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Introduction to IoT

  1. 1. By Mr.S.Selvaraj Asst. Professor(SRG) / CSE Kongu Engineering College 14ITO01 – Internet of Things Unit I – Introduction to IoT
  2. 2. Contents 1. Introduction to Internet of Things 2. Definition and Characteristics of IoT 3. Physical Design of IoT 4. IoT Protocols 5. IoT Communication Models 6. IoT Communication APIs 7. IoT enabled Technologies 7.1 Wireless Sensor Networks 7.2 Cloud Computing 7.3 Big data analytics 7.4 Communication Protocols 7.5 Embedded Systems 8. IoT Levels and Templates 1/7/2021 2Introduction to IoT
  3. 3. 1. Introduction to IoT • IoT comprises things that have unique identities and are connected to the internet. • The focus on IoT is in – Configuration – Control and – Networking via the Internet of devices or things that are traditionally not associated with the internet. • Devices such as – Thermostats – Utility meter – A Bluetooth connected headset – Irrigation pumps and sensors – Control circuits for an electric car’s engine 1/7/2021 3Introduction to IoT
  4. 4. 1. Introduction to IoT • IoT is driven by the following advancements – Sensor networks – Mobile Devices – Wireless Communication – Networking – Cloud Computing 1/7/2021 4Introduction to IoT
  5. 5. 1. Introduction to IoT • In 2020: – Population of India in billion ------- ???? – World Population in billion --------????????? – IoT Devices Population ------- ? 1/7/2021 5Introduction to IoT
  6. 6. 1. Introduction to IoT • The scope of IoT is not limited to just connecting things (devices, appliances, machines) to the internet. • IoT allows the things to communicate and exchange data(D). • Data itself does not have a meaning until it is processed into useful information(I). • The information is then organized and structured into knowledge(K). 1/7/2021 6Introduction to IoT
  7. 7. 1. Data – Information – Knowledge 1/7/2021 7Introduction to IoT
  8. 8. 1. DIK - Example • Example 1: • Consider a series of raw sensor measurements ((72,45); (84,56)) generated by a weather monitoring station, which by themselves do not have any meaning or context. (Data) • For example, ((72,45),(84,56)) • To give meaning to the data, a context is added, which in this example can be that each tuple in data represents the temperature and humidity measured every minute. Further information is obtained by categorizing, condensing or processing this data. (Information) • For example, the average temperature and humidity readings for last 5 minutes. • The next step is to organize the information and understand the relationships between pieces of information to infer knowledge which can be put into action. (Knowledge) • For example, an alert is raised if the average temperature in last five minutes exceeds 120F, and the alert may be conditioned on the users geographical area as well. 1/7/2021 8Introduction to IoT
  9. 9. 1. Applications of IoT • Homes – Smart Lighting, Smart Appliances, IDS, SSD, etc. • Cities – Smart Parking System, Smart Roads, • Environment – WMS,ANP,FFD,RFDS • Energy Systems – Smart Grids, • Retail – IMS, Smart Payments, SVM • Logistics – SCM, Smart Location Management System • Industry – Machine Diagnosis and Prognosis System, IAQS • Agriculture – Smart Irrigation • Health – HFMS1/7/2021 9Introduction to IoT
  10. 10. 2.Definition and Characteristics of IoT • IoT Definition: • A dynamic global network infrastructure with self- configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual "things" have identities, physical attributes, and virtual personalities and use intelligent interfaces, and are seamlessly integrated into the information network, often communicate data associated with users and their environments. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 10
  11. 11. 2.Definition and Characteristics of IoT • Characteristics of IoT: – Dynamic & Self-Adapting – Self-Configuring – Interoperable Communication Protocols – Unique Identity – Integrated into Information Network 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 11
  12. 12. 1. Dynamic and Self - Adapting • IoT devices and systems may have the capability to dynamically adapt with the changing context and take actions based on their operating conditions, users context or sensed environment. • For Example, – Surveillance cameras • Adapt their modes (Normal and IR Mode). • Switch from lower resolution to higher resolution modes. • Alerting nearby cameras. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 12
  13. 13. 2. Self Configuring • IoT devices allowing a large number of devices to work together to provide certain functionality (Ex. Weather Monitoring System) • IoT devices are able to – Configure themselves – Setup the networking – Fetch latest software upgrades 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 13
  14. 14. 3. Interoperable Communication Protocols • IoT Devices may support number of interoperable communication protocols and can communicate with other devices and also with the infrastructure. • Example Communication Protocols, – LR-WPAN (IEEE 802.15.4) – Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (Zigbee, Z-Wave, WirelessHART, MiWi) – BLE (IEEE 802.15.1) – Bluetooth Low Energy – WiFi-HaLow (IEEE 802.11ah) – Low Power Long Range version of WiFi IEEE 802.11 – LoRaWAN – low power Long Range Wide Area Network – 6LoWPAN – IPv6 over Low Power Wireless Personal Area Network – WiFi (IEEE 802.11) – Wireless Fidelity – WiMax (IEEE 802.16) – Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access – 2G/ 3G/ 4G LTE – Long Term Evolution 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 14
  15. 15. 4. Unique Identity • IoT device has unique identity and a unique identifier. (Identifier means IP address or URI) • IoT systems may have intelligent interfaces, which allow users to – Query the device – Monitor the device status – Control the device remotely 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 15
  16. 16. 5. Integrated into Information Network • Integration allows the IoT devices to communicate and exchange data with other devices and systems. • Integration helps in making IoT systems “smarter” due to the collective intelligence of individual devices in collaboration with the infrastructure. • Example: Weather Monitoring System 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 16
  17. 17. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 17
