Se ha denunciado esta presentación.
Utilizamos tu perfil de LinkedIn y tus datos de actividad para personalizar los anuncios y mostrarte publicidad más relevante. Puedes cambiar tus preferencias de publicidad en cualquier momento.
1
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS A...
2
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
As the...
3
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
STUDENT DECLARATION
Th...
4
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
INDEX
Content Page No....
5
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
10.0 Steps of Construc...
6
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
11.11 Laying of Beam a...
7
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
11.17 Methods of Plast...
8
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
12.9 Jack hammer 81
12...
9
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
13.12 Core Cutter Meth...
10
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
1.0 General Introduct...
11
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
2.0 Information about...
12
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
2.1 Areas of operatio...
13
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Industry and Public E...
14
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
 NBCC Tower, BikajiC...
15
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
 Museum and Library ...
16
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
As a recognition of N...
17
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
5.0 Student Profile
1...
18
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
6.0 Information about...
19
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
6.2 Background :
The ...
20
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
6.3 Methodology for E...
21
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
7.0 Details of Projec...
22
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
8.0 Location Of Proje...
23
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
8.1 Master Plan
24
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
8.2 Training Site Pla...
25
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
9.0 Details of Accomm...
26
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Fig 9.2 Column Schedu...
27
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Fig 9.3 Estimate of C...
28
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Fig 9.4 Reinforcement...
29
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Fig 9.5 Detail of Ret...
30
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Fig 9.6 Stair case de...
31
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Fig 9.7 Staircase det...
32
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Fig 9.8 Slab details ...
33
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
9.1 Specification of ...
34
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
9.2 Detail of Type-VI...
35
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
3.2.1 Window Anodised...
36
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Granite top with pre-...
37
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
4 12(1 PTMT + 11 C.P....
38
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
10.0 Steps of Constru...
39
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
4) Site Investigation...
40
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
the help of a TOTAL S...
41
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
3. Bottom of the tren...
42
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
that is, 1 part of ce...
43
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Fig 11.6 Waterproofin...
44
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Applications: Torch T...
45
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Raft foundations are ...
46
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
 R 20mm ɸ @ 200mmc/c...
47
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
II. Layout of columns...
48
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Fig 11.12 Binding Cov...
49
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
11.9.2 Specifications...
50
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
C16 3 300 1060 5000
C...
51
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
higher level grade on...
52
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
I. Fixing Beam bottom...
53
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Fig 11.16 Reinforceme...
54
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
 Grade of Steel:- Fe...
55
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
 Grade of Concrete:-...
56
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
11.13.1 Materials
The...
57
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
from standard to stan...
58
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
11.13.3 Individual Co...
59
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
formwork takes time a...
60
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
 It should be as lig...
61
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Fig 11.24 Steel Formw...
62
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
11.14.6 Order and met...
63
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
 Minimum sawing and ...
64
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
two terms, and in som...
65
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Fig 11.26 Brick Wall ...
66
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Step 5: To finish the...
67
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
joints should be fini...
68
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
11.16.2 Waterbar: The...
69
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
11.17.1 Internal Plas...
70
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
 Maximum width of 20...
71
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
volume and type of ma...
72
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
12.1.5 Model of Opera...
73
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Fig 11.31 Crushing Fi...
74
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
12.1.6 Technology
 P...
75
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Fig 12.1 Mix Plant
12...
76
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
12.4 Immersion or Nee...
77
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
12.4.1 Concrete Vibra...
78
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
 Vibration shall be ...
79
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
12.5 Bar Cutting Mach...
80
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Fig 12.5 Bar Straight...
81
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
12.8.1 Features:
 Dr...
82
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
12.10 Concrete Traile...
83
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
12.10.2.1 Schwing Tra...
84
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
pipe. In addition, th...
85
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
 Open a coupling tha...
86
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Pipes that have been ...
87
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
By carefully walking ...
88
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Excavator Capacity = ...
89
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
12.13 Tower Crane: To...
90
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
sheaves. The hook is ...
91
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
 Impact Value Test
...
92
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Result- Our sample is...
93
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
1, except that the di...
94
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
 The bearing surface...
95
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
7 days Strength:
S.No...
96
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
28 days Strength:
S.N...
97
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
e) Weight of specimen...
98
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
13.4 Silt Content:
Si...
99
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
Wt. of agg. taken: 50...
100
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT
EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI
13.6 Determination O...
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Industrial training Report
Próxima SlideShare
Cargando en…5
×

Industrial training Report

Industrial training Report on Redevlopment Of Kidwai Nagar, New Delhi,

  • Inicia sesión para ver los comentarios

Industrial training Report

  1. 1. 1 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI SIX MONTH INDUSTRIAL & SOFTWARE TRAINING SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR Six Month Industrial Training At NBCC Limited (National Buildings Construction Corporation Limited) (From 10th Jan 2015 to 10th Apr 2015) SUBMITTED BY JASPREET SINGH Section - D4CE1 Class R.No.110138 Univ. R.No.1283920 Civil Engineering Department GURU NANAK DEV ENGINEERING COLLEGE LUDHIANA, INDIA
  2. 2. 2 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI ACKNOWLEDGEMENT As the professional courses not only require the theoretical knowledge but practical knowledge too, that is why university started conducting training programs for the students, so that they can get ample view of practical problems. I find it a matter of Honour in showing the feeling of indebtedness and thankfulness to the Dr. M.S. Saini, Director, Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana for providing this opportunity to carry out the six months industrial training. The constant guidance and encouragement received from Er. K.S.Maan, Dean Training & Placement cell, has been of great help in carrying out the project work and is acknowledged with reverential thanks. It is my privilege to express my profound ineptness, my deep sense of gratitude to NBCC Limited (National Buildings Construction Corporation Limited), New Delhi for showing trust in me and assigning me such an important and interesting project and also for sparing time from his schedule to discuss and clarify issues related to this project. I sincerely thank to my project guide Er. Suman (DGM), and Er. Harsh Malviya (PE) for guidance and encouragement in carrying out this project work. My special thanks to Er. Amit Singh, (SPE) and Er. Surinder Sharma (JE) for their kind co-operation in the completion of my project work. I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. J.N.Jha, (H.O.D) of CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College for providing me an Opportunity to do my project work on ―RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI” in “NBCC Limited (National Buildings Construction Corporation Limited)”. This project bears on imprint of many people. I am also very thankful to my friends and family members who supported me, encouraged me all the time to go through this whole project.
  3. 3. 3 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI STUDENT DECLARATION This is to certify that I, Jaspreet Singh student of B.Tech (Civil) - 8th Semester University Roll No. 1283920 has undergone industrial training in "NBCC Limited (National Buildings Construction Corporation Limited) " as required of six months project semester for the award of degree of B.Tech Civil Engineering, Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana and prepared the report entitled ―RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI ‖ which is an authentic record of my work carried out at Kidwai Nagar, New Delhi. If any discrepancy is found regarding the originality of this project I may be held responsible. I have not copied from any report submitted earlier this or any other university. This is purely original and authentic work. JASPREET SINGH
  4. 4. 4 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI INDEX Content Page No. 1.0 General Introduction 10 2.0 Information about Company 11 2.1 Areas of operations 12 3.0 History 12 4.0 Landmark projects 13 4.1 National 13 4.2 Overseas 14 4.3 Major projects under execution 15 5.0 Student Profile 17 6.0 Information about Project 18 6.1 Brief on Redevelopment of Kidwai Nagar (East) 18 6.2 Background 19 7.0 Details of Project Cost 21 8.0 Location of Project 22 8.1 Master Plan 23 8.2 Training Site Plan 24 9.0 Details of Accommodation Block No. 5 25 9.1 Specification of Single Dwelling Unit 33 9.2 Detail of Type-VII Dwelling Units 34 9.3 Specification For Residential Building (Type VII) Being Followed 34 9.4 Scale of Sanitary Fittings for Residential Quarters 36
  5. 5. 5 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 10.0 Steps of Construction Work 38 11.0 Methodology of Work 39 11.1 Site Clearance 39 11.2 Layout for Excavation 39 11.3 Excavation 40 11.4 Laying of P.C.C. (Plain Cement Concrete) 41 11.5 Waterproofing 42 11.5.1 APP Membranes 43 11.5.2 Non-woven Fabric 44 11.6 50mm Thick Screed 44 11.7 Layout 44 11.8 Foundation 44 11.8.1 Specifications 45 11.9 Column: 46 11.9.1 Method of construction 46 11.9.2 Specification 49 11.10 Retaining wall 50
  6. 6. 6 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 11.11 Laying of Beam and Slab 51 11.11.1 Specification of Beam 53 11.11.2 Specification of Slab 53 11.12 Laying of Stair and Lift 54 11.12.1 Specification of Stair & Lift 54 11.13 Scaffolding 55 11.13.1 Materials 56 11.13.2 Types of Scaffolding 57 11.13.3 Individual Components 58 11.14 Formwork (Shuttering) 58 11.14.1 Requirements 59 11.14.2 Plywood Formwork 60 11.14.3 Steel Formwork 60 11.14.4 Comparison of Steel Formwork and Timber Formwork 61 11.14.5 Construction of formwork 61 11.14.6 Order and method of removing formwork 62 11.14.7 Economy in Formwork 62 11.14.8 Normal sizes of members for timber formwork 63 11.14.9 Difference Between Shuttering and Formwork 63 11.15 How to build a brick wall 64 11.16 Installation of Expansion and Contraction Joints 66 11.16.1 Filler Board 67 11.16.2 Waterbar 68
  7. 7. 7 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 11.17 Methods of Plastering 68 11.17.1 Internal Plastering on surfaces of Brick and Concrete. 69 11.17.2 External Wall Plastering. 69 11.17.3 Improving Joints of Brick Wall & Concrete 70 12.0 Information about Plant and Equipment 70 12.1 C&D Waste Recycling Plant 70 12.1.1 C&D waste 70 12.1.2 Objectives of C&D Waste‘s Management 71 12.1.3 Recycle Products 71 12.1.4 NBCC Obligations 71 12.1.5 Model of Operation 72 12.1.6 Technology 74 12.1.7 Maintaining the strength of the product 74 12.2 Concrete Mixer Plant: 74 12.3 Transit Mixer: 75 12.4 Immersion or Needle Vibrators: 76 12.4.1 Concrete Vibration Practices 77 12.4.2 Concrete Vibration Benefits 78 12.5 Bar Cutting Machine. 79 12.6 Bar Straightening MachineModel No JMT 3-14 79 12.7 Bar Bending Machine 80 12.8 Roller 80 12.8.1 Features 81
  8. 8. 8 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 12.9 Jack hammer 81 12.9.1 Features 81 12.10 Concrete Trailer Pumps 82 12.10.1 Trailer-mounted boom concrete pump 82 12.10.2 Truck-mounted concrete pump 82 12.10.3 Safety Considerations 83 12.11 Backhoe Loader 87 12.12 Hydra 88 12.13 Tower Crane 89 12.14 Total Station Theodolite 90 13.0 Quality Control and Testing 90 13.1 Slump Test 91 13.2 Test for Compressive Strength of Concrete 92 13.3 Weight of Steel 97 13.4 Silt Content 98 13.5 Grading of Aggregate 98 13.6 Determination of Aggregate Impact Value as per 100 IS: 2386 (Part IV) - 1963 13.7 General Requirements of Bricks 104 13.8 Compressive Strength of brick 104 13.9 Water Absorption of Bricks 107 13.10 Dimensional Tolerance 108 13.11 Determination of moisture content by using calcium carbide 110
  9. 9. 9 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 13.12 Core Cutter Method 112 13.13 Inspection 115 14.0 Safety Measure and Campaign 117 14.1 Personal Safety 118 14.2 Public Safety 119 14.3 Safety Campaign 119 15.0 Overall Benefits of Training 120 15.1 Work ethics and related issues 123 16.0 Contractor bill 124 16.1 Summary 130 24.0 Conclusion 131 25.0 References and Bibliography 131
  10. 10. 10 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 1.0 General Introduction The practical training conducted by the engineering students at the respective industrial units related to their subjects is termed as "Industrial Training". For example a civil engineering student requires practical exposure at the building construction sites, road construction projects etc. The industry-institute interaction is a need of the hour. The industrial training is a part of continuous learning process. So this field exposure that uplifts the knowledge and experience of students needs to be properly documented in the form of report, which can be termed as “Industrial report". A properly prepared industrial training report can facilitate the presentation of the field experience is an orderly, precise and interesting manner, which can off course well serve as a guide to the new entrant engineers. The purpose of industrial training is:- 1) To provide field exposure to the students. 2) To have better understanding of engineering practices. 3) To make them adapt to industrial conditions. 4) To provide opportunities to the students to handle tasks independently. 5) To help students to understand about the duties of an engineer and other supervisory staff in an organization. 6) To make them aware with the common industrial problems. 7) To impart intensive training to the students to enable them to learn and use working of latest field equipments machine.
