2. » Western Economic ExpansionWestern Economic Expansion
+ Need Raw materials & Markets
˃ Capitalistic Free Market - COMMERCIAL
+ Strong should Go get it!
+ Going and getting it!
˃ POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY
+ Every country does what is in its best
+ There is a role for the masses in decision
» ““Traditional & Isolated” OldTraditional & Isolated” Old
World EMPIRESWorld EMPIRES
˃ Ottoman Empire, Qing Dynasty,
Tokugawa Shogunate, Russian
4. » Romanov Dynasty
˃ Ag / Command Economy
˃ Serfs Freed!
˃ Ex-Serfs Factories as Russia
» Orthodox Church
Nicholas & Alexandra
5. » Confucian Scholars
» Mandate of Heaven
» Qing - foreign overlords
» Only Canton open to
Powerful landlord class
Cixi, Dowager Empress 1904
6. » Bakufu
» Floating Worlds
» Seclusion Policy
» Edo- largest city in
» Japan – most urban
» Peasants in cities –
wait! Who is
7. » STUNNING Military DEFEATSSTUNNING Military DEFEATS
˃ Ottomans – Russian
˃ China - Opium Wars
˃ Russia - Lost Crimean War,
Japanese War, WWI
˃ Japan- Admiral Perry’s Arrival
with Black Boats to force
Why did they enter these
Wars? Maybe they did not
Believe how far behind they were…
8. 1. Conservative -Traditional -Conservative -Traditional -
Autocratic – Absolute RulersAutocratic – Absolute Rulers
No individual rights
Dissent not permitted
Old Rules / Protocols
2.2. People Rebelled against theirPeople Rebelled against their
- inability to solve crises crises/ govern
- insistence on fighting wars they were
not equipped to win
- waste of human life,
- disregard for the people under the law.
Of Old World EmpiresOf Old World Empires
9. 3. NOT INDUSTRIALIZED3. NOT INDUSTRIALIZED
˃ No capital to invest.No capital to invest.
˃ Unskilled workforce.Unskilled workforce.
˃ Insufficient infrastructure.Insufficient infrastructure.
˃ NOT fully commercialized.NOT fully commercialized.
China & Japan – were closed
Artisan economies – little
contact with outside world,
Ottomans & Russians – agricultural
economies w/ large unskilled
peasant populations, they CHOSE not to industrialize.
All these societies were Agriculture & Artisan Societies, OR in Russia’s case, a Command
10. Western Imperialists moved in to
exploit them – for raw materials,
luxuries, strategic location, competition…
» China:China: Lost control of economy &
» Ottomans:Ottomans: Did not have the
Political Will or Cooperation of
Europe to become a European
» JapanJapan industrialized quickly
& became an imperialist
11. MOSTLY at the discretionMOSTLY at the discretion
of the Rulers… Did NOT WANT TOof the Rulers… Did NOT WANT TO
GIVE UP POWER!GIVE UP POWER!
˃ RussianRussian CzarCzar granted, then rescinded,
permission for an elected legislature after the
Revolution of 1905.
Ottoman Sultan / Hamid IIOttoman Sultan / Hamid II granted, then
rescinded the Constitution, then granted again
under pressure from the Young Turks (liberal
13. A.A. WEAK MILITARY &WEAK MILITARY &
˃ European Armies better
˃ Janissary Corps politically
˃ Provincial Governors gained
power & pulled away
+ Egyptian Pasha Muhammad Ali
16. » No trade in Atlantic Ocean
» Exported raw materials,
goods from Europe
Balance of Trade deficit.
» Foreign Loans with high
˃ Modernize railroads,
18. The Auspicious EventThe Auspicious Event
• 1826 - Janissaries rebelled against the new
European-style army being formed by the
• Upon their retreat to their barracks, the sultan’s cavalry
fired 15 volleys into the barracks, killing over 4,000
• Survivors were executed or banished, and two years
later Mahmud II confiscated the last Janissary
possessions & beheaded the remaining Janissaries.