  18. 18. 3.0 Physical Design of IoT • “Things” – IoT devices with unique identities and can perform the following tasks: – Remote sensing – Actuating – Monitoring capabilities 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 18
  19. 19. IoT Devices Capabilities • Collect data from other devices and process the data locally or • Exchange data with other connected devices and applications (directly or indirectly), or • Send the data to centralized servers or cloud-based application back-ends for processing the data, or • Perform some tasks locally and other tasks within the IoT infrastructure, based on temporal and space constraints (i.e Memory) 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 19
  20. 20. IoT Device Interfaces • An IoT device may consist of several interfaces for connections to other devices, both wired and wireless. – I/O interfaces for sensors and actuators – Interfaces for Internet connectivity – Memory interfaces – Storage interfaces – Audio/video interfaces. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 20
  21. 21. Generic Block Diagram of an IoT Devices 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 21 • UART – Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter • SPI – Serial Peripheral Interface • I2C – Inter Integrated Circuit • CAN – Controller Area Network • USB – Universal Serial Bus • RJ45 – Registered Jack • NAND/NOR – Negated AND / OR • DDR - Double Data Rate • SD – Secure Digital • MMC – Multi Media Card • SDIO – Secure Digital Input and Output • HDMI – High Definition Multimedia Interface • 3.5 mm – Headphone Jack (3.5 mm) • RCA – Radio Corporation of America • CPU – Central Processing Unit • GPU – Graphics Processing Unit
  22. 22. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 22 Block Diagram of Raspberry Pi 3 Model
  23. 23. Steps for IoT Device Usage • Step 1: Collects various types of data from the on-board or attached sensors. For example, – Temperature – Humidity – Light intensity – Motion • Step 2: Sensed data can be communicated to other devices or cloud-based servers/storage. • Step 3: Perform some tasks using Actuators. – Actuator is actually a device that transforms a certain form of energy into motion. – Actuator allow IoT devices to interact with other physical entities (including Non-IoT devices or systems) in the vicinity of the device. • For example, – Relay switch connected to IoT device turning an appliance on/off based on commands sent to IoT device over Internet. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 23
  24. 24. Sensors and Actuators 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 24
  25. 25. Examples: Sensor to Actuator Flow 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 25
  26. 26. Working of IoT devices • All IoT devices generate data (some form), When processed by data analytics system leads to useful information to guide further actions locally or remotely. • For Example, Sensor data generated by soil moisture monitoring device in a garden, when processed can help in determining the optimum watering schedules. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 26
  27. 27. Types of IoT Devices 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 27 • Home Appliances • Amazon Echo (Alexa) • Smart Refrigerators • Smartphone's & Computers • Wearable Electronics • Smart watches • Fitness trackers • Smart Shoes • Automobiles • Fleet Management • Smart Parking • Energy Systems • Smart Metering • Smart Grid • Retail Payment Systems • Amazon Go • Printers • Industrial Machines • Healthcare Systems • Surveillance Cameras
  28. 28. How many Layers are Present in OSI Model & TCP/IP Model? 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 28
  29. 29. 4.0 IoT Protocols 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 29
  30. 30. 4.0 IoT Protocols Link Layer  802.3 – Ethernet  802.11 – WiFi  802.16 – WiMax  802.15.4 – LR-WPAN  2G/3G/4G - Cellular Network/Internet Layer  IPv4  IPv6  6LoWPAN Transport Layer  TCP  UDP Application Layer  HTTP  CoAP  WebSocket  MQTT  XMPP  DDS  AMQP 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 30
  31. 31. Link Layer Protocols • Link Layer Responsibilities: – Determine how the data is physically sent over the network’s physical layer or medium (Wired/Wireless). – Scope of LL – local network connection to which host is attached. – Determines how the packets are coded and signaled by h/w device over the medium to which the host is attached. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 31
  32. 32. LL Protocol - IEEE 802.3 - Ethernet • Collection of wired Ethernet standards • Provide data rates from 10 Mbps to 40 Gbps 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 32 Standards Type Medium Data Rate 802.3 10BASE 2/5 Coaxial cable 10 Mbps 802.3i 10BASE – T Copper twisted pair 10 Mbps 802.3j 10BASE - F Fiber optics 10 Mbps 802.3u 100BASE- TX / T4/ FX Copper Twisted Pair / Fiber optics 100 Mbps 802.3z 1000BASE- X Fiber optics 1000 Mbps 802.3ae 10GBASE – SR/LR/ER Fiber optics 10 Gbps 802.3bm 40G Ethernet Fiber optics 40Gbps
  33. 33. LL Protocol - IEEE 802.11- WiFi • Collection of wireless LAN(WLAN) communication standards • Provides data rates from 1 Mbps to 6.75 Gbps 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 33 Standards Bands Data Rate 802.11a 5GHz 1 – 54 Mbps 802.11b 2.4GHz 1 – 54 Mbps 802.11g 2.4GHz 1 – 54 Mbps 802.11n 2.4/5GHz 300 – 600 Mbps 802.11ac 5GHz 300 Mbps – 3.5 Gbps 802.11ad 60GHz 6.75 Gbps 802.11aj 60GHz 15 Gbps 802.11ay 60GHz 20 Gbps
  34. 34. LL Protocol - IEEE 802.16 - WiMax • Collection of wireless broadband standards • Provide data rates from 1.5 Mbps to 1 Gbps • 802.16m - 100Mb/s for Mobile stations - 1 Gb/s for Fixed stations 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 34
  35. 35. LL Protocol - IEEE 802.15.4 – LR-WPAN • Collection of standards for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs). • Provide low-cost and low-speed communication for power- constrained devices • Basis of spec for high level comm. Protocol such as, – Zigbee – WirelessHART – MiWi – Z-Wave • Provides data rates from 40 Kbps to 250 Kbps 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 35
  36. 36. LL Protocol - 2G/3G/4G – Cellular • 2G – GSM,CDMA • 3G – UMTS,CDMA2000 • 4G – LTE • IoT devices using these standards communicate over cellular networks • Provides data rates from 9.6Kbps (2G) to 100 Mbps(4G) 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 36
