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Airport introduction

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Airport introduction

  2. 2. Introduction  Airport Engineering encompasses the planning, design, and construction of terminals, runways, and navigation aids to provide for passenger and freight service.  An airport is a facility where passengers connect from ground transportation to air transportation  AIRFIELD is an area where an aircraft can land and take off, which may or may not be equipped with any navigational aids or markings
  3. 3. Air transportation  One system of transportation which tries to improve the accessibility to inaccessible areas  Provides continuous connectivity over water and land  Provide relief during emergencies and better compared to others some times  Saves productive time, spent in journey  Increases the demand of specialized skill work force
  4. 4. Air transportation  Helps tourism, generates foreign reserves  Requires heavy funds during provision and maintenance  Highly dependent on weather conditions compared to other modes  Requires highly sophisticated machinery  Adds to outward flow of foreign exchange  Purchase of equipment, airbuses etc.  Safety provisions are not adequate.  Providing a support system during the flight is complicate  Specific demarcation of flight paths and territories
  5. 5. Development of Air Transport  1903 – first successful flight by Wilbur and Orville Wright at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina  1909 – Louis Bleriot crossed English channel to England  1911 – Post was carried by air in India from Allahabad to Naini (pilot: Henri Pequet) crossing Ganga  1912 – Flight between Delhi and Karachi  1914 – Air passenger transport began in Germany
  6. 6. Development of Air Transport  1918 – first international service between France and Spain  1919 – London – Paris flight  1919 – International Commission on Air Navigation (ICAN) was established  1919 – 6 European airlines formed in Hague the International Air Traffic Association (IATA) to control the movement of air traffic and have a coordinated approach
  7. 7.  1928 – Havana Convention on civil aviation  1929 – Warsaw convention on civil aviation  1944 – international civil aviation convention  1944 – Chicago convention, establishing provisional ICAO (international civil aviation organization)  1945 – International Air Transport Association (IATA) established in meeting at Havana, Cuba  1947 – ICAO was established as a body of United Nations
  8. 8.  27, July 1949 – worlds first jet airliner made its journey from hatfield airport  1954 – Boeing Dash 80 type prototype, B707 first flight  1969 – concorde first flight  2006 – Airbus A328 made first flight (one of the biggest passenger air craft i.e., 800 persons)
  9. 9. Air Transport in India  1911 – post was carried by air in India from Allahabad to Naini  1912 – flight between Delhi and Karachi  1927 – Civil Aviation Department was established  1929 – Regular air service between Delhi and Karachi  1932 – Tata airways ltd was setup  1933 – Indian trans-continental airways ltd was formed
  10. 10.  1938 – 153 aircrafts were registered  1946 – Air transport licensing board was established  1947 – Tata changed its name to Air India Ltd  1948 – Air India International ltd was established by government  1953 – Air Transport Corporation bill was made, provision for establishing two corporations, one for the domestic services and other for the international services.
  11. 11.  1972 - The International Airport Authority of India (IAAI) was setup  to coordinate the international aviation from different locations of the country  1981 -Vayudoot service was started. It merged into Indian Airlines in 1993  1985 - Air taxi policy  1994 -Airport Authority of India (AAI) was formed by merging International Airport Authority of India (IAAI) and National Airports Authority (NAA).