19. » Military Academies
˃ No more Devshirme, Janissaries
˃ Orient Express
Sultan Mahmud II - Reformer
˃ European-style ministries & Constitution
˃ Broad Legal Reforms - Modeled after Napoleon’s
+ public trials,
+ equality before the law for all Ottomans
whether Muslim or not…
˃ State Reform of Education
+ Free compulsory primary education – boys
22. » Secret society: progressive
dissenting university students and
» Formed cells, in which only
one member might be connected to
23. » Ottoman Empire had tried to change, but was left
weak, divided, & vulnerable… and at the mercy of
its alliances against imperialist Russia…
» Ottoman Empire entered World War I in the
Ottoman-German Alliance in 1914, and was
DEFEATED. After the war, the victorious Allied
Powers sought to dismember the Ottoman state.
24. » Mustafa KemalMustafa Kemal
» ““AtaturkAtaturk” - Father of the Turks
» Leader of the Young Turks
» Founder, 1st
˃ Democratic, Secular, Unitary,
25. » EqualityEquality before the law,before the law,
» Freedom of/from religionFreedom of/from religion,,
» SecularizationSecularization of the stateof the state
» Free public educationFree public education,,
» Emancipation of womenEmancipation of women..
» RestoredRestored Constitution &Constitution &
˃ UnitaryUnitary,, not Federalnot Federal
Gov= Centralized power.Gov= Centralized power.
» NationalisticNationalistic: “Turk,” rather than
» Wanted to be considered part of
» Parliament composed of
working on behalf of the people
without cooperating in any capacity
with the 'ignorant' masses
» European-style legal system, laws.
» Arabic script Turkish writing
using European Roman script.
» Eliminated mandatory Arabic call to prayer, the
caliphate, and all the mystical Sufi orders of Islam.
Efforts to emulate this secularization have been
unsuccessful in other Islamic states.
28. » Like the Ottoman Empire, Russia was
29. » Support Russian Orthodox
Church, Church legitimized rule
» Support Feudal Nobility –
˃ Owned most of land, paid no tax
˃ Serfs bound to the land
˃ Social Stability
» Autocratic rule
30. » Russian expansion…
Mediterranean area:Mediterranean area:
Europeans (Brit, Fr, Sardinia)
allied with Ottomans to stop
» Russia learned itRussia learned it
needed toneeded to
31. » Emancipation of the Serfs
˃ Rural instability & peasant revolt
˃ Needed in industrial centers
˃ But – Terms of emancipation NOT FAIRNOT FAIR!
+ Few political rights
+ Pay redemption tax for little land rec’d
-> in debt for rest of their lives!
+ Felt they were forced to pay for land that shouldFelt they were forced to pay for land that should
have been given to them!have been given to them!
˃ More alienation & radicalization ofMore alienation & radicalization of
peasants as they realized this and aspeasants as they realized this and as
they moved to cities!they moved to cities!
»Russo-Japanese War – 1904-
˃ Attempt to annex Korea,
˃ Japanese surprise attack on
Port Arthur in Feb. 1904
˃ Russia LOST: JapaneseRussia LOST: Japanese
destroyed Russian Navy in adestroyed Russian Navy in a
sneak attacksneak attack. That was a
33. » Emancipation of the serfs w/oEmancipation of the serfs w/o
Land redistribution!Land redistribution!
» State-sponsored industrialization!State-sponsored industrialization!
» Zemstvo (assemblies) mostly nobles!Zemstvo (assemblies) mostly nobles!
» Czars refused to curtail theirCzars refused to curtail their
own absolute power!own absolute power!
Political opposition becamePolitical opposition became
34. Witte SystemWitte System to
1.1.Remodel StateRemodel State
support and protectsupport and protect
infant industriesinfant industries
Wow, another novel idea.
