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Speaking in English: Clauses, Phrases, and Sentences

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The second part of my English Series, which is focused on sentences and how they are formed.

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Speaking in English: Clauses, Phrases, and Sentences

  1. 1. Speaking In English Clauses, Phrases and Sentences
  2. 2. SYNTAX The study of the principles and processes by which sentences as constructed.
  3. 3. In communicating with someone else, proper syntax is essential if you want to be understood.
  4. 4. CLAUSE A clause typically consists of a noun and a finite verb, but not all clauses form a complete thought.
  5. 5. TYPES OF CLAUSES
  6. 6. Independent Clause Independent clauses demonstrate a complete thought. In other words, an independent clause can also work as a sentence.
  7. 7. Examples of Independent Clauses • • • • • • • Ride hard. Don‟t look back. It isn‟t fair. It doesn‟t matter. His painting is a masterpiece. Create something. You look up.
  8. 8. Subordinate Clause Independent clauses demonstrate a complete thought. In other words, an independent clause can also work as a sentence.
  9. 9. Examples of Subordinate Clauses • • • • When I‟m bad… …because you never had the chance. If you can‟t fight fair… …given that the committee was totally against them… • Whenever these people come down to visit… • In case things don‟t go as planned…
  10. 10. SENTENCE A sentence consists of two or more words that relate to each other syntactically to form a complete thought.
  11. 11. PARTS OF A SENTENCE
  12. 12. Every sentence contains two basic parts: a subject and a predicate.
  13. 13. THE SUBJECT The subject is one of the two main parts of a sentence. The subject is what the sentence is discussing or describing.
  14. 14. THE PREDICATE In a sentence, the predicate is used to modify the subject. In other words, the predicate is what describes or defines the subject.
  15. 15. Usually, the common formation of a sentence puts a subject first followed by the predicate. However, you can also put the predicate before the subject in a sentence.
  16. 16. Examples • • • • Dianne is very pretty. Mark walked his dog. The park was seen by Albert. The cat was chased by the dog.
  17. 17. SENTENCE CLASSIFICATION
  18. 18. Structural Classification • Simple Sentence • Compound Sentence • Complex Sentence • Compound-Complex Sentence
  19. 19. Simple Sentence Simple sentences consist of independent clauses only.
  20. 20. Examples of Simple Sentences • • • • I took the train to work today. The baby is crying. Elaine took off immediately. We prepared for the event.
  21. 21. Compound Sentence Compound sentences have two independent clauses in them which are connected together by coordinating or correlative conjunctions.
  22. 22. Examples of Compound Sentences • Mary went to movie while John bought food. • Stan perfected the exam because he studied all night. • You can circle around the town or you can take the shortcut.
  23. 23. Complex Sentence Complex sentences contain an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses in order to distinguish which idea in the sentence is most important.
  24. 24. Examples of Complex Sentences • I am excited to hear the announcement of the winner. • Matt really enjoyed the breakfast you cooked for him. • Bring some coffee before it turns cold.
  25. 25. Compound-Complex Sentence Compound-complex sentences combine the properties of both compound and complex sentence formations, such as having several independent and dependent clauses.
  26. 26. Examples of CompoundComplex Sentences • John cleaned the attic, which was full of dust, while Jenny played in the basement. • Ben‟s dog, the one with the furry tail, kept chasing Mia‟s cat, while the cat, which was very scared, kept on jumping over furniture.
  27. 27. Classification by Purpose • Declarative Sentence • Interrogative Sentence • Exclamatory Sentence • Imperative Sentence
  28. 28. Declarative Sentence The declarative sentence‟s purpose is to „declare‟, or simply make a statement. Declarative sentences always end with a period (“.”).
  29. 29. Examples of Declarative Sentences • • • • Ryan is a highly intelligent student. Rachel is very beautiful and smart. The Lion is the king of the beasts. Wolves travel in packs.
  30. 30. Interrogative Sentence The interrogative sentence is used to gather information or ask questions, and always ends up with the question mark (“?”).
  31. 31. Examples of Interrogative Sentences • • • • Who are you? What is your name? Why did the cat jump over the sofa? Where will we meet you?
  32. 32. Exclamatory Sentence The exclamatory sentence expresses intense emotion, which is why it always ends with the exclamation mark (“!”). Exclamatory sentences can have a single word expressing a complete thought.
  33. 33. Examples of Exclamatory Sentences • • • • • Aha! We did it again! We won! You are great! Wow!
  34. 34. Imperative Sentence The imperative sentence is used as a request or command, and implies urgency and need. Imperative sentences can either end with a period, question mark or exclamation point, depending on the urgency of the command.
  35. 35. Examples of Imperative Sentences • Please bring this basket to your grandma. • Don‟t do that. • Would you please turn the volume a little higher? • Be quiet!
  36. 36. Understanding the fundamentals of words, clauses and sentences will enhance your capability in speaking the English language. Focus on memorizing the concepts, and you‟re well on your way to becoming a proficient English speaker!
  37. 37. THANK YOU!
  38. 38. Credits • • • • Microsoft Power Point Wikipedia.org About.com TheFreeDictionary.com

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