  11. 11. 11 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 2.0 Information about Company NBCC Limited (National Buildings Construction Corporation Limited), a Navratna organization under category I, is a Central Public Sector Undertaking which trades publicly in the market and is largely owned by Government of India. It primarily provides construction services in three segments:  Project Management Consultancy (PMC)  Real Estate Development & Construction Business  EPC Contract Headquartered in New Delhi, NBCC has 10 regional/zonal offices across India. The projects undertaken by the company are spread across 23 states and 1 Union Territory in India. In addition, NBCC has also undertaken overseas projects in countries like Iraq, Libya, Nepal, Mauritius, Turkey, Botswana, Republic of Maldives, Republic of Yemen et al. As on March 31 2014, NBCC‘s Order book stands at Rs.14265.93 Crore. NBCC is also designated as the implementing agency for executing projects under Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), Pradhan Mantri Gram SadakYojna (PMGSY), Solid Waste Management (SWM) and developmental work in North Eastern Region. A number of Central Government Ministries and various State Governments are utilizing the services of NBCC as their extended engineering arm.
  12. 12. 12 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 2.1 Areas of operations NBCC's core competency lies in engineering ventures- Power Sector, Real Estate, Environment, PMC, EPC, Post Completion Maintenance works, Roads, Bridges, Hospitals, Mass Housing, Institutions & Office Buildings etc. Project Management & Consultancy business segment includes providing management and consultancy services for a range of civil construction projects including residential and commercial complexes, redevelopment of buildings and colonies, hospitals, educational institutions; infrastructure works for security personnel, border fencing as well as infrastructure projects such as roads, water supply systems, storm water systems and water storage solutions. The company‘s work in power sector segment includes engineering, designing and construction services for Civil and structural works for power projects, cooling towers, Chimneys. NBCC's real estate development segment focuses principally on two types of projects, (i) residential projects, such as apartments and townships and (ii) commercial projects, such as corporate office buildings and shopping malls. 3.0 History NBCC was incorporated in November 1960 as a wholly owned Government of India enterprise under the erstwhile Ministry of Works, Housing & Supply (MoWHS), which is now known as the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD). In 2007, NBCC paid dividend to the GoI for the first time and since then, it has been paying dividend to the Government every year. It was declared as a debt free company in 2008. Also, in the year 2008, the Department of Public Enterprises, Ministry of Heavy
  13. 13. 13 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Industry and Public Enterprises, Government of India, through its office memorandum No. 9(8)/2008-GM dated October 3, 2008 passed on the approval of the Ministry of Urban Development to upgrade NBCC from a Schedule "B" public sector enterprise to a Schedule "A" public sector enterprise. Subsequently, on October 14, 2008, the NBCC was granted Schedule "A" PSU status. NBCC launched IPO in April, 2012 and got the company listed in BSE & NSE. The corporation in September 2012, has been granted Mini Ratna Category I status by the Government of India. The Government of India has granted the status of a 'Navratna Company' to NBCC with effect from June 23, 2014. The coveted status of a 'Navratna PSE' casts additional responsibility on NBCC to successfully operate in a competitive environment and become a global player. Keeping this in view, targeted turnover of Rs.10, 000crore by the financial year 2020 has been set. 4.0 Landmark projects 4.1 National  NBCC Green View, Sector 37-D, Gurgaon  235 mts high TV tower in New Delhi  SCOPE Office complex at New Delhi- houses 25 PSU offices and two central government banks.  30 km long 270 Cusec raw water pipeline project from Muradnagar (U.P.) to Sonia Vihar (Delhi)  VIBGYOR Towers, Kolkata- Residential Real Estate project
  14. 14. 14 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI  NBCC Tower, BikajiCama Place, New Delhi- Commercial Real Estate project  NBCC Plaza, Saket, New Delhi- Commercial Real Estate project  NBCC Place, PragatiVihar, New Delhi- Commercial Real Estate project  Bhubaneshwar & Mysore Airport  Bridge over the river Yamuna in New Delhi  Indo – Bangladesh/Indo-Pak border fencing works  Government Pool Residential Accommodation at New MotiBagh, New Delhi  1200 bedded hospital and medical college at Guwahati, Assam  Vibgyor Towers- An 876 flats/8 towers residential complex at Kolkata  Solid Waste Management projects in 8 Airfields towns in India  LEED certified Green Building project named Indian Institute of Corporate Affairs (IICA) of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs at Manesar, Haryana  Hospitals for ESIC all across the country 4.2 Overseas  Hotel Ninevah Oberoi at Mousul Baghdad  Baghdad University  Water Treatment Plant at Kirkuk  Runway and Terminal building at Ghat and Brak Airport, Libya  1000 Houses at Beniwalid and 432 houses at Ghat, Libya  Bir Hospital (Nepal)  48 km Kohalpur Mahakali Highway Project, Nepal  Construction of 774 housing units of Dawran, Dhamar, Yemen Arab Republic
  15. 15. 15 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI  Museum and Library Building, Hetauda, Nepal  Construction, furnishing and equipping 200 bedded Indira Gandhi Memorial Medical Hospital at Male, Maldives  Project Management Consultancy for 3600 housing units at Meer Project in Turkey 4.3 Major projects under execution  NBCC is executing various development projects in NER for Ministry of Urban Development & Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation.  Indo-Bangladesh Border fencing (IBB) & Indo Pak Border fencing (IPB).  Roads under PradhanMantri Gram SadakYojana/ Bharat Nirman (PMGSY/Bharat Nirman) which is a national level initiative to build and strengthen the country‘s rural road net work in the state of Bihar, Jharkhand & Tripura.  The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) has been established to build world class infrastructure in urban conglomeration. NBCC has been appointed as executing agency by the State Governments of Haryana, Jharkhand & Tripura. NBCC, for its performance, has been getting ‗Excellent‘ rating from the Govt. of India consecutively for the last nine years. Company has a consistent track record of paying Dividend to the Government of India for the seventh successive year in a row. In addition, constant excellent performance of NBCC in the recent past has earned laurels from the Government and also from other important quarters.
  16. 16. 16 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI As a recognition of NBCC‘s remarkable performance and significant contribution in national development, the Company has been recently conferred with a series of awards amongst which the much coveted ones are mentioned as under:  Performance Excellence Award by IIIE  CIDC Vishwakarma Awards 2014 for Best Professionally Managed Company;  CIDC Vishwakarma Awards 2014 for Outstanding Public Officer conferred on CMD, NBCC  Indian Buildings Congress (IBC) Awards for Excellence in Built Environment 2012- 13; Commendation Certificate awarded for Indian Institute of Corporate Affairs (IICA), Manesar, Haryana  NBCC built India‘s first and largest Green Complex awarded Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) Silver Rating in the year 2014  Excellence Award 2014: Certificate of Excellence and Gold Medal for NBCC by Indian Economic Society (IES) for having contributed towards the nation  Udyog Rattan Award 2014 for Dr. Anoop Kumar Mittal by Indian Economic Society (IES)  Golden Peacock Award 2013 in Occupational Health & Safety  Indian Green Building Council Award 2013  The Special Jury Governance Now PSU Awards 2013  Engineering Watch Jury Choice Award for Operation Excellence and Special Mention Awards 2013  The Super Boss of the Year Award 2013- Star Group and
  17. 17. 17 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 5.0 Student Profile 1. Name of the student: Jaspreet Singh 2. Father's Name: S. Satvir Singh 3. College: Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College 4. Class: B-Tech in Civil Engineering 5. Class Roll No.: 110138 6. University Roll No.: 1283920 7. Date of Birth: 28/08/1989 8. Session/Year: 2012-15 9. Address of Communication: Nakodar, Dist. Jalandhar City 10. Contact no: +91-97809-53097 11. E-mail Id: jaspreetsinghrooprai@gmail.com 12. Name of organization NBCC (National Building Construction Corporation Limited) 13. Period of Training: 20/01/2015 to10/04/2015 14. Location of the Project: East Kidwai Nagar, New Delhi
  18. 18. 18 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 6.0 Information about Project A redevelopment and densification project for a low density Government colony is proposed in Kidwai Nagar East by NBCC on behalf of MOUD, in the heart of Delhi right opposite DilliHaat & AIIMS. 6.1 Brief on Redevelopment of Kidwai Nagar (East)
  19. 19. 19 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 6.2 Background : The work was awarded to NBCC on 22.06.2012 by the Ministry of Urban Development for the Redevelopment of Kidwai Nagar (East). The scope of work include the demolishing of 244 Nos. existing Type – I, II & V Quarters and construction of 4747 houses of Type – II to VII. The completion period of the project is 5 years. The detail of buildings are as under :- Dwelling units :- S.No. Type of Unit Nos. 1. Type – II 936 2. Type – III 1008 3. Type – IV 1458 4. Type – V 1090 5. Type – VI 195 6. Type – VII 60 Total 4747 Social Infrastructures: - 60162.00 m2 (Schools, Local shopping centre (LSC), Dispensary, Service Markets, Milk Booth & Banquet Hall) Commercial / Office Space: - 104408.00 m2 The total approved cost of project is Rs. 4264 Crores which include the 30 years maintenance work of the project. The Project will be financed by lease sale of commercial / office space to PSU / Ministry / Govt. Departments.
