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Crisis before "the crisis": decline and fall of the "Tarraconensis" at the end of the High Empire

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Material de apoyo de la ponencia que, bajo el mismo título, presentó el Prof. Dr. D. Javier Andreu, Profesor Titular de Historia Antigua de la Universidad de Navarra en el Archaölogisches Park de Aguntum, en Dölsach, Austria, en un coloquio titulado "Römische Siedlungen und die Reichskrise im 3. Jahrjundert n. Chr." auspiciado por la Universidad de Insbruck y el Instituto Arqueológico Austriaco entre los días 15 y 16 de noviembre de 2018: https://www.oeaw.ac.at/oeai/kommunikation/veranstaltungen/event-detail/article/roemische-siedlungen-und-die-reichskrise-im-3-jahrhundert-n-chr/

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Crisis before "the crisis": decline and fall of the "Tarraconensis" at the end of the High Empire

  1. 1. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 11 Crisis before “the crisis”Crisis before “the crisis” decline and fall of thedecline and fall of the TarraconensisTarraconensis at the endat the end of the High Empireof the High Empire
  2. 2. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 22 Ancient viewsAncient views usus. new approaches. new approaches Some new issues connected with the main problem discussed in our paperSome new issues connected with the main problem discussed in our paper
  3. 3. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 33 Ancient viewsAncient views usus. new approaches. new approaches On a new publication on that subjectOn a new publication on that subject
  4. 4. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 44 Ancient viewsAncient views usus. new approaches. new approaches A new model of comprehension of an essential questionA new model of comprehension of an essential question
  5. 5. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 55 Ancient viewsAncient views usus. new approaches. new approaches A new model of comprehension of an essential questionA new model of comprehension of an essential question
  6. 6. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 66 The end of the “golden age”The end of the “golden age” Cassius DioCassius Dio (155-235 AD)(155-235 AD) Roman HistoryRoman History 72, 36, 472, 36, 4 <<<< This matterThis matter [the problems on the relationship[the problems on the relationship between Marcus Aurelius and Commodus]between Marcus Aurelius and Commodus] must bemust be our next topic; for our history now descends from aour next topic; for our history now descends from a kingdom of goldkingdom of gold (jrysés té basiléias)(jrysés té basiléias) to one of ironto one of iron and rustand rust (katapesúsés tés jistorías)(katapesúsés tés jistorías) as affairs did foras affairs did for the Romans of that daythe Romans of that day >>>>
  7. 7. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 77 Ancient viewsAncient views usus. new approaches. new approaches A new model of comprehension of an essential questionA new model of comprehension of an essential question
  8. 8. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 88 On the so-calledOn the so-called oppida labentiaoppida labentia SHA.SHA. MarcMarc. 23, 4. 23, 4 <<<< He himself was very sparing of the publicHe himself was very sparing of the public money in giving largessmoney in giving largess (in largitionibus(in largitionibus pecuniae publicae)pecuniae publicae), a fact which we mention, a fact which we mention rather in praise tan in disparagement, butrather in praise tan in disparagement, but nevertheless he gave financial assistance to thenevertheless he gave financial assistance to the deserving, furnished aid, to towns on the brink ofdeserving, furnished aid, to towns on the brink of ruinruin (oppidis labentibus)(oppidis labentibus), and, when necessity, and, when necessity demanded, cancelled tribute or taxesdemanded, cancelled tribute or taxes >>>>Historia AugustaHistoria Augusta (117-284 AD)(117-284 AD)
  9. 9. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 99 InfirmitasInfirmitas,, tenuitastenuitas,, difficultatesdifficultates AEAE 1962, 288 from1962, 288 from MuniguaMunigua: on sustainability challenges of cities in Spain: on sustainability challenges of cities in Spain
  10. 10. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 1010 Ancient viewsAncient views usus. new approaches. new approaches A new model of comprehension of an essential questionA new model of comprehension of an essential question