  37. 37. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 37
  38. 38. Network/Internet Layer • Network Layer Responsibilities: – Responsible for sending of IP datagrams from source network to the destination network. – Performs the host addressing and packet routing. • Source N/W  Datagrams (SA,DA)  Destination N/w – Host Identification is done using hierarchical IP addressing schemes (IPv4/IPv6). 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 38
  39. 39. N/w Layer protocol - IPv4 • Used to identify the devices on a network using a hierarchical addressing scheme. • Uses 32- bit address scheme that allows total of 232 or 4,294,967,296 addresses. • succeeded by IPv6. • Establish connections on packet networks, but not guarantee delivery of packets. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 39
  40. 40. N/w Layer protocol - IPv6 • Newest version of IP. • Uses 128-bit address scheme. • It allows total of 2128 or 3.4 x 1038 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 40
  41. 41. N/w Layer protocol - 6LoWPAN • Brings IP Protocol to the low-power devices which have limited processing capacity. • Operates in the 2.4GHz frequency range. • Provides data transfer of 250Mb/s. • Works with 802.15.4 link layer protocol. • Defines compression mechanisms for IPv6 datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4 based netwoks. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 41
  42. 42. Transport Layer 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 42 • Transport Layer Responsibilities: – It Provides end-to-end message transfer capability. – This capability can be achieved by setting up on connections, • Using handshake (TCP) • Without using handshake (UDP) – Transport layer provides functions such as, • Error Control • Segmentation • Flow Control • Congestion Control
  43. 43. Transport Layer Protocol - TCP • Transmission Control Protocol • Most Widely Used Transport layer protocol • Used by – Web browsers (HTTP/HTTPS) – Email (SMTP) – File Transfer (FTP) • It is a connection oriented and stateful protocol. • It ensures reliable transfers. • It is also provides Error Control, Flow Control and Congestion Control Capabilities. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 43
  44. 44. Transport Layer Protocol - UDP • User Datagram Protocol • Its useful for time-sensitive applications • Used by – Multimedia Applications (Video Conferencing, Video Streaming) – Multicast and Broadcast Messages (ARP) – Domain Name Service (DNS) • It is a connectionless (Transaction Oriented) and stateless protocol. • It doesn’t provide guarantee for data delivery, ordering of message and duplicate elimination; so it provides unreliable transfers. • It doesn't provide Error Control, Flow Control and Congestion Control Capabilities. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 44
  45. 45. Application Layer 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 45 • Application Layer Responsibilities: – It defines how the applications interface with the lower layer protocols to send the data over the network. – The application data is encoded by application layer protocols. – Application layer protocols enables process-to- process connections using ports. – Port numbers are used for application addressing. For example, HTTP- 80, SSH – 22.
  46. 46. Application Layer Protocols • HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) – GET,PUT,POST,DELETE,HEAD, TRACE,OPTION,etc – Request-Response Model – Stateless Protocol – It uses URIs (URL,URN,etc) – It uses TCP protocol • CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol) – It is for Machine-to-Machine(M2M) Applications. – i.e, Constrained environments with constrained devices and constrained networks. – It is also uses Request-Response Model. – IT uses UDP protocol. – It supports GET, PUT, POST and DELETE methods. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 46
  47. 47. Application Layer Protocols • WebSocket – It allows full duplex communication over a single socket connection for sending a messages b/w Client and Server. – It uses TCP. • MQTT (Message Query Telemetry Transport) – It is a Light-weight messaging protocol. – It uses Publish – Subscribe Model. – It is well suited for constrained environments where the devices have limited processing and memory resources and the n/w bandwidth is low. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 47
  48. 48. Application Layer Protocols • XMPP (Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol) – It is for real-time communication b/w IoT devices and streaming XML data. – It uses in messaging, presence, data syndication, gaming, multi- party chart and voice/video calls. • DDS (Data Distributed Service) – It is a data centric Middleware standard for Device-to Device or M2M Comm. – It uses Publish – Subscribe Model. – It Provide QoS Control and Configurable Reliability. • AMQP (Advanced Message Queuing Protocol) – It is open application layer protocol for business messaging. – It supports Point-to-Point, Publish – Subscribe Model, Routing and Queuing. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 48
  49. 49. 5.0 Logical Design of IoT 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 49 • Logical Design means “abstract representation of the entities and processes without going into the low-level specifics of the implementation”. • Let discuss about, – Functional Blocks of IoT System – IoT Communication Models
  50. 50. Functional Blocks of IoT 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 50 • An IoT system comprises of a number of functional blocks that provide the system the capabilities for • Identification • Sensing • Actuation • Communication and • Management. • Device: It Provides sensing, actuation, monitoring and control functions. • Communication: It handles the communication for the IoT System. • Services: Services for device monitoring, device control, data publishing and device discovery. • Management: It provides various functions to govern the IoT system. • Security: Secures the IoT system and provide functions such as authentication, authorization, message integrity and data security. • Application: It provides an interface that the user can use to control and monitor various aspects of IoT System.
