1. Theory of reasoned action
2. Elaboration likelihood theory
2 Theories in management & Marketing
1. Theory of reasoned action:
The Theory of Reasoned Action was initiated by Ajzen and Fishbein: it is a consumer
behavior theory that focuses on the relationship between marketing and the
preexisting attitudes of consumers in their purchasing decisions. It suggests
consumers act on behaviors that they believe will create or receive a particular
The consumers’ acts are determined by two independent variables, their attitudes and
Attitudes are feelings that are believed to be a positive or negative in relation to the
achievement of an objective.
Subjective norms are person’s beliefs about how people around them judge their
behavior to be right or not.
This has led marketers to several insights such as associating a purchase with a
specific positive result.
1. Elaboration likelihood theory:
The Elaboration Likelihood theory (ELM) which was developed by Richard E. Petty and John Cacioppo,
proposes that each and every message is undergoing the process of persuasion in two different ways. They
are called Central route and peripheral route. Both of them are effective persuasion techniques, but each of
them has its own guiding techniques to make them more operative.
The process of persuasion through Central route is straight to the point and complete. It is informational
and structured, and focuses on a high level of cognition where the individuals are heavily involved in the
decision. It requires more involvement from the part of the addressee that should carefully analyze the
message in every possible angle.
The peripheral route is the opposite, instead of the credibility of the source and statistics, it values the
attractiveness. Here the receiver of the message is not sure whether to agree with the message or to
disagree, so finally, he will be persuaded by the peripheral factors. this is where packing, marketing,
advertising and other PR factors does their job.