  20. 20. 20 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 6.3 Methodology for Execution of Work: The construction of the work has been divided into 5 Nos. packages as given below:- I Package I Commercial office space 4 block II Package II Primary school-1 no., Sr. Secondary school-2 no‘s, LSC-1, Lal Quarters, Banquet hall- 1 no., Type VII-61 qtrs., ( 09 Tower ), Type VI-192 qtrs., ( 10 Tower ) III Package III Type-II (936qtrs.), (11 Tower), Type-III (1008 qtrs.), (12 Tower) IV Package IV Type V-680 qtrs. (12 Tower), Type-IV 606 qtrs., (7 Tower) Dispensary V Package V Type-V-398 qtrs. (7 Towers), Type- IV 866 qtrs., (10 Towers) Fig 6.1 – Methodology for Execution of Work
  21. 21. 21 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 7.0 Details of Project Cost: S. NO. PARTICULARS COST (in crores) 1. Cost of Houses and Commercial Spaces 2724.53 2. Provision for shifting of existing utilities & create a new corridor for utility services like water, Power, Communication & Gas etc. (2.5% S.No. 1) 64.27 3. Sub Total (On S.No. 1+2) 2788.80 4. Escalation 15% (on S.No.3) 418.32 5. Contingency 3%(on S.No.3) 83.66 6. Sub Total (On S.No. 3+4+5) 3290.78 7. Cess 1% (On S.No. 3+4+5) 32.90 8. Agency Charges (105 on S.No. 6) 329.08 9. Service Tax on agency Charges (10.3% On S.No. 8) 33.89 10. Total as on 01.04.2010 Cost Index (On S.No. 6+7+8+9) 3686.65 11. Say 3687.00 12. Add 15% IRR 227.00 13. Total Cost Including IRR 3914.00 14. Add for Maintenance 30 Years 350.00 15. Total Cost Including Maintenance 4264.00
  22. 22. 22 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 8.0 Location Of Project
  23. 23. 23 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 8.1 Master Plan
  24. 24. 24 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 8.2 Training Site Plan The overall site has been divided into five packages: - I, II, III, IV & V. Further, the towers are classified into seven types from Type I to VII. The Deputy General Manager has allotted Package II Block 5 for execution and supervision of work. It is Type VII block and includes total of 9 towers out of which construction of tower 5 has just started.
  25. 25. 25 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 9.0 Details of Accommodation Block No. 5 Fig 9.1 Columns Layout
  26. 26. 26 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Fig 9.2 Column Schedulte
  27. 27. 27 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Fig 9.3 Estimate of Columns for Basement
  28. 28. 28 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Fig 9.4 Reinforcement Detail of Raft
  29. 29. 29 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Fig 9.5 Detail of Retaining Wall
  30. 30. 30 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Fig 9.6 Stair case detail
  31. 31. 31 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Fig 9.7 Staircase detail
  32. 32. 32 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Fig 9.8 Slab details of ground floor
  33. 33. 33 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 9.1 Specification of Single Dwelling Unit Unit size 356.4 m2 Circulation 42.8 m2 Total 487.5 m2 Fig.:-9.9 Plan of Single Dwelling Unit
  34. 34. 34 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 9.2 Detail of Type-VII Dwelling Unit: S.No. Room Type Size (mm) 1 PA Room 5330 x 5190 2 Office 4545 x 6015 3 Living/Dining Room 9070 x 6415 4 Kichen 3570 x 4500 5 Worship Place 3385 x 1405 6 Family Lounge 4665 x 5240 7 Master Bedroom 3450 x 6700 8 Bed Room 3950 x 4560 9 Bed Room 3300 x 4615 9.3 Specification For Residential Building(Type VII) Being Followed: ITEM NO. ITEM TYPE VII 1.0 Foundation, Basement, Slabs, super structure As per Design and drawings. 2.1 Frames 2.1.1 Window Anodised Aluminium frame for all external opening. 2.1.2 Door Hardwood polished frame for internal opening 3.2 Shutters
  35. 35. 35 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 3.2.1 Window Anodised Aluminium shutter with 5.5 mm glass panes. (i) Aluminium grills up to first floor external windows. (ii) Wire mesh shutters in all external door & windows. (iii) Provision for A.C opening in Aluminium frame. 3.2.2 Main Door 35 mm thick both side laminated flush shutters 3.2.3 W.C/ Bathroom 35 mm thick both side laminated flush shutters 3.2.4 Kitchen Door 35 mm thick both side laminated flush shutters 3.2.5 Other Doors 35 mm thick both side laminated flush shutters 3.3 Fittings Anodised Aluminium /stainless steel fittings. 3.4 Peep hole and security chain for external door only. Magic eye at the main door. 4 Flooring 4.1 Bedrooms/living rooms Vitrified tile 600 x 600 matt finish 4.2 Kitchen, internal circulation area Vitrified tile 600 x 600 matt finish 4.3 Common circulation area, staircase ((i) Kota stone flooring in staircase and common areas. (ii) Lift Lobby Area in all Floor and dado is Granite up to ceiling height. 4.4 Kitchen work top Modular kitchen.
  36. 36. 36 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Granite top with pre-polished and pre-moulded nosing 4.5 Toilets Ceramic floor tiles 450 x 600mm matt finish/ anti-skid of approved design. 4.6 Skirting/Dado in toilets Ceramic glazed tiles 450 x 600 mm up to ceiling height. 5 Finishing 5.1 External Textured paint. 5.2 Internal All wall and ceiling to be treated 2 mm thick POP followed with a coat of acrylic/oil bound distemper except ceiling which will be done with whitewash. Melamine polish on all wood work. 9.4 Scale of Sanitary Fittings for Residential Quarters ITEM NO. TYPE VII Specifications 1 One+ One for servant quarter Wall Hung EWC with dual flow cistern2 One (siphonic type) with matching low level cistern 3 Three CP Brass Mixer type for hot and cold water with single level Readymade built in counter with single lever mixer
  37. 37. 37 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 4 12(1 PTMT + 11 C.P. Brass) All fittings to be C.P. Brass of approved makes 5 Three C.P. Brass With Diverter 6 Two C.P. Brass All fittings to be C.P. Brass of approved makes 7 Mirror/Bevelled edge/P.V.C frame with PTMT glass shelf Three 8 Soap rack (Nitch in W.C./Bath) Three 9 Liquid soap container Three 10 Storage tank 1000 Ltr.+500 Ltr. For servant qtr. Type VII = 2000 Litre. 12 Plumbing for water purifier and Geyser 13 RO (Water Purifier) Yes 14 Toughened Glass Partition Yes in type V,VI&VII(one in each quarter) 15 Shower Cubical Yes one in type VII master bed toilets.
  38. 38. 38 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 10.0 Steps of Construction Work These are the steps which are mainly followed for the begging of construction. 1) Types of building:-First select the type of building whatever we want to construct, depending on the need like villas, flats, apartments, penthouses, malls, industrial buildings or group housing. 2) Site Selection: - Site for construction of building can be selected according to the space required and whatever the area and the people demands, in accordance with the population and bearing in mind the geographical and industrial point of view for further development. 3) Survey: - By survey we measure all the dimensions and plot the real position or place wherever we want to construct our structure. This includes many aspects like financial survey, economical survey, topographical survey etc. etc. 4% 21% 6% 31% 7% 3% 7% 21% CIVIL WORKS EARTH WORK RCC SHUTTERING REINFORCEMENT BRICK WORK FLOORING FINISHING WORKS MISCELLANEOUS WORKS
  39. 39. 39 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 4) Site Investigation: -By this we investigate about the type of the soil, bearing capacity of the soil, nature of the bed, the topographical feature of the area, which in turn helps the structural designer to design the footing for our project. 5) Architectural Drawings: - Architectural drawings are the heart to the project, which is the master document or the copy with which we have to stick completely and do accordingly; these drawings have all the plans and construction details about the particular project. 6) Structure Design: - Structural Designer is that person who gives life to an Architectural Drawing; it infuses the correct data and interpret the correct meaning which an Engineer knows. He suggests the type of foundation, columns, beams and slabs etc. which are needed for the construction and also provides the amount of steel and its size. 7) Construction: - After all these steps, Construction of the proposed project starts. The construction is done at the site in which different section is divided like Civil, Electric and Mechanical work. 11.0 Methodology Of Work 11.1 Site Clearance: - The very first step is site clearance which involves removal of grass and vegetation along with any other objections which might be there in the site location. 11.2 Layout for Excavation: - As the metro line tunnel passes below the construction area so coordinates are referred from INA Metro Station. Two arbitrary station points of known coordinates with reference to INA Metro Station Benchmark were marked with
  40. 40. 40 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI the help of a TOTAL STATION, thread and plumb bob as per the grid drawing near every block to be constructed. So coordinates of Total Station can be found out from those two fixed points using resection method whenever required and layout for excavation is done accordingly. Fig 11.1 Layout using Total Station 11.3 Excavation: - Excavation was carried out both manually as well as mechanically. Adequate precautions were taken to see that the excavation operations do not damage the adjoining structures. Excavation was carried out providing adequate side slopes. Depth of excavation was 6.0 meter from Ground Level. The backfilling was done in layers not exceeding 20 cm in thickness and then it was compacted. There are some points which should be kept in mind at the time of excavation:- 1. In areas where the trench is close to the buildings, depending on the type of foundation of the building, shoring shall be done by planking, strutting or trench sheets. 2. In other areas it will be stepped open excavation with battered slopes.
  41. 41. 41 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 3. Bottom of the trench shall be cleaned, free of loose material; rock projections and the surface will be levelled and moistened uniformly before commencing compaction. 4. Levelled bottom surface shall be compacted using smooth wheel rollers as per specifications. Fig 11.2 Layouts Marking Fig 11.3 Excavation Fig 11.4 Compaction 11.4 Laying of P.C.C. (Plain Cement Concrete):- After the process of compaction and levelling, laying of plain cement concrete that is PCC is done. A layer of 100mm thick PCC of grade M10 with 100mm projections was made in such a manner that it was not mixed with the soil. It provides a solid base for the raft foundation and a mix of 1:4:8
  42. 42. 42 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI that is, 1 part of cement to 4 parts of fine aggregates and 8 parts of coarse aggregates by weight were used in it. Plain concrete is vibrated to achieve full compaction. Concrete placed below ground should be protected from falling earth during and after placing. When joint in a layer of concrete are unavoidable, end is sloped at an angle of 30° and the lower surface is made rough and clean watered before upper layer is laid. Fig 11.5 Laying of P.C.C. Total quantity of PCC required: 120 m3 11.5 Waterproofing: Water-proof or water-resistant describes objects relatively unaffected by water or resisting the ingress of water under specified conditions. Waterproof often refer to penetration of water in its liquid state and possibly under pressure, whereas damp proof refers to resistance to humidity or dampness. In building construction, waterproofing is a fundamental aspect of creating a building envelope, which is a controlled environment. The roof covering materials, siding, foundations, and all of the various penetrations through these surfaces need to be water- resistant and sometimes waterproof.
