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Simple Past 1 Use the simple past to talk about things that happened and were completed in the past. I rafted down the Nile River a year ago. I kayaked in the Grand Canyon for two months. raftedpast future kayaked Use ago to show now when something He’s not started. kayaking now.
Perfect Tenses 1 Use the present perfect and the present perfect progressive to talk about things that started in the past, but were not completed. I have guided travelers my entire career. I have been rock climbing for 10 years.past future have guided have been rock climbing now These things continue up to the present and may continue into the future.
Remember! Non-action (stative) verbs are not usually used in the progressive.I’ve been knowing how to rockclimb since I was young.I’ve known how to rock climbsince I was young.
Perfect Tenses 2 We often use the present perfect and the present perfect progressive with for and since. Use for to show how long something has been true and since to show when something started. I have trained for six years to take this trip. since 2000. He has been guiding trips since 2000. for six yearspast future have trained has been guiding now since 2000
Simple Past 2 Use the simple past with past time expressions. last year.We trekked through the Andes Mountains last year. ago.He backpacked in Peru two months ago.past future d e d k ke a ck t re p a ck now b
Be Careful!Don’t use specific time expressions with the presentperfect except after since. last year. She has taken skydiving lessons last year. She took skydiving lessons last year. last year. since 2004. She has taken skydiving lessons since 2004.
Fill in the blanks with the simplePractice 1 past, present perfect, or present perfect progressive forms of the verbs in parentheses. Dear Mom and Dad, I (sit) have sat/have been sitting here for hours looking at the beautiful birds in the rain forest. This vacation to Brazil (be) has been wonderful! I (see) have seen so many amazing animals since I arrived here. Last week, I (hike) hiked through the forest to see the tree monkeys. Our guide on that trip (tell) told us some very interesting information. I (learned) have learned/ have been learning so much on this trip! Love, Daniela
Present Perfect 1 Use the present perfect without time expressions to talk about things that happened at some indefinite time in the past. They have canoed down the Amazon River. time ????past future We don’t know when they now canoed down the river, or the time is not important.
Present Perfect 2 The present perfect without for or since shows that an activity is finished. We often say how many or how many times with this use of the present perfect. three times. He has visited Machu Picchu three times.past future now
Present Perfect Progressive The present perfect progressive shows that an activity is unfinished. We often say how long with the present perfect progressive. for five hours. They have been climbing for five hours. for five hourspast future have been climbing now The activity is not finished. They’re still climbing.
Present Perfect & Simple Past Use the present perfect or the simple past with unfinished time periods such as today, this week, this month, and this year. Notice the difference in meaning. She’s traveled to Alaska The month isn’t over. She twice this month. might travel again. The month isn’t She traveled to Alaska over, but she probably won’t twice this month. travel again this month.
Look at the groups of sentences. Practice 2 Discuss the differences in meaning with a partner.Example: • I have visited Kenya three times this year. have visited • I visited Kenya three times this year.• a. I have taken many first-aid courses. b. I have been taking many first-aid courses. year isn’t The The year isn’t over, but theover. The use2. a. She rafted down the Nile River last week. use of the of the present simple pastperfect means b. She has rafted down the Nile River.that she might means that she probably won’treturn again to3. a. We lived in Nepal for two years. Kenya. return to Kenya. b. We have lived in Nepal for two years. c. We have been living in Nepal for two years.