  51. 51. IoT Communication Models • There are four types of IoT communication models available. – Request-Response communication model – Publish-Subscribe communication model – Push-Pull communication model – Exclusive Pair communication model 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 51
  52. 52. Request-Response communication model 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 52 • In this model, the client sends requests to the server and the server responds to the requests. • When the server receives a request, it decides how to respond, fetches the data, retrieves resource representations, prepares the response, and then sends the response to the client. • It is a stateless communication model.
  53. 53. Publish-Subscribe communication model 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 53 • This model involves publishers, brokers and consumers. • Publishers are the source of data. Publishers send the data to the topics which are managed by the broker. Publishers are not aware of the consumers. • Consumers subscribe to the topics which are managed by the broker. • When the broker receives data for a topic from the publisher, it sends the data to all the subscribed consumers.
  54. 54. Push-Pull communication model 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 54 • In this model, the data producers push the data to queues and the consumers pull the data from the queues. Producers do not need to be aware of the consumers. • Queues help in decoupling the messaging between the producers and consumers. • Queues also act as a buffer which helps in situations when there is a mismatch between the rate at which the producers push data and the rate at which the consumers pull data.
  55. 55. Exclusive Pair communication model 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 55 • Exclusive Pair is a bidirectional, fully duplex communication model that uses a persistent connection between the client and server. • Once the connection is setup it remains open until the client sends a request to close the connection. • Client and server can send messages to each other after connection setup.
  56. 56. 6.0 IoT Communication APIs 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 56 • An Application Program Interface (API) is a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications. • API specifies how software components should interact. • Two Communication APIs, – REST – Based Communication APIs – WebSocket – Based Communication APIs
  57. 57. REST – Based Communication APIs 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 57 • Representational State Transfer (REST) is a set of architectural principles by which you can design web services and web APIs that focus on a system’s resources and how resource states are addressed and transferred. • REST APIs follow the request response communication model. • The REST architectural constraints apply to the components, connectors, and data elements, within a distributed hypermedia system.
  58. 58. REST – Based Communication APIs 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 58 • The REST architectural constraints are as follows: – Client – Server : Separation, Independent – Stateless : Session state is kept entirely on the client – Cache-able : Improve efficiency and scalability. – Layered System : Intermediate Systems – Uniform Interface : Method of communication – Code on demand : Server can provide executable code for clients. (It is optional)
  59. 59. Communication b/w Client and Server using REST APIs 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 59 • RESTful Web Service: – It is a Web API implemented using HTTP and REST principles. – It is a collection of resources which are represented by URIs. – It has a base URI. (Ex: http://example.com/api) – Client send requests to these URIs using HTTP methods ( GET,PUT, POST or DELETE). – It can support various Internet media types (JSON). – IPSO Alliance has published and application framework that defines a RESTful Design.
  60. 60. Interaction in the Request – Response Model used by REST 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 60
  61. 61. HTTP Methods 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 61
  62. 62. Websocket – Based Communication APIs 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 62 • WebSocket APIs allow bidirectional, full duplex communication between clients and servers. • WebSocket APIs follow the exclusive pair communication model. • Websockets reduces the network traffic and latency (no overhead for connection setup and termination for each message) • Websockets is suitable for IoT applications that have low latency or high throughput requirements.