  11. 11. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 1111 Ancient viewsAncient views usus. new approaches. new approaches Our panel to the 19th AIAC Conference in Cologne-Bonn (May, 2018)Our panel to the 19th AIAC Conference in Cologne-Bonn (May, 2018)
  12. 12. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 1212 The cities of Hispania: a facade of wellfare?The cities of Hispania: a facade of wellfare? Epigrafía Jurídica de la España RomanaEpigrafía Jurídica de la España Romana, Madrid, 1953, p. 142, Madrid, 1953, p. 142 <<<< El auge del desarrollo de la vida municipalEl auge del desarrollo de la vida municipal suele colocarse en el siglo II y, concretamente parasuele colocarse en el siglo II y, concretamente para España, en la época de Adriano, ya desde Trajano.España, en la época de Adriano, ya desde Trajano. Pero no deja de ser verdad que tal apogeo era másPero no deja de ser verdad que tal apogeo era más bien una apariencia de bienestar generalbien una apariencia de bienestar general [facade of[facade of wellfare]wellfare], explotado por pequeños grupos, explotado por pequeños grupos caciquiles, y que, pese a las apariencias, lacaciquiles, y que, pese a las apariencias, la organización de las ciudades carecía de aquellasorganización de las ciudades carecía de aquellas reservas de vital autonomía necesariasreservas de vital autonomía necesarias [financial[financial reserves]reserves] para superar la decadencia en quepara superar la decadencia en que inmediatamente incurrieron. La ruina del Imperioinmediatamente incurrieron. La ruina del Imperio [ruin of Empire][ruin of Empire] fue precedida de una ruina de lasfue precedida de una ruina de las ciudadesciudades [ruin of cities in advance] >>[ruin of cities in advance] >> Álvaro D’OrsÁlvaro D’Ors (1915-(1915- 2004)2004)
  13. 13. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 1313 Ideology and bases of municipal systemIdeology and bases of municipal system The recognition of municipal working of communities by the Flavian periodThe recognition of municipal working of communities by the Flavian period
  14. 14. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 1414 Obsessed with theObsessed with the pecunia communispecunia communis Lex IrnitanaLex Irnitana, Ch. 20 [, Ch. 20 [De iure et potestate quaestorumDe iure et potestate quaestorum]] <<<< And they are to have the right and power ofAnd they are to have the right and power of collectingcollecting (exigendi)(exigendi),, spendingspending ((erogandierogandi)),, keepingkeeping ((custodiendicustodiendi)),, administeringadministering ((atministrandiatministrandi)) andand looking afterlooking after ((dispensandidispensandi)) the common funds ofthe common funds of the municipes of that municipiumthe municipes of that municipium ((pecuniapecunia communem municipumcommunem municipum)) at the discretion of theat the discretion of the duumviriduumviri >>>>Lex Irnitana (91 AD)
  15. 15. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 1515 Lex IrnitanaLex Irnitana, Ch. 60 [, Ch. 60 [Vt de pecunia communi municipum caueatur ab hisVt de pecunia communi municipum caueatur ab his]] <<<< Those who in that municipium seek theThose who in that municipium seek the duumvirate or the quaestorship or are forced intoduumvirate or the quaestorship or are forced into that position by being nominatedthat position by being nominated (…)(…),, each of them,each of them, on the day ot which the election is held, before theon the day ot which the election is held, before the votes are cast, is to provided at the discretion of thevotes are cast, is to provided at the discretion of the person who holds that election praedes to theperson who holds that election praedes to the common account of the municipes, that theircommon account of the municipes, that their common funds which he handels in the course ofcommon funds which he handels in the course of this office will be kept safe for themthis office will be kept safe for them (pecuniam(pecuniam communem municipum saluam is fore)communem municipum saluam is fore) >>>> Lex Irnitana (91 AD) Obsessed with theObsessed with the pecunia communispecunia communis