  12. 12. Airport Authority of India  Controls overall air navigation in india  Constituted by an act of parliament and it came into being on 1st April, 1995  Formed by merging NAA (National Airport Authority) and IAAI (International Airport Authority of India)  Functions of AAI  Control and management of the Indian airspace extending beyond the territory limits  Design, development and operation of domestic and international airports  Construction and management of facilities
  13. 13. Functions of AAI  Development of cargo ports and facilities  Provision of passenger facilities and information systems  Expansion and strengthening of operating area  Provision of visual aids  Provision of communication and navigational aids (ex: Radar systems)
  14. 14. Aircraft components Reference:
  15. 15. Selection of site for airport  Air traffic potential  Atmospheric and meteorological conditions  Availability of land for expansion  Availability of utilities  Development of surrounding area  Ground accessibility  Presence of other airports  Regional plan  Soil characteristics  Use of air port
  16. 16. Selection of site for airport  Air traffic potential  Magnitude of passenger and freight traffic expected  Adequate access  Sufficient airspace  Circling radius should be taken care  Sufficient land  Various facilities, terminal buildings, security systems
  17. 17.  Atmospheric and meteorological conditions  Visibility  Fog, smoke, haze  Affected by wind  Development of area (industrial)  Causes reduction in frequency and hence in capacity handling  Wind  Direction and intensity  Associated topographical features (hills, valley)  Windward/leeward side  Locating development w.r.t site of airport
  18. 18.  Availability of land for expansion  Future prediction of air traffic  Land for parking vehicles, providing facilities  Land cost at later stage  Availability of land at later stage  Availability of utilities  Water, power etc.,  Sewerage, communication etc.  Generation of powerplants
  19. 19.  Development of surrounding area  Residential or sensitive area  Industrial development  Height of development  Zoning laws  Noise pollution  Movement of air pollution  Birds and hits at engines
  20. 20.  Economy of construction  Alternate sites to be examined  Availability of local construction material  Terrain even or not  Problematic areas  Water logging areas
  21. 21.  Ground accessibility  Travel time in air vs on ground  Easily approachable using all modes  Proximity to areas of trip generation  Facilities for private vehicle users  Efficient transport system
  22. 22.  Presence of other airport  Traffic volume  circling radius  Types of air crafts in different airports  May cause  Accidents, reduction in capacity
  23. 23.  Characteristics of soil  Strength of soil sub grade  Drainage of soil  Level of water table and its impact  Valley side may have flooding  Soil with good amount of pervious material like sand or gravel is considered good
  24. 24.  Use of airport  Civil or for military  Adaptability for other usage during emergencies  Surrounding area obstructions  Clear air space for take off and landing  High rise buildings not allowed  High trees are cleared off  Zoning laws are made to take care
  25. 25. Aircraft characteristics  Engine type & propulsion  Size of aircraft  Aircraft weight & wheel configuration  Minimum turning radius  Minimum circling radius  Speed  Capacity  Noise  Vortices at tail ends  Jet blast  Fuel spillage
  26. 26. Engine Type and Propulsion  Propulsion may be through any type of engine  Piston engine, jet engine (turbo jet, turbo propulsion or ram jet) or rocket engine etc.  Piston – most conventional form, fuel is converted to mechanical or electrical energy(250 to 750kmph)  Jet – these have a capacity to provide a jet with a height thrust, which is used for movement(1280 to 2400 for turbo, 4000-6000 for rocket)  Speed, power increases from piston to rockets  Operative altitude of aircraft depends up on  Type of engine  Propulsive power available to aircraft
  27. 27. Size of air craft:  One of the important aspect  Here not just the size of main body, but the size of overall wing space is considered important  Size of Aircraft involves  Fuselage length -From nose of the aircraft to the tail of the aircraft  Gear tread (distance between main gears)  Wheel base -Distance between nose gear (pilots location) and main gear(at wings connection)  Wing span decides  Width of taxi way  Clearance between two parallel traffic ways  Size of apron and hanger
  28. 28. Aircraft weight &wheel configuration  Pavement thickness, design, materials etc., depend on the weight and wheel distribution of aircraft.  Different types of weights  Maximum gross take-off weight  Total amount of weight when it is taking off from runway  Maximum standard landing weight  Fuel consumed during transport will be deducted from take-off weight  Operating empty weight  Operating at zero pay load  Pay load  Load for which revenues are generated (passengers + freight)  Zero-fuel weight  Air craft reaching destination and fuel is getting empty
  29. 29.  Wheel configuration defines how the weight will be transferred to the bottom  More the no of wheels, lesser the stress, hence less thickness enough.  Different wheel combinations available based on size of aircraft.  Single tandem, duel tandem and multi axle tandems are used based on the size and weight of air craft.  Some wheel configurations are shown in the next slide.