  63. 63. Websocket – Based Communication APIs 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 63
  64. 64. Difference between REST and WebSocket- based Communication APIs 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 64
  65. 65. 7.0 IoT Enabling Technologies • Wireless Sensor Network • Cloud Computing • Big Data Analytics • Communication Protocols • Embedded Systems 1/7/2021 65Introduction to IoT
  66. 66. WSN • Distributed Devices with sensors used to monitor the environmental and physical conditions • Consists of several end-nodes acting as routers or coordinators too • Coordinators collects data from all nodes / acts as gateway that connects WSN to internet • Routers route the data packets from end nodes to coordinators. 1/7/2021 66Introduction to IoT
  67. 67. Example of WSNs in IoT & Protocols used Example •Weather monitoring system •Indoor Air quality monitoring system •Soil moisture monitoring system •Surveillance systems • Smart Grids •Health monitoring systems • Protocols •Zigbee 1/7/2021 67Introduction to IoT
  68. 68. Zigbee • Based on IEEE 802.15.4 • Operates at 2.4 GHz frequency • Offers data rate from 10 to 100 meters depending on power o/p and environmental conditions 1/7/2021 68Introduction to IoT
  69. 69. Advantages of WSN • Power of WSN – number of low-cost and lo- power sensing nodes • Self organizing networks – makes n/w robust- recovers (reconfigure itself) from failures and adding new nodes. • Since large no. of nodes in WSN – Manual config. not possible 1/7/2021 69Introduction to IoT
  70. 70. Cloud Computing • Deliver applications and services over internet •Provides computing, networking and storage resources on demand •Cloud computing performs services: – IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) – PaaS (Platform as a Service) – SaaS (Software as a Service) 1/7/2021 70Introduction to IoT
  71. 71. Cloud Services IAAS : Rent Infrastructure • cloud-based services, pay-as-you-go for services such as storage, networking, and virtualization. •PAAS : supply an on-demand environment for developing, testing, delivering and managing software applications. • hardware and software tools available over the internet. •SAAS : method for delivering software applications over the Internet, on demand and typically on a subscription basis. • software that’s available via a third-party over the internet.1/7/2021 71Introduction to IoT
  72. 72. SAAS • BigCommerce • Google Apps • Salesforce • Dropbox • MailChimp • ZenDesk • DocuSign • Slack • Hubspot. 1/7/2021 72Introduction to IoT
  73. 73. IAAS • DigitalOcean • Linode • Rackspace • Amazon Web Services (AWS) • Cisco Metapod • Microsoft Azure • Google Compute Engine (GCE) 1/7/2021 73Introduction to IoT
  74. 74. PAAS • AWS Elastic Beanstalk • Windows Azure • Heroku • Force.com • Google App Engine • Apache Stratos • OpenShift 1/7/2021 74Introduction to IoT
  75. 75. Big Data Analytics • Collection of data whose volume, velocity or variety is too large and difficult to store, manage, process and analyze the data using traditional databases. • It involves data cleansing, processing and visualization • Lots of data is being collected and warehoused • Web data, e-commerce • purchases at department/ grocery stores • Bank/Credit Card transactions • Social Network 1/7/2021 75Introduction to IoT
  76. 76. Big Data Analytics • Variety includes different types of data •Structured -Relational data. •Unstructured – Word,PDF,Media logs •SemiStructured - XML data •All of above (text data, image,audio,video,sensor data) 1/7/2021 76Introduction to IoT
  77. 77. Big Data Analytics • Velocity refers to speed at which data is processed •Batch •Real-time •STreams 1/7/2021 77Introduction to IoT
  78. 78. Big Data Analytics • Volume refers to the amount of data • Terabyte •Records •Transactions •Files •Tables 1/7/2021 78Introduction to IoT
  79. 79. Communication Protocols • Form the backbone of IoT systems and enable network connectivity and coupling of applications • Protocols define – Data exchange formats,data encoding schemes,addressing schemes routing of packets from source to destination – Sequence control, flow control retransmission of packets 1/7/2021 79Introduction to IoT
  80. 80. Embedded Systems • Computer system that has computer hardware and software embedded to perform specific tasks • Designed to perform specific tasks • Components of embedded system – Microprocessor/Microcontroller – Memory(RAM,ROM,cache..) – Networking Units(Ethernet,Wi-Fi adapter) – I/O Units(display,Keyboard..) – Storage(Flash memory) 1/7/2021 80Introduction to IoT
  81. 81. Embedded systems • Digital watches • Digital cameras • Vending Machines, • Appliances(Washing Machines,Microwave oven…) 1/7/2021 81Introduction to IoT
  82. 82. 8.0 IoT Levels & Deployment Templates  IOT System Components  IoT Level 1  IoT Level 2  IoT Level 3  IoT Level 4  IoT Level 5  IoT Level 6 1/7/2021 82Introduction to IoT
  83. 83. IOT System Components An IoT system comprises the following components: 1. Device 2. Resource 3. Controller Service 4. Database 5. Web Service 6. Analysis Component 7. Application 1/7/2021 83Introduction to IoT
  84. 84. Device Device: An IoT device allows identification, remote sensing, actuating and remote monitoring capabilities. • Wearable Sensors • Smart Watches • LED lights • Automobiles • Industrial Machines . 1/7/2021 84Introduction to IoT
  85. 85. IoT DevicesAmazon Echo Plus August Doorbell Cam Kuri Mobile Robot Footbot Air Quality Monitor 1/7/2021 85Introduction to IoT
  86. 86. Resource Resource: Resources are software components on the IoT device for accessing, processing, and storing sensor information, or controlling actuators connected to the device. Resources also include the software components that enable network access for the device. 1/7/2021 86Introduction to IoT
  87. 87. Controller Service Controller Service: • Controller service is a native service that runs on the device and interacts with the web services. • Controller service sends data from the device to the web service and receives commands from the application (via web services) for controlling the device 1/7/2021 87Introduction to IoT
  88. 88. Database Database: • Database can be either local or in the cloud and stores the data generated by the IoT device. 1/7/2021 88Introduction to IoT
  89. 89. Web Service Web Service: • Web services serve as a link between the IoT device, application, database and analysis components. • Web service can be implemented using HTTP and REST principles (REST service) or using the WebSocket protocol (WebSocket service). 1/7/2021 89Introduction to IoT