  43. 43. 43 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Fig 11.6 Waterproofing 11.5.1 APP Membranes: APP Waterproofing Membranes are mostly used to prevent leakage in various areas. Features:  Total impermeability for total waterproofing.  Excellent resistance to aging and weathering.  Outstanding bond ability and seam integrity.  Flexibility at low temperature.  Stability at high temperature.  Very high resistance to impact & puncture.  Application friendly. (Labour cost saving)  High tensile strength and tear resistance.  Isotropic properties. Finishes: Torch Tar APP membrane is available in three basic finishes.  Black smooth finish with PE (Polyethylene) surfaces for covered applications.  Granule surfacing for exposed application.  Fine sanded upper surface for coated systems.
  44. 44. 44 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Applications: Torch Tar is installed by torch welding method, fully bonded to substrate. Packing: Standard Width: 1 Meter Standard Length: 10 Meter for 3mm & 4mm and 20 Meter for 2mm 11.5.2 Non-woven Fabric Non-woven fabric is a fabric-like material made from long fibers, bonded together by chemical, mechanical, heat or solvent treatment. Non-woven materials typically lack strength unless densified or reinforced by a backing. In recent years, non- wovens have become an alternative to polyurethane foam. This fabric is used over APP membrane to prevent its puncturing due to reinforcement and concrete. Fig 11.7 Non-woven Fabric 11.6 50mm Thick Screed: It protects the waterproofing membrane from puncture if any by rebars. 11.7 Layout: After screeding is done, layout of columns is done with the help of Total station. Two corner points for each column are marked on screed with the help of paint. Outline for raft as well as lift is also marked simultaneously. 11.8 Foundation: Two types of foundation were provided at site. Raft foundation was provided in tower area whereas isolated footings were provided in non-tower areas.
  45. 45. 45 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Raft foundations are used to spread the load from a structure over a large area, normally the entire area of the structure. Normally raft foundation is used when large load is to be distributed and it is not possible to provide individual footings due to space constraints i.e. their pressure bulbs would overlap each other. They are often needed on soft or loose soils with low bearing capacity as they can spread the loads over a larger area. Fig 11.8 Isolated Footing Fig 11.9 Raft Foundation 11.8.1 Specifications  Area of Raft:- 1122.65m2  Thickness of Raft:- 800mm  Grade of Concrete:- M25 (1:1:2)  Grade of Steel:- Fe500  Bottom Reinforcement:- 16mm ɸ @ 200mm c/c (both ways)  Top Reinforcement:- 16mm ɸ @ 200mmc/c (both ways)  Extra top Reinforcement:-  A, B and K 16mm ɸ @ 200mmc/c  H 12mm ɸ @ 200mmc/c
  46. 46. 46 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI  R 20mm ɸ @ 200mmc/c  Clear Cover:- 75mm  Lap Length:- 48.5ɸ  Steel Quantity:- 850.94 quintal (with Chair 16mm ɸ @ 1m c/c)  Concrete Quantity:- 898.12 m3 Fig 11.10 Laying of Raft Foundation 11.9 Column: A column is an important component of RCC structure. It is a vertical member which is used to transfer the load of super structure such as super structure, floor, balconies, slab etc. 11.9.1 Method of construction: The method of construction of column is given below:- I. Placing vertical steel of columns: - As according to structural drawing (column schedule) vertical bars were placed through top reinforcement of raft on the position marked earlier (6.5) above the bottom reinforcement of raft.
  47. 47. 47 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI II. Layout of columns: - After casting of raft again the layout of column was done in order to check the actual position of vertical bars of columns. The layout was also helpful to place the shuttering on actual position, so that the column should be in proper position according to drawing (Column layout drawing). III. Bar binding and column starter: - Shear reinforcement was tied as according to structural drawing (column schedule) up to the height determined from framing plan. At bottom column starters were made so that shuttering can be fixed on desired accurate position. Fig 11.11 Column Starter IV. Formwork: - The shuttering either wooden or steel is cleaned and oiled properly and then it is fixed around column and its plumb is checked out. At bottom starters keep shuttering in position and at top and middle, cover blocks are fixed so that proper cover could be provided to reinforcement and its verticality can be ensured. V. Propping: - The shuttering plates are kept in position using standards. Standards are provided with a base plate at the bottom and screw jack at the top. VI. Concrete Pouring and Compaction: - Concrete is poured in columns with the help of pump and pipe. The different pieces of pipe are joined with the help of couplers. At the end of pipe a flexible hose is provided so as to facilitate the concrete placing process.
  48. 48. 48 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Fig 11.12 Binding Cover Blocks Fig 11.13 Concrete Pouring VII. Check for Verticality: - After the concrete is placed, the verticality of shuttering is checked again while concrete is still in fresh state and then required corrections if any are made. VIII. Removal of Formwork: - The very next day, shuttering of columns is removed. IX. Chipping and Finishing: - As the surface should be smooth and plain. So surface roughness or peculiarities if any are removed and patches are repaired with the help of cement mortar. X. Curing: - After the finishing work, the date of column casted is marked on it and its surface is covered with the help or hazen clothes. The surface of concrete is kept wet for next seven days by sprinkling water continuously.
  49. 49. 49 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 11.9.2 Specifications Size of Columns :- colum nNo. No.of Colu mns Size of Colu mn Length width Height C1 16 300 750 5000 C2 6 300 750 5000 C2 6 0 0 5000 C3 2 300 750 5000 C3 2 0 0 5000 C4 2 300 750 5000 C4A 2 300 900 5000 C5 2 300 750 5000 C6 2 350 750 5000 C7,C8 4 350 800 5000 C9 2 300 1055 5000 C9 2 0 0 5000 C10 2 300 1100 5000 C11 1 300 750 5000 C12 2 300 750 5000 C12 2 0 0 5000 C12A 2 350 850 5000 C12A 2 0 0 5000 C14 1 350 750 5000 C14 1 0 0 5000 C15 1 350 800 5000
  50. 50. 50 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI C16 3 300 1060 5000 C16 3 0 0 5000 C17 3 300 1405 5000 C17 3 0 0 5000 C18 3 300 600 5000 C101 29 500 500 5000 C101 29 0 0 5000 C102 20 500 500 5150  Lap Length:- 48.5 ɸ  Steel Quantity:- 35.9 quintals  Concrete Quantity:- 133.745m3  Grade of Concrete:- M35  Grade of Steel:- Fe500  Clear Cover:- 40mm 11.10 Retaining wall A retaining wall is a structure designed and constructed to resist the lateral pressure of soil when there is a desired change in ground elevation that exceeds the angle of repose of the soil. A basement wall is thus one kind of retaining wall. But the term usually refers to a cantilever retaining wall, which is a freestanding structure without lateral support at its top. These are cantilevered from a footing and rise above the grade on one side to retain a
  51. 51. 51 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI higher level grade on the opposite side. The walls must resist the lateral pressures generated by loose soils or, in some cases, water pressures. Fig 11.14 Retaining Wall Fig 11.15 Propping Steps involved in construction of retaining wall include: I. Placing vertical steel of columns II. Layout of columns III. Bar binding and column starter: - IV. Formwork and Propping V. Concrete Pouring and Compaction VI. Check for Verticality VII. Removal of Formwork VIII. Chipping and Finishing IX. Curing X. Waterproofing XI. Backfilling 11.11 Laying of Beam and Slab: A structural member which supports lateral load and resist bending is known as beam. Slabs are plane structural member whose thickness is quite small as compared to its other dimension. Slab support mainly transverse loads and transfer them to end supports by bending action in one or more directions. The steps which are followed for the construction of column are written as below:-
  52. 52. 52 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI I. Fixing Beam bottom and slab formwork: - Beam bottoms are fixed along with the vertical reinforcement of columns using a specially made arrangement called ―BEAM SUPPORTER‖. Then sides of beams are fixed and then main slab‘s shuttering is laid according to architectural drawing (framing plan). The gaps are filled and uniform horizontal platform is made to support the slab. Generally beam bottom and slab‘s shuttering is made of plywood and rests on vertical steel pipe arrangement called ―probes‖. Note: All the sunken portions and sections according to co-ordinate framing plan should be taken into consideration while fixing the beam bottoms and slab‘s shuttering. II. Laying reinforcement of beams and slab: - First of all reinforcement of primary beams is laid and then secondary beams on a certain height above the shuttering according to structural drawing (beam detail). After all beams are tied and are placed on their respective position slab reinforcement is laid according to structural drawing (slab reinforcement detail) and bar bending schedule. Cover blocks are placed in between shuttering and slabs reinforcement. Note: All the section should read carefully and dowel required for any section or staircase should be placed before casting. III. Levelling of slab: - To check exact level of slab (both bottom and top) a certain level is marked above the finished floor level on columns bars as convenient. A thread is tied throughout that mark on the column bars at the marked level and level of slab (bottom and top) is measured by measuring the perpendicular length graduated bar from thread level to the top level of slab with the help of measuring tape.