  16. 16. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 1616 Lex IrnitanaLex Irnitana, Ch. 80 [, Ch. 80 [De pecunia publica mutua sumendaDe pecunia publica mutua sumenda]] <<<< If the decuriones or conscripti of thatIf the decuriones or conscripti of that municipium decide under oath by ballot, when notmunicipium decide under oath by ballot, when not less than three quarters of them are present, thatless than three quarters of them are present, that any loan is to be raised for the use of theany loan is to be raised for the use of the resres publicapublica of theof the municium Flauium Irnitanummunicium Flauium Irnitanum andand those funds are ‘entered as spent’ to the municipes,those funds are ‘entered as spent’ to the municipes, provided that no more than 50.000 sesterces areprovided that no more than 50.000 sesterces are ‘entered as spent’‘entered as spent’ ((erogatio pecuniaeerogatio pecuniae)) to them into them in one year, except with the authorization of theone year, except with the authorization of the person who governs that province (…)person who governs that province (…) >>>> Lex Irnitana (91 AD) Obsessed with theObsessed with the pecunia communispecunia communis
  17. 17. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 1717 Lex IrnitanaLex Irnitana, Ch. 79 [, Ch. 79 [De pecunia communi municipum erogandaDe pecunia communi municipum eroganda]] <<<< (…) nor is he to propose it to the municipes of(…) nor is he to propose it to the municipes of that municipium, nor is he to distribute or dividethat municipium, nor is he to distribute or divide up or allot their common funds to thhe colonists ofup or allot their common funds to thhe colonists of the decuriones or conscriptithe decuriones or conscripti (distribuenda,(distribuenda, diuidenda, discribenda inter municipes)diuidenda, discribenda inter municipes), nor is he, nor is he to raise with the decuriones or conscriptito raise with the decuriones or conscripti alienating, reducing, spending or lending in thealienating, reducing, spending or lending in the name of the municipes the funds which are thename of the municipes the funds which are the common funds of the municipes (…) when fewercommon funds of the municipes (…) when fewer are present than could make up three quarters ofare present than could make up three quarters of the whole number of decuriones or conscripti >>the whole number of decuriones or conscripti >> Lex Irnitana (91 AD) Obsessed with theObsessed with the pecunia communispecunia communis
  18. 18. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 1818 Thinking about theThinking about the res communisres communis tootoo Lex IrnitanaLex Irnitana, Ch. 26 [, Ch. 26 [De iure iurando IIuirorum et aedilium et quaestorumDe iure iurando IIuirorum et aedilium et quaestorum]] <<<< (…) and that he will not knowingly and whit(…) and that he will not knowingly and whit wrongful intent do anything contrary to this statuewrongful intent do anything contrary to this statue (ex hac lege)(ex hac lege) or to the common good of theor to the common good of the municipes of that municipiummunicipes of that municipium (exque re communi(exque re communi municipum)municipum) and that he will restrain those whom heand that he will restrain those whom he is able to restrain and that he will neither initiate ais able to restrain and that he will neither initiate a coursecourse (of action)(of action) nor advise it nor express annor advise it nor express an opinion otherwise tan he believes to be acoording toopinion otherwise tan he believes to be acoording to this statute and to the common good of thethis statute and to the common good of the municipes of that municipiummunicipes of that municipium ((res communisres communis municipummunicipum)) (…) Anyone who has not sworn in this(…) Anyone who has not sworn in this way is to be condemned to pay 10,000 sesterces to theway is to be condemned to pay 10,000 sesterces to the municipes of that municipiummunicipes of that municipium >>>> Lex Irnitana (91 AD)
  19. 19. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 1919 TheThe res prolataeres prolatae and the farming basesand the farming bases Lex IrnitanaLex Irnitana, Ch. K [, Ch. K [De rebus proferendisDe rebus proferendis]] <<<< (…) for what period within their term of office(…) for what period within their term of office they wish business to be postponed for the harvestthey wish business to be postponed for the harvest or the vintageor the vintage (per quos dies res prolatas intra(per quos dies res prolatas intra suum honorem messis vindemiae causa) >>suum honorem messis vindemiae causa) >> Lex Irnitana (91 AD)