  30. 30. Minimum turning radius  While making a turn, the nose gear is steered and hence it makes an angle with the axis of main gear called angle of rotation.  The point of intersection of axis of main gear and line through axis of steered nose gear is called point of rotation.  Max angle varies between 50 to 60 degrees  The line joining the centre of rotation and the tip of farthest wing of aircraft is known as minimum turning radius.  If the size of the aircraft inc. , turning radius also inc.
  31. 31. Minimum circling radius  Related to movement of aircraft with in the air  It is radius in space required for the aircraft to take a smooth turn  It depends on  Type of aircraft (size, power propulsion system etc.,)  Air traffic volume  Weather condition  It is the total radius which is provided at the top of the air port in which the aircraft will be circling if it is not allowed to land.
  32. 32. Speed  Air speed  Speed of air craft in air relative to medium.  Ground speed  Speed of aircraft on ground  Air speed = ground speed +or- Wind speed
  33. 33. Capacity of air craft  No of passengers and amount of cargo it can handle  Dependant on  Size  Propulsive power of aircraft  Speed of air craft
  34. 34. Noise  Big problem if nearer to developed areas  Major sources of noises are  Engine  Machinery (more during landing)  Primary jet (more during take-off)  Disturbances are more during take off  Since the inception of jet engines the noise has been reduced to a great extent
  35. 35. Vortices at tail end  Vortices form at tail when moving at high speed  Have a tendency to break tail if they are heavy and eddies are formed  Vortices are made of 2 counter rotating cylindrical masses of air extending along the path  These are formed near tail ends of wings or tail end of aircraft  The velocity of wind in these vortices will be very high
  36. 36. Jet blast  This aspect belongs to aircrafts having jet engines  This is the blast that comes out of jet engine at the rear of air craft to provide a force for movement  If we consider the case where air craft is standing and jet blast is coming from back side, it is so hot and creates severe conditions  The severity depends on  Height of tail pipe  Angle of tail pipe  Hence, blast fences are needed to control the damage to the pavements
  37. 37. Fuel spillage  Spilling of fuel occurs when the engine is shutdown or loosing speed  It is spilled fuel from the engine or other locations into the aircraft. This may cost the speed when it is moving on runways or taxiways or apron.
  38. 38. Engine type and propulsion decides  Size of the aircraft  Speed  length of the runway (more speed ->longer runway)  Weight (more if bigger propulsion system)  Carrying capacity (depends on size)  Noise (depends on propulsion system)  Circling radius (high power, and speed crafts have high radius)  Range (distance it can move without refueling)  Maintenance facilities  Ballast pads (required for jet propulsion)
  39. 39.  Size of aircraft influences  Load carrying capacity  Other facilities like apron, terminal area etc.  Bigger the size larger are facilities to be provided at airport terminal building  Wing span will increase with size  It has effect on taxiway width  Separation between traffic lanes  Size of gate, apron size, width of hanger etc.  Length  Widening of taxiway on curves, apron, hangers, width of exit way  Height : further influences height of hanger gate  Wheel base, gear tread also changes
  40. 40.  Aircraft wheel configuration  Thickness of runway, taxiway, apron  Distribution of load to ground  Turning (difficult for more weight in case of sharp curves)  Stability (depends on the support system provided and also depends on wheel configuration)
  41. 41.  Minimum turning radius  Radius of taxiways  Taxiway is the connecting pavement which is provided between the runways and aprons  Minimum circling radius:  Defines the minimum distance between 2 near by airports  For larger aircrafts it will be in kms hence more distance is required between 2 airports  Adjustments of timings of landing and takeoff  Airport capacity(decrease with increased air circle time)  Zoning laws related to height of obstruction
  42. 42.  Speed  Reduces journey time  Increase in frequency of operations  Improving and broadening the air network system  Capacity  Processing terminals  Passenger and baggage handling facilities  Cargo processing  Size of apron, special equipments etc.
  43. 43.  Vortices at tail ends  Hazardous to aircraft  Stresses at fuselage and other joints  Pressure under wings producing lifts and drags  Jet blast  Inconvenience to passengers  May do harm to airport runways and other components of airport  Fuel slippage  Badly effects bitumen pavements  Causes slip of wheels