Weren’t the Ottomans doing
this as well?
35. 2.2. Loans from EuropeLoans from Europe to pay for modernization ofto pay for modernization of
3. Massive railway construction to unite RussianMassive railway construction to unite Russian
people and products:people and products: Trans-Siberian RailwayTrans-Siberian Railway
36. » Low standard of living
» Factory work, city
Here it comes!
37. » University students –University students – intelligentsiaintelligentsia
˃ Wanted social change & social justice
˃ Inspiration from West
˃ But, despised individualism, materialism, unbridled capitalism…so
worked toward a socialist system
» AnarchistsAnarchists – did not want present system nor to work
toward any other system…
38. » Czarist forces, frightened by
the radicalism, censoredcensored
publications & sent secretsecret
policepolice to infiltrate & spy on
39. » Czar created a DumaDuma: Russia’s
parliamentary institution. Czar
considered this a major concession,
but the people want more.
» Urban workers at village level
created “soviets”“soviets” (urban
worker’s councils) to organize
strikes & demonstrations …
» Ethnic tensionsEthnic tensions continued…
Petrograd Soviet meets
40. » Campaign to unite theCampaign to unite the
Russian PeopleRussian People:
˃ Unite theUnite the languages & traditionslanguages & traditions –
speak Russian, not local languages
˃ Restrict educationRestrict education to those loyal to the
˃ Suspicion of JewsSuspicion of Jews grew (not really
Russian, you see)
+ Jewish neighbors’ business success
+ Jews emigrated to avoid this violence ->
Europe & US
+ FREQUENT POGROMSPOGROMS
41. » Nicholas IINicholas II (1894 – 1917)
» succeeded to the throne
when Alexander II died in
a car bombing…
» Weak rulerWeak ruler
» Oppression & controlOppression & control
Last Czar, Nicholas, and the Royal Family
45. » Manchu outlawed Opium Trade
» Confiscated & destroyed 20,000
chests of opium
» British retaliated and destroyed part
of Grand Canal
BRITISH DECLARED WAR
46. » Forced trade concessions from
» Treaty of NanjingTreaty of Nanjing – 1842
˃ BritainBritain could trade opium incould trade opium in
˃ Most favored Nation StatusMost favored Nation Status
˃ Hong KongHong Kong
˃ Open Trade PortsOpen Trade Ports
47. » Other WesternOther Western
countries wantedcountries wanted
» And Japan!And Japan!
» By 1900, China was
forced to open 9090
ports to foreigners
48. » Internal turmoil in ChinaInternal turmoil in China
˃ Population grew by 50%
˃ Land & Food more slowly
˃ Lots of povertyof poverty
» Official CorruptionOfficial Corruption
» Drug AddictionDrug Addiction
» 4 Major Rebellions4 Major Rebellions
49. » Called for end of Qingend of Qing Dynasty; resented OUTSIDER
» Radical social change:Radical social change:
˃ No private propertyNo private property
˃ No footbindingNo footbinding
˃ No concubinageNo concubinage
» Defeated by Qing & ForeignQing & Foreign troops
» Tried to blend Chinese culture &
European industrial technology
˃ Built shipyards, railroads,shipyards, railroads,
weapon industries, steelweapon industries, steel
foundries, academiesfoundries, academies
» Not enough industry for real
51. » Foreign powers also seized Chinese tribute states: :
Vietnam, Burma, Korea, Taiwan
52. » ““Society of the Righteous andSociety of the Righteous and
Harmonious Fists”Harmonious Fists”
» Secret local militia attacked
foreigners, Chinese Christians
» Crushed by European &Crushed by European &
Japanese troopsJapanese troops
» Qing collapsed: 1912
54. » LOST TERRITORY
˃ Local rulers like Egyptian Pasha
˃ Nationalist revolts on borders
» Janissaries Corrupt
disbanded & executed
» Urban riots protested
» “Sick Man of Europe”
Isolated, poor, inept.