  53. 53. 53 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Fig 11.16 Reinforcement of Beam & Slab 11.11.1 Specification of Beam  Size of Pedestal:- Sr No. Name Sizes 1 B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, B7, B8, B9, B10, B11, B12, B13, B14, B16, B17, B18, B20, B22, B25, B27, B28, B29, B30, B31, B32, B33, B35 230 X 600 2 NB4, NB5 230 X 700 3 B30A, B34 230 X 475 4 NB1, NB2, NB10, NB11, NB19 500 X 700  Lap Length:- 40 ɸ  Grade of Concrete:- M25 (1:1:2)  Grade of Steel:- Fe500D  Clear Cover:- 25mm 11.11.2 Specification of Slab  Thickness of Slab:- Al125mm (Unless otherwise Specified)  Grade of Concrete:- M25 (1:1:2)
  54. 54. 54 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI  Grade of Steel:- Fe500  Clear Cover:- 20mm  Lap Length:- 40 ɸ 11.12 Laying of Stair and Lift: - A series of steps or flight of steps that go from one level to another is called stair. The form work can be made up with plywood or framing lumber. The first step is to cut the side forms according to the drawing. Add wooden member as bracing against the outward movement and depending on the width of stair additional bracing should be provided at centre. Make sure that the forms are plumb and level before proceeding further. After that concrete is prepared from R.M.C. and poured into Frame work. Concrete should be poured from the bottom step. Once you pour it, it should be spread evenly. Use a spade or a rod to remove trapped air bubbles. A screed board is a piece of lumber somewhat longer than width is used for the finishing purpose. Last step is curing, it can be done by gunny bags. Lift is a vertical access that moves up and down inside a building and carries people from one floor to another floor. The lift frame is made of R.C.C. and construction method is same as other member. There is one precaution must be considered that it should be vertical straight and levelled. The formwork should be strong enough to take the dead load and live load during construction. It should be watertight and easily removed after placing concrete. 11.12.1 Specification of Stair & Lift  Dia. Of Stair Slab Bar:- 12mm@200c/c  Dia. of Lift Bar:- 16mm and 12mm  Dia. of Stirrups‘ bar:- 8mm@100c/c
  55. 55. 55 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI  Grade of Concrete:- M25 (1:1:2)  Grade of Steel:- Fe500  Clear Cover:- 25mm  Lap Length:- 40 ɸ Fig 11.17 Stair and Reinforcement of Lift 11.13 Scaffolding: Scaffolding, also called staging, is a temporary structure used to support people and material in the construction or repair of buildings and other structures. Scaffolding has been used since ancient times. There are many kinds of prefabricated, modular system of metalpipes or tubes, although it can be custom. Fig 11.18 A Prototype of Scaffolding
  56. 56. 56 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 11.13.1 Materials The basic components of scaffolding are tubes, couplers and boards. The key elements of a scaffold are standards, ledgers and transoms. The standards, also called uprights, are the vertical tubes that transfer the entire mass of the structure to the ground where they rest on a square base plate to spread the load. The base plate has a shank in its centre to hold the tube and is sometimes pinned to a sole board. Ledgers are horizontal tubes which connect between the standards. Transoms rest upon the ledgers at right angles. Main transoms are placed next to the standards, they hold the standards in place and provide support for boards; intermediate transoms are those placed between the main transoms to provide extra support for boards as well as the tubes at right angles. Fig 11.19 General Terms The spacings of the basic elements in the scaffold are fairly standard. For a general purpose scaffold the maximum bay length is 2.1 m, for heavier work the bay size is reduced to 2 or even 1.8 m while for inspection a bay width of up to 2.7 m is allowed. The scaffolding width is determined by the width of the boards, the minimum width allowed is 600 mm but a more typical four-board scaffold would be 870 mm wide
  57. 57. 57 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI from standard to standard. The lift height, the spacing between ledgers, is 2 m, although the base lift can be up to 2.7 m. The diagram above also shows a kicker lift, which is just 150 mm or so above the ground. Transom spacing is determined by the thickness of the boards supported, 38 mm boards require a transom spacing of no more than 1.2 m while a 50 mm board can stand a transom spacing of 2.6 m and 63 mm boards can have a maximum span of 3.25 m. The minimum overhang for all boards is 50 mm and the maximum overhang is no more than 4x the thickness of the board. 11.13.2 Types of Scaffolding  Independent Scaffold - The scaffolding supported on two rows of uprights, independent of the structure under construction.  Individual Component Type Scaffold - Independent or putlog scaffold consisting of an assembly of individual tubes and fittings.  Putlog Scaffold - The scaffolding supported by single row of up rights in combination with load bearing parts of the structure. It may be either ‗individual component type‘ or ‗unit frame type‘.  Unit Frame Type Scaffold - Independent or putlog scaffold consisting of an assembly of prefabricated frames suitably connected or fitted and used in combination with or without individual tubes. Fig 11.20 Independent Scaffold
  58. 58. 58 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 11.13.3 Individual Components  Base Plate: A plate for distributing the load from a standard or raker.  Brace: A tube incorporated diagonally in a scaffolding for stability.  Bridle A horizontal tube slung between putlogs for the purpose of supporting intermediate putlogs where due to window openings and the like, it is impossible to support a putlog in the wall.  Coupler A fitting by which a grip is applied to the external surfaces of two tubes and which thereby holds them together. 0 Fig 11.21 Different Types of Joints  Joint Pin: An internal fitting for jointing two tubes end-to-end.  Putlog: A tube or other member spanning from a ledger to the wall of a building and which may have a specially formed end (which may be detachable ) for the purpose of fixing into the brickwork.  Raker: An inclined tube having a bearing on the ground or an adjacent structure. 11.14 Formwork (Shuttering) Formwork is an ancillary construction, used as a mould for a structure. Into this mould, fresh concrete is placed only to harden subsequently. The construction of
  59. 59. 59 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI formwork takes time and involves expenditure upto 20 to 25% of the cost of the structure or even more. Designs of these temporary structures are made to economize expenditure. The operation of removing the formwork is known as stripping. Stripped formwork can be reused. Reusable forms are known as panel forms and non-usable are called stationary forms. Fig 11.22 Formwork for Slab 11.14.1 Requirements:  It should be strong enough to withstand all types of dead and live loads.  It should be rigidly constructed and efficiently propped and braced both horizontally and vertically, so as to retain its shape.  The joints in the formwork should be tight against leakage of cement grout.  Construction of formwork should permit removal of various parts in desired sequences without damage to the concrete.  The material of the formwork should be cheap, easily available and should be suitable for reuse.  The formwork should be set accurately to the desired line and levels should have plane surface.
  60. 60. 60 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI  It should be as light as possible. 11.14.2 Plywood Formwork Resin bonded plywood sheets are attached to timber frames to make up panels of required sizes. The cost of plywood formwork compares favourably with that of timber shuttering and it may even prove cheaper in certain cases in view of the following considerations:  It is possible to have smooth finish in which case on cost in surface finishing is there.  By use of large size panels it is possible to effect saving in the labour cost of fixing and dismantling.  Numbers of reuses are more as compared with timber shuttering. For estimation purpose, number of reuses can be taken as 20 to 25. Fig 11.23Wooden Formwork 11.14.3 Steel Formwork This consists of panels fabricated out of thin steel plates stiffened along the edges by small steel angles. The panel units can be held together through the use of suitable clamps or bolts and nuts. The panels can be fabricated in large number in any desired modular shape or size. Steel forms are largely used in large projects or in situation where large number reuses of the shuttering is possible. This type of shuttering is considered most suitable for circular or curved structures.
  61. 61. 61 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Fig 11.24 Steel Formwork 11.14.4 Comparison of Steel forms with timber formwork:  Steel forms are stronger, durable and have longer life than timber formwork and their reuses are more in number.  Steel forms can be installed and dismantled with greater ease and speed.  The quality of exposed concrete surface by using steel forms is good and such surfaces need no further treatment.  Steel formwork does not absorb moisture from concrete.  Steel formwork does not shrink or warp. 11.14.5 Construction of formwork: This normally involves the following operations:  Propping and centring  Shuttering  Provision of camber  Cleaning and surface treatment
  62. 62. 62 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 11.14.6 Order and method of removing formwork: The sequence of orders and method of removal of formwork are as follows:  Shuttering forming the vertical faces of wall, beam and column sides should be removed first as they bear no load but only retain the concrete.  Shuttering forming soffit of slabs should be removed next.  Shuttering forming soffit of beams, girders or other heavily loaded shuttering should be removed in the end. Table: Period of removal of formwork S. No. Description of structural member Period of time 1 Walls, columns and vertical sides of beams 1 to 2 days 2 Slabs (props left under) 3 days 3 Beam soffits (props left under) 7 days 4 Removal of props to slabs (a) For slabs spanning upto 4.5 m 7 days (b) For slabs spanning over 4.5 m 14 days 5 Removal of props to beams and arches (a) Spanning upto 6 m 14 days (b) spanning over 6 m 21 days 11.14.7 Economy in Formwork The following points are to be kept in view to effect economy in the cost of formwork:  The plan of the building should imply minimum number of variations in the size of rooms, floor area etc. so as to permit reuse of the formwork repeatedly.  Design should be perfect to use slender sections only in a most economical way.
  63. 63. 63 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI  Minimum sawing and cutting of wooden pieces should be made to enable reuse of the material a number of times. The quantity of surface finish depends on the quality of the formwork.  Formwork can be made out of timber, plywood, steel, precast concrete or fibre glass used separately or in combination. Steel forms are used in situation where large numbers of re-use of the same forms are necessary. For small works, timber formwork proves useful. Fibre glass made of pre-cast concrete and aluminium are used in cast-in-situ construction such as slabs or members involving curved surfaces. 11.14.8 Normal sizes of members for timber formwork: Sheeting for slabs, beam, column side and beam bottom 25 mm to 40mm thick Joints, ledges 50 x 70 mm to 50 x 150 mm Posts 75 x 100mm to 100 x 100 mm 11.14.9 What Is the Difference Between Shuttering and Formwork? Shuttering and formwork are both terms used to describe the process of creating a mould in which concrete can be poured and contained as it hardens. Shuttering usually refers to the process of using plywood to form the mould, while formwork is something of a broader term that is used to denote the forming process using a wide variety of materials. Shuttering and formwork both accomplish the same essential task, but the materials used to accomplish this task can vary. Sometimes there is no differentiation made between the
  64. 64. 64 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI two terms, and in some cases, shuttering may be considered one specific type of formwork. 11.15 How to build a brick wall Follow our step-by-step guide to bricklaying, from mixing mortar to getting a good- quality finish. Fig 11.25 Brick Wall Apparatus: Brick trowel, old board, measuring tape, spirit level, brick/string line, shovel, hammer, bolster, stiff brush. Step 1: After any necessary foundations have been prepared, lay out the bricks at both ends of wall where the pillars will start. Using string line, make a straight guideline at brick height between the two outside bricks. Now with the help of chipping hammer, tacking of the surface is done to make it rough and facilitate the bonding of mortar with already casted concrete surface.