  90. 90. Analysis Component Analysis Component: • This is responsible for analyzing the IoT data and generating results in a form that is easy for the user to understand. • Analysis of IoT data can be performed either locally or in the cloud. • Analyzed results stored in local or cloud database. 1/7/2021 90Introduction to IoT
  91. 91. Application Application: • provide an interface that the users can use to control and monitor various aspects of the IoT system. • allow users to view the system status and the processed data. 1/7/2021 91Introduction to IoT
  92. 92. IoT Level-1 • A level-1 IoT system has a single node/device that – performs sensing and/or actuation – stores data – performs analysis and hosts the application • Level-1 IoT systems are suitable for modeling low cost and low-complexity solutions where – the data involved is not big – the analysis requirements are not computationally intensive. 1/7/2021 92Introduction to IoT
  93. 93. 1/7/2021 93Introduction to IoT
  94. 94. IoT Level-1 Example – Home Automation • The system consists of a single node that allows controlling the lights and appliances in home remotely. • Electronic relay switch is used to interface the devices. • Status information of each lights and appliances is maintained in a local database. • Application is deployed locally. • This level consists of air conditioner, temperature sensor, data collection and analysis and control & monitoring app. – The data sensed in stored locally. – The data analysis is done locally. – Monitoring & Control is done using Mobile app or web app. – The data generated in this level application is not huge. – All the control actions are performed through internet. • Example – Room temperature is monitored using temperature sensor and data is stored/ analyzed locally. – Based on analysis made, control action is triggered using mobile app or it can just help in status monitoring. 1/7/2021 94Introduction to IoT
  95. 95. 1/7/2021 95Introduction to IoT IoT Level-1 Example – Home Automation
  96. 96. IoT Level-2 • A level-2 IoT system has a single node that performs sensing and/or actuation and local analysis. • Data is stored in the cloud and application is usually cloud-based. • Level-2 IoT systems are suitable for solutions where – the data involved is big – the primary analysis requirement is not computationally intensive and can be done locally itself. 1/7/2021 96Introduction to IoT
  97. 97. 1/7/2021 97Introduction to IoT
  98. 98. IoT Level-2 • consists of air conditioner, temperature sensor, Big data (Bigger than level -1, data analysis done here) , cloud and control & monitoring app. • level-2 is complex compare to level-1. • rate of sensing is faster compare to level-1. • level- 2 has voluminous size of data  cloud storage is used. • Data analysis is carried out locally. Cloud is used for only storage purpose. • Based on data analysis, control action is triggered using web app or mobile app. • Examples: Agriculture applications, room freshening solutions based on odour sensors etc. 1/7/2021 98Introduction to IoT
  99. 99. IoT – Level 2 Example Smart Irrigation 1/7/2021 99Introduction to IoT
  100. 100. 1/7/2021 100Introduction to IoT
  101. 101. Level 3 • A level-3 IoT system has a single node. • Data is stored and analyzed in the cloud and application is cloud based. • Level-3 IoT systems are suitable for solutions where – the data involved is big and – the analysis requirements are computationally intensive. 1/7/2021 101Introduction to IoT
  102. 102. 1/7/2021 102Introduction to IoT
  103. 103. Level 3 Example – Tracking Package Handling • The system consists of a single node. (package). • That monitors the vibration levels for a package being shipped. • The device in this system uses accelerometer and gyroscope sensors for monitoring vibration levels. • The controller system sends the sensor data to the cloud using web sockets. • The data stored in the cloud and visualized using cloud based application. • The analysis components in the cloud can trigger alerts if the vibration levels greater than the threshold. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 103
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  105. 105. Accelerometer Sensor • Accelerometers are electromechanical devices that measure acceleration, the rate of change in velocity of an object. In other words, it’s devices used to respond to any vibrations associated with movement. • Uses: – Compass/Map applications on your smartphone devices (iPhones, Andriod, etc.) through axis based sensing – Tilt sensing; iPhone uses an accelerometer to sense whether the phone is being held in portrait or landscape mode – Earthquake detection – Fall sensing – Medical devices such as artificial body parts – Fitness trackers/wearables – Games/applications that require motion sensing (Wii, Kinect, etc.) • Note: Accelerometers are most commonly used to detect position, velocity, vibration, and to determine orientation. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 105
  106. 106. Gyroscope Sensor 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 106 • Gyroscope is a device used for measuring rotational changes or maintaining orientation. It’s based on the principle of preserving angular momentum. • A typical gyroscope contains a rotor that’s suspended inside three rings called the gimbals. • It works through the precession effect, allowing gyroscopes to defy gravity when the spin-axis is rotated. This means that instead of falling over from the force of gravity, it automatically adjusts itself sideways. • Uses: – Aircrafts – Space stations – Stability in vehicles; motorcycles, ships – Inertial guidance systems – Consumer electronics through MEMS gyroscopes (Most mid-range to higher-end Andriod phones)
  107. 107. Level 4 • A level-4 IoT system has multiple nodes that perform local analysis. • Data is stored in the cloud and application is cloud- based. • Level-4 contains local and cloud based observer nodes which can subscribe to and receive information collected in the cloud from IoT devices. • Level-4 IoT systems are suitable for solutions where – multiple nodes are required, – the data involved is big and – the analysis requirements are computationally intensive. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 107
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  109. 109. Level 4 Example – Noise Monitoring • The system consists of multiple nodes placed in different locations. • Nodes are equipped with sound sensor. • Nodes are independent of each other. • Each node runs its own controller service that sends the data to the cloud. • The data is stored in cloud database. • The analysis of data collected from a number of nodes is done in the cloud. • A cloud based application is used for visualizing the aggregated data. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 109