» TANZIMAT = DEFENSIVETANZIMAT = DEFENSIVE
˃ Factories – paper, cloth, armsFactories – paper, cloth, arms
˃ Modern miningModern mining
˃ Telegraphs, RR, Steam Ships,Telegraphs, RR, Steam Ships,
Post office, Napoleonic CodePost office, Napoleonic Code
˃ Secular educationSecular education
˃ EQUAL RIGHTS FOR NON-EQUAL RIGHTS FOR NON-
MUSLIMS, 1839MUSLIMS, 1839
» Young OttomansYoung Ottomans
» Young Turks -Young Turks -
55. » Serfs Emancipated- early
1800’s - Dissatisfied
» Zemstovs- 1864
˃ District Assemblies
˃ Jury Trials, other western reforms
˃ Violent, repressive- Jews,
˃ Parliament but dissolved at will
˃ Workers organizations for strikes,
» Bolshevik Revolution!Bolshevik Revolution!
» Crimean WarCrimean War – 1853-6
˃ Ottoman Empire territory
˃ Constantinople for Christians-
˃ Huge loss of life
» Russo Japanese WarRusso Japanese War
˃ Failed to annex Korea 1904
˃ Huge loss of Life
˃ Huge loss of life
» Industrialization not
» Peasants dissatisfied
56. » Opium AddictionOpium Addiction
» Opium WarsOpium Wars 1832-42
» Unequal TreatiesUnequal Treaties 1839-
& Open Door PolicyOpen Door Policy
˃ Shipyds, Arms, factories for steel,
textiles, coal mines, telegraph,
Better Civil Service Exam… but
˃ NO SOCIAL REFORM.
˃ Land Lord class rich & abusive.
» Taiping RebellionTaiping Rebellion 1850-64
VS. Manchu outsiders, Westerners
» Boxer RebellionBoxer Rebellion
˃Westerners including Japanese
helped put down rebellion
» REPUBLIC - 1911REPUBLIC - 1911
˃End of Qing & EMPIRE
˃Sun Yat Sen – Western educated
intellectual as new President
57. » Admiral Perry’s BlackAdmiral Perry’s Black
» Unequal TreatiesUnequal Treaties
» Meiji Restoration:Meiji Restoration:
˃ United Japan as NATION STATE
˃ Destroyed Daimyo provinces
˃ Taxes, draft now from all classes
» Western FascinationWestern Fascination
˃ Adopted dress, tech, sci,
Constitutional style, ed, etc.
» Industrialized FAST!Industrialized FAST!
˃ Without Western LOANS!Without Western LOANS!
» Became Imperial PowerBecame Imperial Power
˃ Won wars against Russia &
China, Annexed Korea & Taiwan
& part of Manchuria.
Balance of Trade DEFICIT= Owe more than they were worth.
Ottoman law – largely Sharia
A unitary state is a country whose three organs of state are governed as one single unit. The political power of government in such states may well be transferred to lower levels, to national, regional or local elected assemblies, governors and mayors (devolved government), but the central government retains the principal right to recall such delegated power (e.g. the period when Farum Municipality was ruled by the Danish Government for a time, or the era of direct rule in Northern Ireland by the United Kingdom&apos;s central government in London from 1973 to 2007).
The designation unitary state contrasts with federal state. In a unitary state, any sub-governmental units can be created or abolished, and have their powers varied, by the central government. The process in which sub-government units and/or national or regional parliaments are created by a central government is known as devolution. A unitary state can broaden and narrow the functions of such devolved governments without formal agreement from the affected bodies. In federal systems, by contrast, assemblies in those states composing the federation have a constitutional existence and a set of constitutional functions which cannot be unilaterally changed by the central government. In some such cases, such as in the United States, it is the federal government that has only those powers expressly delegated to it.
Most states in the world have a unitary system of government. Many federal states also have unitary lower levels of government