  65. 65. 65 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Fig 11.26 Brick Wall Construction Step 2: Heap five shovels full of sand and one of cement on an old board. Turn shovel to mix to a consistent colour. Form a central hollow, pour in water and mix. Repeat for a smooth, creamy texture that‘s wet but not too loose. Step 3: Lay a 1-2cm mortar bed along the string line. Starting at one end, lay the first brick and tap slightly to ‗bed in‘. ‗Butter up‘ one end of the next brick with mortar and abut it to the first. Repeat using string line as a guide. Bricks should be wet while laying. Step 4: Vertical mortar joints should be broken and 10mm in thickness. With standard bricks there should be 75mm from the top of one to the top of that beneath. Fig 11.27 Laying of Mortar
  66. 66. 66 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Step 5: To finish the beds, use the rounded edge of a brick jointer to scrape mortar into the joints. Start with the horizontal lines and follow with the vertical – it‘s easier to remove any excess mortar this way. Step 6: In case of half brick thick wall, the 6mm dia reinforcement wire which is provided after every 3rd course should be centrally located and the end of the bar should penetrate in the column by 10mm min. The reinforcement wire is needed only if the height of wall exceeds 1m height. Step 7: Give the finished wall a gentle brush over and clean up any mortar that has fallen onto the floor before it dries. You can use water to wash cement away from the floor, but be sure to keep it away from your newly-built wall. 11.16 Installation of Expansion and Contraction Joints in Roofs, Floors & Columns The expansion joints used in roofs shall be finished such as to obtain an effective seal against penetration of water. A waterbar shall be installed in the expansion joint. The joint and the cover slabs shall be suitably treated for waterproofing. In the case of expansion joints in floors, provision of waterbar may not be necessary. Where the lower part of the joint is left open chamfering shall be provided on either side of the joint to improve appearance. If an open joint is not acceptable, a cover plate fixed to one side and free to slide over the concrete on the other side may be provided. In the case of continuous expansion joints between two parts of buildings twin columns shall be provided and the details of expansion joints between them shall be as shown in figure given below. In addition to the expansion joints necessary in the reinforced concrete frame, contraction joints shall be provided in the masonry in the facade. These joints may be either straight or staggered joints in the masonry and the
  67. 67. 67 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI joints should be finished with suitable sealing compound to match the appearance of the cladding. Fig 11.28 Typical Details of Expansion Joints at Twin Columns of RCC Frame 11.16.1 Filler Board This is capable of expansion and contraction which occurs with seasonal variations in temperature and are generally placed between two slabs or columns. Features of filler board are affordable, effective, and reliable. Fig 11.29 Filler Board in between Columns
  68. 68. 68 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 11.16.2 Waterbar: The function of waterbar is to seal the joint against water penetration. Waterbars may be necessary where the joint is subject to groundwater pressure or where the method of construction makes it difficult to accurately seal the surface cavity, and where it is very essential that there shall not be any risk of penetration of water. Waterbars may be of natural and synthetic rubber, polyvinylchloride (PVC) or metal. The strips shall be supplied in uniform lengths of 2.5 to 3.5 m at the option of the manufacturer, unless otherwise ordered. Fig 11.30 Waterbar 11.17 Methods of Plastering  Internal wall plastering  External wall plastering  Improving brick wall & structural concrete joints.
  69. 69. 69 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 11.17.1 Internal Plastering on surfaces of Brick and Concrete.  Surface where plastering is to be done is cleaned.  All the brick walls are watered before pasting mortar on walls.  First coat mortar filling (1:6 Cement and Sand) up to 15 mm is applied on surfaces where required mortar thickness exceeds 25mm.  Walls and columns are plastered 1:6 Cement and Sand to achieve semi rough finished surface.  Vertical joint of structural columns / walls & brick walls are treated by fixing 200mm width chicken mesh with wire nails / concrete nails by centering the mesh to the vertical wall joint.  All the embedded service lines and provisions (Conduits, Boxes and etc.) are completed on brick walls and checked with the MEP drawings. 11.17.2 External Wall Plastering.  Alignment and fixing level pegs on external wall surfaces are done using the surveying instrument / centre plumb bobs.  Projections on the wall surfaces are chipped off and cleaned after completing the level pegs on walls.  First coat mortar filling (1:4 Cement and Sand) up to 15 mm is applied on surfaces where required mortar thickness exceeds 25mm.  Cement paste on concrete surfaces is applied to improve the bonding of plaster to the concrete surfaces.
  70. 70. 70 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI  Maximum width of 20mm horizontal grooves between walls and beams is formed by cutting using grinders with diamond wheels after plastering the wall surface. This groove is filled with approved weather sealant.  External wall plaster is finished with rough surface.  1:10 slope at the external side of the window sill is formed while plastering the window reveals. 11.17.3 Improving Joints of Brick Wall & Structural Concrete  200mm wide Chicken Mesh is fixed at the joint.  Concrete surfaces are washed and cleaned.  Concrete surface which are to be plastered are roughened and then plastering is done. 12.0 Information about Plant and Equipment 12.1 An Endeavour to make Environment friendly Zero waste Disposal Colony: NBCC has been assigned the work for Redevelopment of Kidwai Nagar (East ) GPRA colony where we have to dismantle & demolish the existing quarters of Type I, II, & V , 2444 Nos and other existing structures as well. The demolition process will generate a huge quantity of Construction & Demolition Waste which needs to be disposed of to a designated dumping area to Re-cycle the same as per the norms of DPCC, Delhi NCR. 12.1.1 C&D waste While Construction and Demolition Wastes are usually grouped together under the title ―C&D waste‖, these waste streams are produced by two different processes and the
  71. 71. 71 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI volume and type of materials produced can differ greatly. Demolition projects often produce 20-30 times as much waste material per square meter as compare to construction projects. 12.1.2 Objectives of C&D Waste’s Management  Maximize recovery of recyclable C&D material(s).  Maximize reuse of recovered material in construction activity.  Minimize waste quantity that requires landfill disposal.  Ensure the proper disposal of C&D materials that cannot be recovered.  Increase life of sanitary landfill site(s) and  Reduce in total costs of C&D waste management. 12.1.3 Recycle Products By Processing C&D Waste we can produce:  Bricks/Concrete blocks, pavement blocks and Kerb-stones.  Aggregate which can be used as sub-base in road construction.  Dirt / loose soil to be used for land filling. 12.1.4 NBCC Obligations  Area required for setting up plant is provided by NBCC. (1.00 Acre)  Supply of C & D Waste at Plant Site.  100% assured buy back of finished products i.e. Bricks from the said plant @ Rs 5.00 each
  72. 72. 72 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 12.1.5 Model of Operation Construction & Demolition Waste Mixed C&D Waste (Manual segregation) Big Concrete Pieces Resizing to 200mm-400mm size by mechanical & manual means Grizzly Screening (60mm) Crusher +60mm to -200mm Feed Conveyor of wet process Prograde Screening & washing 10 to 20 mm 3 to 10mm -3 to 75 micron +20mm Batching Plant RMC Processing Sale Of RMC Adding Cement, Hardener, Water Mixed C&D Resizing to 200mm-400mm size by mechanical & manual means Grizzly Screening (60mm) Crusher +60mm to -200mm Feed Conveyor of wet process Prograde Screening & washing -60mm 20mm to 60mm 10 to 20mm 3mm to 10mm 75 micron to 3mm Silt Coarse sand/Pre- cast products VSI Crusher to crush to sand/Pre- cast Products Whole Bricks Wood, steel, Plastic & bituminous Used Internally or sold for Use Sent to Plant or dumpsite
  73. 73. 73 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Fig 11.31 Crushing Fig 11.32 Transportation Fig 11.33 Mixing Fig 11.34 Cutting Fig 11.35 Stacking Fig 11.36 Drying
  74. 74. 74 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 12.1.6 Technology  Producing the Bricks by Using Enzymes.  The EN-2 Enzyme is a synergistic mixture of enzymes, coenzymes, binders, catalysts, wetting agents, surfactants and water. It is non-toxic and non combustible. It does not harm humans, animals, fish or vegetation under normal use and is totally biodegradable process. EN-2 have been tailored to provide the "lock" for numerous soil and other organic materials and promote the desired alteration of their properties, causing a rapid cementation process to occur. 12.1.7 The Advantages of Using EN-2 in the Brick Manufacturing • Reducing the cement quantity up to 50%. • Reducing the cost of manufacturing the brick. • Reducing water absorption in the brick. • Maintaining the strength of the product. • Reducing water use during the process. 12.2 Concrete Mixer Plant: Mixer plant provides the facility to mix the various ingredients of concrete in required proportions at the in order to fulfil the quantities of concrete and without more lead distance. A concrete plant, also known as a batch plant, is a device that combines various ingredients to form concrete. Some of these inputs include sand, water, aggregate, fly ash and cement and the centre of the concrete batching plant is the mixer. These employ computer aided control to assist in fast, accurate measurement of input constituents or ingredients, as well as tie together the various parts and accessories for coordinated and safe operation.
  75. 75. 75 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Fig 12.1 Mix Plant 12.3 Transit Mixer: It is used to transport the concrete from the place of production to the site. Nominal capacity of Transit mixer is 6M3 and Total Geometric volume is 9M3 . It is a equipment which is used for transpoting the concrete from batching plant directly to the place where it is to be poured. It has a wide range of application specially for mass concreting works like high rise building construction and Dam and airports etc.The angle of drum is 15° and drum speed varies from 0-14 rpm. It optimized the position of spiral ensures maximum discharge of concrete. Weight of mixer is varies from 2500 kgs- 3760kgs. At our site there are 8 no of transit mixer which are used in different pocket. Fig 12.2 Transit Mixers
  76. 76. 76 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 12.4 Immersion or Needle Vibrators: Fig 12.3 Needle Vibrator This is perhaps the most commonly used vibrator. It essentially consists of a steel tube (with one end closed and rounded) having an eccentric vibrating element inside it. This steel tube called poker is connected to an electric motor or a diesel engine through a flexible tube. They are available in size varying from 40 to 100 mm diameter. The diameter of the poker is decided from the consideration of the spacing between the reinforcing bars in the form-work. The frequency of vibration varies upto 15000 rpm. However a range between 3000 to 6000 rpm is suggested as a desirable minimum with an acceleration of 4g to 10g. The normal radius of action of an immersion vibrator is 0.50 to 1.0m. However, it would be preferable to immerse the vibrator into concrete at intervals of not more than 600mm or 8 to 10 times the diameter of the poker. The period of vibration required may be of the order of 30 seconds to 2 minute. The concrete should be placed in layers not more than 600mm high.