  20. 20. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 2020 AAdlectio ad numerumdlectio ad numerum and compromiseand compromise Lex IrnitanaLex Irnitana, Ch. 31 [, Ch. 31 [De conuocandis edicto decuriones aut sublegendos…De conuocandis edicto decuriones aut sublegendos…]] <<<< In any year in which there are fewer tan 63In any year in which there are fewer tan 63 decuriones or conscripti in that municipiumdecuriones or conscripti in that municipium (…)(…) unless choice or choice in replacement of decurionesunless choice or choice in replacement of decuriones or conscripti has already taken place in that yearor conscripti has already taken place in that year (facta decurionum conscriptorumue lectio sublectio)(facta decurionum conscriptorumue lectio sublectio) the duumviri in charge of the administration ofthe duumviri in charge of the administration of justice in that year, either or both of them at thejustice in that year, either or both of them at the earliest posible opportunity, as they may thinkearliest posible opportunity, as they may think proper, are to raise with the decuriones or conscriptiproper, are to raise with the decuriones or conscripti (…) in replacement or substitution of those whose(…) in replacement or substitution of those whose addition to the number of decuriones or conscriptiaddition to the number of decuriones or conscripti will lead to the presence of 63 decuriones orwill lead to the presence of 63 decuriones or conscripti in that municipiumconscripti in that municipium >>>> Lex Irnitana (91 AD)
  21. 21. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 2121 MunitionesMunitiones, compromise and public duties, compromise and public duties Lex IrnitanaLex Irnitana, Ch. 83 [, Ch. 83 [De munitioneDe munitione]] <<<< (…) whoever is a(…) whoever is a municepsmuniceps oror incolaincola of thatof that municipium or lives or has a field or fields within themunicipium or lives or has a field or fields within the boundaries of that municipium, all of them are to beboundaries of that municipium, all of them are to be obliged to give, carry out and provide those days ofobliged to give, carry out and provide those days of workwork (munitione damni cui facttum erit ex re(munitione damni cui facttum erit ex re cmmuni it aestimetur)cmmuni it aestimetur) >>>> Lex Irnitana (91 AD)
  22. 22. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 2222 On early financial problems on citiesOn early financial problems on cities Plin.Plin. EpEp. 10, 17b & 18. 10, 17b & 18 <<<< [Pliny to Trajan][Pliny to Trajan] I entered this province on theI entered this province on the 17th of September (…); for I am inclined to think17th of September (…); for I am inclined to think much might be deducted from what is charged bymuch might be deducted from what is charged by those who have the conduct of the public works if athose who have the conduct of the public works if a faithful admeasurement were to be taken: at least Ifaithful admeasurement were to be taken: at least I am of that opinion from what I have already seen ofam of that opinion from what I have already seen of the accounts of this city (…)the accounts of this city (…) [Trajan to Pliny][Trajan to Pliny] TheThe examination of the public accountsexamination of the public accounts (rationes rerum(rationes rerum publicarum)publicarum) ought certainly to be your firstought certainly to be your first employment, as they are evident in great desorderemployment, as they are evident in great desorder (eas uexatas satis constat)(eas uexatas satis constat) >>>> Pliny the YoungerPliny the Younger (61-113 AD)(61-113 AD)
  23. 23. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 2323 Again on towns of the brink of ruinAgain on towns of the brink of ruin SHA.SHA. Ant. PiusAnt. Pius 8, 48, 4 <<<< Beside all this, he helped many communitiesBeside all this, he helped many communities (multas ciuitates adiuuit pecunia)(multas ciuitates adiuuit pecunia) to erect newto erect new buildings and to restore the oldbuildings and to restore the old (ut opera noua(ut opera noua facerent uel uetera restituerent)facerent uel uetera restituerent); and he even; and he even gave pecuniary aid to Roman magistrates andgave pecuniary aid to Roman magistrates and senators to assist them in the performance ofsenators to assist them in the performance of their duties >>their duties >>Historia Augusta (117-284 AD)
  24. 24. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 2424 A very monumental Roman city in Uncastillo, Zaragoza, SpainA very monumental Roman city in Uncastillo, Zaragoza, Spain The evidences of Los BañalesThe evidences of Los Bañales
