―THE EFFECTS OF MULTIMEDIA TECHNOLOGY
ON LEARNING‖. Abilene Christian University. pp. 7-11
Drain, Drain, Sun-2012. ―IS THE GROWING USE OF
ELECTRONIC DEVICES BENEFICIAL TO ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE?
RESULTS FROM ARCHIVAL DATA AND A SURVEY‖. Washburn
University. Volume 13, Issue . pp. 225-231