  77. 77. 77 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 12.4.1 Concrete Vibration Practices  Before starting a job, be sure to have a spare vibrator ready as a backup plan.  Do not over vibrate concrete. Over-vibration of concrete will lead to honeycombing instead of reducing it.  If you are pouring a low slump concrete be sure not to under vibrate it, as honeycomb will also be a problem.  Concrete with higher slump will require little vibration.  When pouring self-consolidating concrete, the vibration shall be discarded.  Be sure to penetrate previous lift or layers of concrete already placed to reduce cold joints. The vibrator shall penetrate at least 6 inches into the previous layer  The vibrator shall be penetrated vertically to maximize its effects.  Do not over-bend the vibrator, it will fail.  A common mal practice is to use the vibrator as a concrete placement tool. If you do this, you could be creating an inconsistent surface and the concrete mix will be affected in certain areas.  Concrete vibrator shall be hold at least 10 seconds into the concrete mix  Vibrator shall be pulled up at an average rate of 3 inches per second  Remember to use hand spading or puddling.  Every time the vibrator is inserted, it radius of action shall overlap from the previous one. Remember that every concrete vibrator has its own field of action. It is estimated that the field of action is four times the vibrator tip diameter
  78. 78. 78 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI  Vibration shall be stopped when air no longer escapes concrete  The vibrator shall not be turned on outside of the concrete.  Stop vibration concrete when the concrete surface takes on a sheen  Do not force the vibrator into the concrete; it might get caught in the reinforcing steel.  Not all concrete vibrators work for all jobs. 12.4.2 Concrete Vibration Benefits A good vibrated concrete will offer some benefits such as:  Have a higher compressive strength.  A properly vibrated concrete will increase the bonding capacity between concrete and rebar.  Provide a better sealed concrete surface reducing its permeability.  Reduce cold joints, honeycombing and segregation  When the builder knows how to vibrate concrete, it can order drier mixtures that require less cement.  Offers greater durability  Bonding strength between layers of concrete will increase  Horizontally spread layers of 20‖ thick, will provide with best results in concrete
  79. 79. 79 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 12.5 Bar Cutting Machine: This machine is used for cutting the bar as per requirement in large quantities. The machine can do the operation of cutting up to 12mm dia. and for bar having dia. greater than 12mm than Bar Cutter is used. Fig 12.4 Bar Cutting Machine 12.6 Bar Straightening Machine: Bar Straightening Machine is fully automatic Steel -Bar straightening & cutting machine. Allowing automatic cutting with adjustable length, the steel bar straightening machine also features overload value that is designed to operate in situations of overloading. Model No JMT 3-14  Diameter 3-14 mm.  Straightening Speed 18-45 m/min.  Cutting Length 300-8000 mm.  Tolerance 1cm.  Power 4kw straightening/1.5kw Cutting  Dimension of Machine 1400 x 1000 x 1000 mm.  Weight of Machine 450 kgs.
  80. 80. 80 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Fig 12.5 Bar Straightening Machine Fig 12.6 Bar Bending Machine 12.7 Bar Bending Machine: Bar Bending Machine is a semi-automatic, durable fast and cost effective machine, used for bending reinforcement bars and various forms of round bars. The automatic angle selection permits precise bend at a preset angle making it one step bending process for various forms of bends and stirrups. Bar Bending Machine is easy to use; the machine can be operated by a layman with minimal experience. Available in different models, for rebars with maximum diameter up to 28mm (Single phase/ 3 phases), 36mm, 42mm, 52mm and 55mm and can be customized as per requirement. 12.8 Roller: The DDR 625 is a twin drum vibratory roller, ideal for compacting soil and asphalt. The machine is hydraulic and hence allows an overhang of only 7 cms, thus enabling the roller to run close to obstructions, such as walls. It is equipped with a large water tank & a push stop lever. Fig 12.7 Baby Roller
  81. 81. 81 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 12.8.1 Features:  Drum Width - 625 mm  Drum Diameter - 406 mm  Vibration Frequency - 3300 VPM  Area Coverage - 2500 sq. m/hour  Operating Weight - 750 Kgs.  Working Speed - Upto 4 Kms / Hour. 12.9 Jack hammer: Fig 12.8 Jack Hammer It is used for;  Renovating floors of all kinds  Demolishing concrete and masonry at floor level or below waist level  Removing tiles, bushing and compacting  Corrective chiseling such as adjustments to door and window openings. 12.9.1 Features:  Max. chiselling performance 5250 cm³/min  Weight 11.8 Kg
  82. 82. 82 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 12.10 Concrete Trailer Pumps: A concrete pump is a machine used for transferring liquid concrete by pumping. There are two types of concrete pumps. 12.10.1 Trailer-mounted boom concrete pump: It is attached to a truck. It uses a remote-controlled articulating robotic arm (called a boom) to place concrete accurately. Boom pumps are used on most of the larger construction projects as they are capable of pumping at very high volumes and because of the labour saving nature of the placing boom. They are a revolutionary alternative to truck-mounted concrete pumps. 12.10.2 Truck-mounted concrete pump: It is either mounted on a truck and known as a truck-mounted concrete pump or placed on a trailer, and it is commonly referred to as a line pump or trailer-mounted concrete pump. This pump requires steel or flexible concrete placing hoses to be manually attached to the outlet of the machine. Those hoses are linked together and lead to wherever the concrete needs to be placed. Line pumps normally pump concrete at lower volumes than boom pumps and are used for smaller volume concrete placing applications such as swimming pools, sidewalks, and single family home concrete slabs and most ground slabs. Fig 12.9 Trailer-mounted concrete pump
  83. 83. 83 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 12.10.2.1 Schwing Trailer concrete Pump SP1800: SP1800 provides solutions for high delivery with low concrete pressure or low delivery with high concrete pressure ensuring high efficiency in both cases. It is an output governed hydraulic pump that ensures the prime mover is never overloaded. The automatic governor splits available engine output into oil flow and oil pressure and allows the pump to run always at the optimum level. At the same time, the manual de-stroker can be used to vary output independent of the automatic governor for fine tuning. The open circuit and the 'Hi-Flow' integrated spool block apply minimum stress on the components and wear parts. The constant filtering and circulation this set-up offers reduces heat generation and so allows for prolonged operation. 12.10.2.2 Schwing Trailer Pump SP1800 - Technical Data Parameter Unit SP1800 Engine Capacity kW 110 Pumping Cylinder mm 200x1600 Max Output cu-m/hr 73 Max Strokes/min 24 Concrete pressure bar 108 12.10.3 Safety Considerations:  Checking for Wear: Pumping performance as well as safe operation of the pumping system may be affected by worn couplings or gaskets, which may let air into the line or allow grout to escape. Couplings typically wear on the surface that comes into contact with the pipe. The most accurate way to inspect for worn pipeline is with a gauge specifically designed to measure the thickness of steel
  84. 84. 84 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI pipe. In addition, the pipe ends must be inspected for wear, cleanliness and to make sure they are compatible with other pipe and couplings to be used on the job.  Securing the System: Improper tie-down is one of the most common causes of accidents when pumping concrete. Support brackets, designed to hold pipeline in either a horizontal or vertical position, should be spaced every 10 to 15 feet in order to take weight off of the coupling joint, and to transfer the pumping torque to a building column or beam.  Cleaning the System: If done improperly, cleaning the system after the daily pumping job can be very hazardous. Water should be used for cleaning whenever possible and practical, since it is the best and safest cleaning method available. If cleaning with compressed air, remember that the pressure builds up, and may remain in the line even after the supply is shut off, so a bleed-off valve should always be installed on the system when using compressed air. Remember that this pressure can be of sufficient force to propel a clean-out ball through the open end with enough force to penetrate a concrete block wall. Therefore, whether using water or air pressure, install an end cap and a catcher to prevent injury to workers or damage to property. 12.10.3.1 Safety "Don'ts" for Pump Operators: Carelessness in the field can cause accidents, no matter how many safety measures are built in to the equipment and procedures. Keep these safety "don‘ts" in mind: DON'T
  85. 85. 85 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI  Open a coupling that is under pressure  Face an open discharge end of the pipeline  Pick up a clogged hose that is under pressure  Climb on a hydraulic system to clean a clogged line 12.10.3.2 BLOCKAGES Causes of Blockages: There are basically three main causes of pump line blockages: a deficiency in the mix design; problems with the pipeline itself; and the human factor, or operator error.  The Wrong Mix: Concrete can bleed due to poorly graded sand that allows water to bleed through the small channels formed due to voids in the sand, or if the concrete is too wet. Insufficient mixing can cause segregation in the mix. For successful pumping, aggregate must have a full coating of cement grout to lubricate the mix as it is being pumped. A delay in placing the concrete due to traffic or job site problems, as well as hot weather conditions, may cause the concrete to begin to set prematurely. This creates a mix that may be too stiff to pump, because it won‘t fill the pumping cylinders, causing excessive pumping pressures.  Problems with the Pipeline: The entire pumping system must be evaluated for the job it is to perform. Considerations include a properly sized system including pump capacity and motor horsepower to move the concrete through the full length of the pipeline.
  86. 86. 86 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Pipes that have been improperly cleaned may cause blockages where old concrete has set, and may cause bleeding and segregation. Defective couplings, gaskets, or weld collars also can result in the loss of grout. Another thing to look for are bends that are too short, too sharp, or too numerous, all of which increase concrete pumping pressure. Variations of pipeline diameter, may cause blockages or rock jams because the concrete can‘t flow as quickly through the smaller diameter pipeline.  Operator Error: The most common error from inexperienced operators is setting up the pumping system improperly. Operators must know to set up each job so that pipe or hose only needs to be removed, not added on. This is because if the placing crew has to add hose once the pour is in progress, the dry conditions inside the added hose is likely to cause a blockage. 12.10.3.3 Locating a Blockage: The first suspect spot for blockage is the reducer, which connects the concrete pump to the pipeline system. A quick build-up in pressure prior to the jam indicates the blockage is most likely in the pump area. Slow pressure build-up is indicative of a jam further down the line, nearer the delivery end. The operator needs to examine the system, especially at the elbows or discharge hose. This can be done by tapping the hammer along the pipeline. Where concrete is jammed, the hammer will produce a dull thud, as opposed to a more ringing sound where the line is clear. All pipe joints should also be inspected for grout leakage, as well, as this can be indicative of grout loss and subsequent blockage.
  87. 87. 87 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI By carefully walking over or stepping on the discharge hose to depress it, a blockage may be located where the soft hose becomes firm, indicating jammed aggregate. 12.10.3.4 Clearing the Blockage: By alternately reversing the pump and resuming pumping for a few cycles, the pump operator may be able to break loose a minor rock jam. This should not be tried more than a couple of times, however, as it can jam the pipeline even tighter. If the reversal method doesn't work, the operator must locate the blockage, then break back the line and clear it out. Always make sure the line is no longer under pressure prior to clearing a blockage. Stand to one side of the line and remove the coupling nearest the jam. Let all the free-flowing concrete run out of the open end of the line by lifting the line, then bend the hose or tap on the pipeline in the area of the jam and shake out loose particles. *Important safety tip: When trying to clear a line blockage, NEVER use compressed air. If a greatly increased pump pressure won‘t move the blockage, compressed air won‘t be able to either. While using compressed air utilizing proper safety precautions is OK for cleaning out unblocked sections of pipe, using it on blockages can cause all kinds of problems, including the need to relieve the built-up air pressure, residual air pockets, and additional blockages due to segregation. 12.11 Backhoe Loader: These are heavy construction equipment consisting of a boom, stick, bucket and cab on a rotating platform (known as the "house"). The house sits atop an undercarriage with tracks or wheels. A cable-operated excavator uses winches and steel ropes to accomplish the movements. They are a natural progression from the steam shovels and often called power shovels.