  25. 25. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 2525 A very impressive Roman city in Eslava, Navarra, SpainA very impressive Roman city in Eslava, Navarra, Spain The evidences of Santa Criz de EslavaThe evidences of Santa Criz de Eslava
  26. 26. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 2626 AA check-listcheck-list for the urbanfor the urban decusdecus CILCIL III, 352 fromIII, 352 from OrcistusOrcistus <<<< (…); and that there is an abundant supply(…); and that there is an abundant supply of waterof water (aquarum abundans afluentia)(aquarum abundans afluentia), and, and public as well as private bathspublic as well as private baths (labacra(labacra publica priuataque)publica priuataque), and a forum adorned, and a forum adorned with statues of former emperorswith statues of former emperors (forum(forum statuis ueterum principum ornatum)statuis ueterum principum ornatum), and a, and a populace of inhabitants so abundantpopulace of inhabitants so abundant (populum commanentium)(populum commanentium) that the seatsthat the seats there are easily filled; furthermore, from thethere are easily filled; furthermore, from the water channels running past, there is anwater channels running past, there is an abundant number of whater-millsabundant number of whater-mills (aquarum(aquarum aquimolinarum numerum copiosum) >>aquimolinarum numerum copiosum) >>
  27. 27. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 2727 Los Bañales, anLos Bañales, an oppidum labensoppidum labens The abandonment of the forum’s basilicaThe abandonment of the forum’s basilica
  28. 28. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 2828 The evidences of Santa Criz de EslavaThe evidences of Santa Criz de Eslava Architectural and financial problems in a small-size cityArchitectural and financial problems in a small-size city
  29. 29. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 2929 ParapetasiaParapetasia and ilegal constructions in some spaces at the forumand ilegal constructions in some spaces at the forum Los Bañales, anLos Bañales, an oppidum labensoppidum labens
  30. 30. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 3030 The end of the oficial sculptural programmesThe end of the oficial sculptural programmes Los Bañales, anLos Bañales, an oppidum labensoppidum labens
  31. 31. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 3131 Los Bañales, anLos Bañales, an oppidum labensoppidum labens The end of theThe end of the aquarum afluentiaaquarum afluentia from the dam of the aquaeductfrom the dam of the aquaeduct
  32. 32. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 3232 The effect of the “Antonine plague”The effect of the “Antonine plague” Eutrop. 8, 12 (& Cass. Dio 72, 14, 3-4)Eutrop. 8, 12 (& Cass. Dio 72, 14, 3-4) <<<< (…) since, under the emperor(…) since, under the emperor [Marcus[Marcus Aurelius]Aurelius], after the victory over the Partians, after the victory over the Partians [and[and over the Marcomani, on 174 AD]over the Marcomani, on 174 AD] there occurredthere occurred so destructive a pestilenceso destructive a pestilence (casus pestilentiae(casus pestilentiae fuit)fuit) that at Rome, and throughout Italy and thethat at Rome, and throughout Italy and the provinces, the greater part of the inhabitantsprovinces, the greater part of the inhabitants (maxima hominum pars defecit)(maxima hominum pars defecit) and almost alland almost all the tropos, sunk under the diseasethe tropos, sunk under the disease >>>> Eutropius (c. 363 AD)
  33. 33. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 3333 The repression of Clodius Albinus’ revoltThe repression of Clodius Albinus’ revolt SHA.SHA. Sept. Seu.Sept. Seu. 1212 <<<< Countless persons who had sided with AlbinusCountless persons who had sided with Albinus were put to deathwere put to death (interfectis innumeris Albini(interfectis innumeris Albini partium uiris)partium uiris), among them numerous leading men, among them numerous leading men and many distinguished women, and their goodsand many distinguished women, and their goods were confiscated and went to swell the publicwere confiscated and went to swell the public treasury. Many nobles of the Gauls and Spains weretreasury. Many nobles of the Gauls and Spains were also put to death at this timealso put to death at this time (cum Hispanorum et(cum Hispanorum et Gallorum proceres multi occisi sunt)Gallorum proceres multi occisi sunt) (…) Yet, as a(…) Yet, as a result of these confiscations, he left his sons aresult of these confiscations, he left his sons a fortune greater tan any other emperor had left to hisfortune greater tan any other emperor had left to his heirs, for he had made a large part of the gold in theheirs, for he had made a large part of the gold in the Gauls, SpainsGauls, Spains (magnam partem auri per Galias, per(magnam partem auri per Galias, per Hispanias)Hispanias) and Italy imperial propertyand Italy imperial property >>>> Historia Augusta (117-284 AD)