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  111. 111. Level 5 • A level-5 IoT system has multiple end nodes and one coordinator node. • The end nodes that perform sensing and/or actuation. • Coordinator node collects data from the end nodes and sends to the cloud. • Data is stored and analyzed in the cloud and application is cloud-based. • Level-5 IoT systems are suitable for solutions – based on wireless sensor networks, in which the data involved is big and the analysis requirements are computationally intensive. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 111
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  114. 114. Level 6 • A level-6 IoT system has multiple independent end nodes that perform sensing and/or actuation and send data to the cloud. • Data is stored in the cloud and application is cloud-based. • The analytics component analyzes the data and stores the results in the cloud database. • The results are visualized with the cloud-based Application. • The centralized controller is aware of the status of all the end nodes and sends control commands to the nodes. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 114
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  116. 116. Level 6 Example – Weather Monitoring System • The system consists of multiple nodes placed in different locations for monitoring temperature, humidity and pressure in an area. • The end nodes are equipped with various sensors, – Temperature – Pressure – Humidity • The end nodes send the data to the cloud in real time using websockets. • The data stored in cloud database. • The analysis of data is done in the cloud to aggregate the data and make predictions. • Cloud based application is used for visualizing the data. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 116
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  118. 118. Internet of Things Unit 1 Revision
  119. 119. Contents 1. Introduction to Internet of Things 2. Definition and Characteristics of IoT 3. Physical Design of IoT 4. IoT Protocols 5. IoT Communication Models 6. IoT Communication APIs 7. IoT enabled Technologies 7.1 Wireless Sensor Networks 7.2 Cloud Computing 7.3 Big data analytics 7.4 Communication Protocols 7.5 Embedded Systems 8. IoT Levels and Templates 1/7/2021 119Introduction to IoT
  120. 120. 1.0 Introduction to IoT • IoT refers to physical and virtual objects that have unique identities and are connected to the Internet. • The scope of IoT is not limited to just connecting things (devices, appliances, machines) to the internet. • IoT allows the things to communicate and exchange data(D). • Data itself does not have a meaning until it is processed into useful information(I). • The information is then organized and structured into knowledge(K). • DIK Example: – For Data, ((72,45),(84,56)) – For Information, the average temperature and humidity readings for last 5 minutes. – For Knowledge, an alert is raised if the average temperature in last five minutes exceeds 120F 1/7/2021 120Introduction to IoT
  121. 121. 2.0 Definition and Characteristics of IoT • A dynamic global network infrastructure with self- configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual "things" have identities, physical attributes, and virtual personalities and use intelligent interfaces, and are seamlessly integrated into the information network, often communicate data associated with users and their environments. • Characteristics of IoT: – Dynamic & Self-Adapting – Self-Configuring – Interoperable Communication Protocols – Unique Identity – Integrated into Information Network 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 121
  122. 122. 3.0 Physical Design of IoT • An IoT device may consist of several interfaces for connections to other devices, both wired and wireless. – I/O interfaces for sensors and actuators – Interfaces for Internet connectivity – Memory interfaces – Storage interfaces – Audio/video interfaces 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 122
  123. 123. 4.0 IoT Protocols Link Layer  802.3 – Ethernet  802.11 – WiFi  802.16 – WiMax  802.15.4 – LR-WPAN  2G/3G/4G - Cellular Network/Internet Layer  IPv4  IPv6  6LoWPAN Transport Layer  TCP  UDP Application Layer  HTTP  CoAP  WebSocket  MQTT  XMPP  DDS  AMQP 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 123  802.11ah – WiFi HaLow  802.15.1 – Bluetooth (BLE)  802.15.4 – Z-Wave - Zigbee - WirelessHART - MiWi
  124. 124. 5.0 IoT Communication Models 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 124 • There are four types of IoT communication models available. – Request-Response communication model – Publish-Subscribe communication model – Push-Pull communication model – Exclusive Pair communication model
  125. 125. 6.0 IoT Communication APIs 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 125 • Two Communication APIs, – REST – Based Communication APIs – WebSocket – Based Communication APIs
  126. 126. 7.0 IoT Enabled Technologies • Wireless Sensor Network • Cloud Computing • Big Data Analytics • Communication Protocols • Embedded Systems 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 126
  127. 127. 8.0 IoT Levels and Templates 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 127 • Level 1: It has a single node that performs sensing and/or actuation, stores data and perform analysis and host the application. (Nothing -> Cloud) • Level 2: It has a single node that performs sensing and/or actuation and perform local analysis. (Data store, Application -> Cloud) • Level 3: It has a single node that performs sensing and/or actuation. (Data store, Analysis, Application -> Cloud) • Level 4: It has a multiple nodes that performs sensing and/or actuation and perform local analysis. (Data store, Application -> Cloud) • Level 5: It has a multiple end nodes and one coordinator node that performs sensing and/or actuation. (Data store, Analysis, Application -> Cloud) • Level 6: It has a multiple independent end nodes that performs sensing and/or actuation. (Data store, Analysis, Application -> Cloud)
  128. 128. 8.0 IoT Levels and Templates (Comparison) IoT Level Node Type Sensing /Actuation Analysis Data Store Application Best Suitable for Example 1 Single Local Local Local Local Low Cost and Low Complexity, Data is Not Big, Not Computationally Intensive Home Automation 2 Single Local Local Cloud Cloud Data is Big, Not Computationally Intensive Smart Irrigation 3 Single Local Cloud Cloud Cloud Data is Big, Computationally Intensive Tracking Package Handling 4 Multiple Local Local Cloud Cloud Data is Big, Computationally Intensive Noise Monitoring 5 Multiple End Nodes + 1 Coordinator Local Cloud Cloud Cloud WSN, Data is Big, Computationally Intensive Forest Fire Detection 6 Multiple Independent End Nodes Local Cloud Cloud Cloud Data is Big, Computationally Intensive Weather Monitoring System 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 128