  88. 88. 88 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Excavator Capacity = 0.26 cu m Loader Capacity = 1.1 cu m Fig12.10 Backhoe Loader Fig 12.11 Loader 12.12 Hydra (Cranes): - These are used in taking off heavy objects and also to transport them from one to other place at the site. A crane is a lifting machine that principally works with the use of pulleys and cables. For the construction industry, cranes are valuable assets because they make working with heavy machinery and construction materials easy. The invention of cranes made things easy for mankind because without them, loading, unloading, and lifting had to be done by human hands, would consume more time, and the entire system was not efficient at all. Fig 12.12 Hydra
  89. 89. 89 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 12.13 Tower Crane: Tower cranes are a modern form of balance crane that consist of the same basic parts. Fixed to the ground on a concrete slab (and sometimes attached to the sides of structures as well), tower cranes often give the best combination of height and lifting capacity and are used in the construction of tall buildings. The base is then attached to the mast which gives the crane its height. Further the mast is attached to the slewing unit (gear and motor) that allows the crane to rotate. On top of the slewing unit there are three main parts which are: the long horizontal jib (working arm), shorter counter-jib, and the operator's cab The long horizontal jib is the part of the crane that carries the load. The counter-jib carries a counterweight, usually of concrete blocks, while the jib suspends the load to and from the center of the crane. The crane operator either sits in a cab at the top of the tower or controls the crane by radio remote control from the ground. In the first case the operator's cab is most usually located at the top of the tower attached to the turntable, but Fig 12.13 Tower Crane can be mounted on the jib, or partway down the tower. The lifting hook is operated by the crane operator using electric motors to manipulate wire rope cables through a system of
  90. 90. 90 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI sheaves. The hook is located on the long horizontal arm to lift the load which also contains its motor. 12.14 Total Station Theodolite: A total station or TST (total station theodolite) is an electronic/optical instrument used in modern surveying and building construction. The total station is an electronic theodolite (transit) integrated with an electronic distance meter (EDM) to read slope distances from the instrument to a particular point. Robotic total stations allow the operator to control the instrument from a distance via remote control. This eliminates the need for an assistant staff member as the operator holds the reflector and controls the total station from the observed point Fig 12.14 Total Station 13.0 Quality Control and Testing Various tests which are done on different materials are listed below:  Slump Test  Compressive Strength of Concrete  Weight of Steel  Silt Content  Grading of Aggregate
  91. 91. 91 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI  Impact Value Test  Compressive Strength of Brick  Water Absorption Test  Dimensional Tolerance  Determination of Moisture Content by Calcium Carbide Method  Core Cutter Method 13.1 Slump Test: This test is used to check the workability of concrete at site. Steel mould is used which is in the form of frustum of cone whose dimensions are 300mm at bottom dia., 200mm at top dia. and height is 100mm. Standard Value Sr. No. Slump value Degree of Workability Uses at site 1 Less than 25 Very Low Precast work 2 25-75 Low Road pavement 3 75-100 Medium R.C.C footing 4 Greater than 100 High Column, beam Observation and calculations:- S.No. Mix of Concrete Water Cement Ratio Slump Value (mm) Remarks 1 M35 0.44 110 Columns 2 M25 0.50 115 Raft, Slab 3 M35 0.46 110 Lift
  92. 92. 92 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Result- Our sample is coming in category 4. When concrete is transported through pump then its value should be taken more than standard value. Fig 13.1 Slump Test 13.2 Test for Compressive Strength of Concrete Testing plays an important role in controlling the quality of cement concrete work. Systematic testing of the raw materials, the fresh concrete and the hardened concrete is an inseparable part of any quality control programme for concrete which helps to achieve higher efficiency of the materials used and greater assurance of the performance of the concrete in regard to both strength and durability. Size of Test Specimens — Test specimens cubical in shape shall be 15 × 15 × 15 cm. If the largest nominal size of the aggregate does not exceed 2 cm, 10 cm cubes may be used as an alternative. Cylindrical test specimens shall have a length equal to twice the diameter. They shall be 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm long. Smaller test specimens shall have a ratio of diameter of specimen to maximum size of aggregate of not less than 3 to
  93. 93. 93 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 1, except that the diameter of the specimen shall be not less than 7.5 cm for mixtures containing aggregate more than 5 percent of which is retained on IS Sieve 480. Curing — The test specimens shall be stored on the site at a place free from vibration, under damp matting, sacks or other similar material for 24 hours ± ½ hour from the time of adding the water to the other ingredients. The temperature of the place of storage shall be within the range of 22° to 32°C. After the period of 24 hours, they shall be marked for later identification, removed from the moulds and, unless required for testing within 24 hours, stored in clean water at a temperature of 24° to 30°C until they are transported to the testing laboratory. They shall be sent to the testing laboratory well packed in damp sand, damp sacks, or other suitable material so as to arrive there in a damp condition not less than 24 hours before the time of test. On arrival at the testing laboratory, the specimens shall be stored in water at a temperature of 27° ± 2°C until the time of test. Records of the daily maximum and minimum temperature shall be kept both during the period of the specimens remain on the site and in the laboratory. Procedure —  Specimens stored in water shall be tested immediately on removal from the water and while they are still in the wet condition. Surface water and grit shall be wiped off the specimens and any projecting fins removed. Specimens when received dry shall be kept in water for 24 hours before they are taken for testing. The dimensions of the specimens to the nearest 0.2 mm and their weight shall be noted before testing.
  94. 94. 94 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI  The bearing surfaces of the testing machine shall be wiped clean and any loose sand or other material removed from the surfaces of the specimen which are to be in contact with the compression platens. The load shall be applied without shock and increased continuously at a rate of approximately 140 kg/sq cm/min until the resistance of the specimen to the increasing load breaks down and no greater load can be sustained. The maximum load applied to the specimen shall then be recorded and the appearance of the concrete and any unusual features in the type of failure shall be noted. Fig 13.2 Compressive Strength Test Calculation - The measured compressive strength of the specimen shall be calculated by dividing the maximum load applied to the specimen during the test by the cross-sectional area, calculated from the mean dimensions of the section and shall be expressed to the nearest kg per sq cm. Average of three values shall be taken as the representative of the batch provided the individual variation is not more than ± 15 percent of the average. Otherwise repeat tests shall be made.
  95. 95. 95 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 7 days Strength: S.No. D.O.C Location Mixof Concrete Identification MarkofCube D.O.T Load (KN) Compressive Strength (N/mm2 ) Avg.Strength (N/mm2 ) 1 27/2/15 Tower 2 – 1st Floor Slab M40 P1/T2 3/3/15 606 26.93 27.75639 28.40 628 27.91 2 27/2/15 Tower 2 – 1st Floor Slab M40 P1/T2 3/3/15 654 29.07 28.84642 28.53 649 28.84
  96. 96. 96 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 28 days Strength: S.No. D.O.C Location Mixof Concrete Identificatio nMarkof Cube D.O.T Load (KN) Compressive Strength (N/mm2 ) Avg. Strength (N/mm2 ) 1 27/2/15 Tower 2 – 1st Floor Slab M40 P1/T2 27/3/15 994 44.18 44.331026 45.60 972 43.20 2 27/2/15 Tower 2 – 1st Floor Slab M40 P1/T2 27/3/15 1007 44.76 44.60946 42.04 989 43.96 Report - The following information shall be included in the report on each test specimen: a) Identification mark b) Date of test c) Age of specimen d) Curing conditions, including date of manufacture of specimen in the field
  97. 97. 97 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI e) Weight of specimen f) Dimensions of specimen g) Cross-sectional area h) Maximum i) load j) Compressive strength and k) Appearance of fractured faces of concrete and type of fracture, if these are unusual. 13.3 Weight of Steel: This is a field test which is performed on steel to check wt. per meter length because there are number of impurities which get added in the materials due to temperature variations and thus wt. of steel bars varies from its standard value. There are chances of corrosion and rusting of steel bars as well. Observation and Calculation:- Sr. No Dia. of Bar Standard Wt.(D^2/0.162) Actual Weight 1 8mm 390gm 390gm 2 10mm 620gm 620gm 3 12mm 890gm 890gm 4 16mm 1580gm 1550gm 5 20mm 2460gm 2425gm 6 25mm 3850gm 3845gm 7 32mm 6313gm 6308gm Result: From the result we can check most of the values are matching with each other.
  98. 98. 98 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 13.4 Silt Content: Silt is a material of particle sizes between 0.002mm to 0.075mm. It is usually found in sands obtained from natural sources such as river bed. If it is present in excess then it prevents development of bond between cement and aggregate. Silt value should not be more than 8% by volume. Measuring cylinder of 250ml capacity is used to perform this test. Fig. 26 Silt Content Fig 13.3 Silt Content Observation and Calculation:- Height of sample = 150ml Height of silt after 3 hours = 6ml Percentage of Silt = 4% Result:- Its value does not exceed 8% by volume. 13.5 Grading of Aggregate: The art of doing gradation of an aggregate as determined by sieve analysis is known as grading of aggregate. The principle of grading is that the small size particles will fill the voids between large size particles. There are four type of grading which are Continuous grading, Poor grading, Gap Grading, and Well Grading. Observation and Calculation:- Date of test: 23/03/2015 Grading Limit for Coarse aggregate (20mm):
  99. 99. 99 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI Wt. of agg. taken: 5000gm IS Sieve Weight Retained % Retained % Passing Grading Zone II 20mm 90 1.8 98.2 85-100 10mm 4720 94.4 5.6 0-20 4.75mm 150 3.0 0.8 0-5 PAN 30 Grading Limit for Coarse aggregate (10mm): Wt. of agg. taken: 3000gm IS Sieve Weight Retained % Retained % Passing Grading Zone II 12.5mm 0 0 100 85-100 10mm 411 13.7 86.3 0-20 4.75mm 2458 81.9 4.4 0-5 2.36mm 103 3.4 1 PAN 24 Fig 13.4 Sieve Analysis
  100. 100. 100 Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana RE-DEVELOPMENT WORKS AT EAST KIDWAI NAGAR, NEW DELHI 13.6 Determination Of Aggregate Impact Value as per IS: 2386 (Part IV) - 1963 The ‗aggregate impact value‘ gives a relative measure of the resistance of an aggregate to sudden shock or impact, which in some aggregates differs from its resistance to a slow compressive load. Apparatus - The apparatus shall consist of the following: a) An impact testing machine complying with the following: 1. Total weight not more than 60 kg nor less than 45 kg. 2. The machine shall have a metal base weighing between 22 and 30 kg with a plane lower surface of not less than 30 cm diameter, and shall be supported on a level and plane concrete or stone block or floor at least 45 cm thick. The machine shall be prevented from rocking either by fixing it to the block or floor or by supporting it on a level and plane metal plate cast into the surface of the block or floor. Fig 13.5 Impact Testing Machine 3. A cylindrical steel cup of internal dimensions: Diameter - 102 mm Depth - 50 mm and not less than 6.3 mm thick with its inner surface casehardened, that can be rigidly fastened at the centre of the base and easily removed for emptying. 4. A metal tup or hammer weighing 13.5 to 14.0 kg, the lower end of which shall be cylindrical in shape, 100.0 mm in diameter and 5 cm long, with a 2-mm chamfer at the

×