  34. 34. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 3434 Tiberius Claudius Candidus (Tiberius Claudius Candidus (CILCIL IIII22 /14-2, 975)/14-2, 975) Tib(erio) ·Tib(erio) · Cl(audio)·Cl(audio)· Candido ·Candido · c(on)s(uli)c(on)s(uli) XVuir(o)· s(acris)· f(aciundis)·XVuir(o)· s(acris)· f(aciundis)· leg(ato) ·leg(ato) · Augg(ustorum)Augg(ustorum) pr(o)· pr(aetore)· prouinc(iae) H(ispaniae)·pr(o)· pr(aetore)· prouinc(iae) H(ispaniae)· C(iterioris) ·C(iterioris) · et in ea duci terra mariqueet in ea duci terra marique 55 aduersus rebelles hh(ostes) pp(ublicos)aduersus rebelles hh(ostes) pp(ublicos) item Asiae item Noricaeitem Asiae item Noricae duci exercitus Illyriciduci exercitus Illyrici expeditione Asiana item Parthicaexpeditione Asiana item Parthica item Gallica logistae ciuitatisitem Gallica logistae ciuitatis 1010 splendidissimae Nicomedensiumsplendidissimae Nicomedensium item Ephesiorum leg(ato) pr(o) pr(aetore) prouin(ciae)item Ephesiorum leg(ato) pr(o) pr(aetore) prouin(ciae) Asiae cur(atori) ciuitatis TeanensiumAsiae cur(atori) ciuitatis Teanensium allecto inter praetorios itemallecto inter praetorios item tribunicios proc(uratori) XX hered(itatium) pertribunicios proc(uratori) XX hered(itatium) per 1515 Gallias Lugdunensem et BelGallias Lugdunensem et Bel gicam et utramqu(ue) Germaniamgicam et utramqu(ue) Germaniam praeposito copiarum expeditipraeposito copiarum expediti onis Germanicae secundaeonis Germanicae secundae trib(uno) mil(itum) leg(ionis) II Aug(ustae) praefectotrib(uno) mil(itum) leg(ionis) II Aug(ustae) praefecto 2020 coh(o)rtis secundae ciuiumcoh(o)rtis secundae ciuium romanorum Silius Hospes hastatus leg(ionis) Xromanorum Silius Hospes hastatus leg(ionis) X Geminae strator eiusGeminae strator eius optimo praesidioptimo praesidi
  35. 35. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 3535 Depopulation because of theDepopulation because of the pestilentiapestilentia?? The case ofThe case of LabitolosaLabitolosa (La Puebla de Castro, Huesca, Spain)(La Puebla de Castro, Huesca, Spain)
  36. 36. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 3636 A consequence of the official repression?A consequence of the official repression? On the so-calledOn the so-called urbs truncaurbs trunca ofof colonia Itucicolonia Ituci (Torreparedones, Córdoba, Spain)(Torreparedones, Córdoba, Spain)
  37. 37. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 3737 Crisis on the basis of economic problemsCrisis on the basis of economic problems SegobrigaSegobriga (Saelices, Cuenca, Spain) and the(Saelices, Cuenca, Spain) and the lapis specularislapis specularis
  38. 38. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 3838 Crisis on the basis of economic problemsCrisis on the basis of economic problems SisapoSisapo (La Bienvenida, Ciudad Real, Spain) and the cinnabar(La Bienvenida, Ciudad Real, Spain) and the cinnabar
  39. 39. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 3939 Crisis as a consequence of urban competitionCrisis as a consequence of urban competition The case of the competition betweenThe case of the competition between LucentumLucentum (Alicante) and(Alicante) and IliciIlici (Elche, Spain)(Elche, Spain)
  40. 40. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 4040 Crisis before “the crisis”: final reflectionCrisis before “the crisis”: final reflection The municipal system containing the seed of ist own ruinThe municipal system containing the seed of ist own ruin
  41. 41. 20182018 Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr.Römische Siedlungen und die „Reichskrise” im 3. Jh. n. Chr. 4141 Javier ANDREU PINTADOJavier ANDREU PINTADO Universidad de NavarraUniversidad de Navarra https://unav.academia.edu/JavierAndreuhttps://unav.academia.edu/JavierAndreu http://www.losbanales.eshttp://www.losbanales.es http://www.santacrizdeeslava.comhttp://www.santacrizdeeslava.com jandreup@unav.esjandreup@unav.es

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