  129. 129. Sample Question 1 • Suppose if you want to choose IoT Communication Protocol for an IOT application, which is based on conditions such as low data rate, low range, and low power, then answer the following questions: a) Which data link layer communication protocol is your appropriate choice? b) What is the IEEE standard number for that communication protocol? c) What is the data rate of that communication protocol in bps? d) What is the approximate range of that communication protocol? 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 129
  130. 130. Sample Question 1 - ANSWER • Suppose if you want to choose IoT Communication Protocol for an IOT application, which is based on conditions such as low data rate, low range, and low power, then answer the following questions: a) Which data link layer communication protocol is your appropriate choice? (Z-Wave, Zigbee, etc) b) What is the IEEE standard number for that communication protocol? (IEEE 802.15.4) c) What is the data rate of that communication protocol in bps? (20 or 40 Kbps to 250 Kbps) d) What is the approximate range of that communication protocol? (10 to 100m) 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 130
  131. 131. Sample Question 2 • Fill in the 4 – Layer IOT Protocol Stack with appropriate protocols for the following criteria: A. The protocol is well suit for Machine-to-Machine(M2M) Applications. i.e, Constrained environments with constrained devices and constrained networks. And also it uses request – response model. B. The protocol doesn’t provide guarantee for data delivery, ordering of message and duplicate elimination; so it provides unreliable transfers. And also Used by Multimedia Applications (Video Conferencing, Video Streaming) C. The protocol brings IP Protocol to the low-power devices which have limited processing capacity. And Defines compression mechanisms for IPv6 datagram's over IEEE 802.15.4 based networks. D. The protocol(s) provide low-cost and low-speed communication for power- constrained devices. And provides data rates from 40 Kbps to 250 Kbps 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 131 A B C D
  132. 132. Sample Question 2 - ANSWER • Fill in the 4 – Layer IOT Protocol Stack with appropriate protocols for the following criteria: A. The protocol is well suit for Machine-to-Machine(M2M) Applications. i.e, Constrained environments with constrained devices and constrained networks. And also it uses request – response model. B. The protocol doesn’t provide guarantee for data delivery, ordering of message and duplicate elimination; so it provides unreliable transfers. And also Used by Multimedia Applications (Video Conferencing, Video Streaming) C. The protocol brings IP Protocol to the low-power devices which have limited processing capacity. And Defines compression mechanisms for IPv6 datagram's over IEEE 802.15.4 based networks. D. The protocol(s) provide low-cost and low-speed communication for power- constrained devices. And provides data rates from 40 Kbps to 250 Kbps 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 132 A – CoAP B – UDP C – 6LoWPAN D – LRWPAN (IEEE 802.15.4) / Zigbee, Z-Wave, etc.
  133. 133. Sample Question 3 • Find out the best suitable communication model based on the following statements: i. It uses a persistent connection between the client and server. ii. Once the connection is setup it remains open until the client sends a request to close the connection. iii. Client and server can send messages to each other after connection setup. iv. It is a bidirectional. v. It is a fully duplex communication model. vi. Finally connection is terminated. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 133
  134. 134. Sample Question 3 - ANSWER • Find out the best suitable communication model based on the following statements: i. It uses a persistent connection between the client and server. ii. Once the connection is setup it remains open until the client sends a request to close the connection. iii. Client and server can send messages to each other after connection setup. iv. It is a bidirectional. v. It is a fully duplex communication model. vi. Finally connection is terminated. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 134 Exclusive Pair Communication Model
  135. 135. Sample Question 4 • Choose the appropriate IOT Levels bases on the following conditions: A. It has a multiple end nodes and one coordinator node that performs sensing and/or actuation. B. It has a single node that performs sensing and/or actuation and perform local analysis. (Data store, Application -> Cloud) C. This level is well suit for data involved is not big. D. The level(s), which are performs local analysis? E. This IoT Level is best suit for IEEE 802.15.4 deployment? F. The level(s) are well suit for the analysis requirements are not computationally intensive. G. This level detects forest fire. H. This level is applied in home automation(s). I. This level is an example of “Smart Irrigation”. J. The level(s), which are performs everything at cloud side, except sensing and/or actuation. 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 135
  136. 136. Sample Question 4 - ANSWER • Choose the appropriate IOT Levels bases on the following conditions: A. It has a multiple end nodes and one coordinator node that performs sensing and/or actuation. (Level 5) B. It has a single node that performs sensing and/or actuation and perform local analysis. (Data store, Application -> Cloud) (Level 2) C. This level is well suit for data involved is not big. (Level 1) D. The level(s), which are performs local analysis? (Level 1,2,4) E. This IoT Level is best suit for IEEE 802.15.4 deployment? (Level 5) F. The level(s) are well suit for the analysis requirements are not computationally intensive. (Level 1,2) G. This level detects forest fire. (Level 5) H. This level is applied in home automation(s). (Level 1) I. This level is an example of “Smart Irrigation”. (Level 2) J. The level(s), which are performs everything at cloud side, except sensing and/or actuation. (Level 3,5,6) 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 136
  137. 137. Thank you 1/7/2021 Introduction to IoT 137

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