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Cultural Diasporas

  1. Cultural Diasporas The Caribbean and the Wider World
  2. Course title: diaspora studies course code: hist4002 instructor: ms. Cecilia hall year iv/ semester: ii NAME: Shari Connelly Avinash Motilal Nanda Roopnarine Kathy Ann Gomez
  3. Caribbean Map
  4. Objectives: 1. Cultural Diasporas defined 2. Ways in which Caribbean’s have disseminated their culture worldwide 3. Two (2) case studies are used (i) Case study of Canada’s Caribana Festival (ii) Case study of Notting Hill Carnival in London
  5. 4. Why Caribbean’s leave their homeland? 5. Challenges faced by Caribbean’s in the Diaspora 6. Relationship with members of the host society 7. Common Theories associated with the study of Caribbean Diasporas
  6. “ ” What, finally, unsettles about international migration is that it internalizes the nation- state and globalizes identity. Fluidity, not fixity, characterizes the migrant, contemporary nomads and cultural gypsies. And few, if any, people are more global and more migratory than those from the Caribbean. For them, the nation is ‘unbound’ (Basch et al. 1994) and the city, ‘boundless’ (Chamoiseau, 1997).
  7. • From the start, the Caribbean was global, linking as it did Europe and the Americas, Africa and Asia. • It was diasporic, both the resting place and the launch pad for migrants. • Caribbean culture itself is global and continues to forge a unique syncretic cultural form which continues to adapt, transform and incorporate the local with the global. (Benitez- Rojo, 1996). Cultural Diasporas
  8. 1. One feature of Caribbean migration is it’s historical longevity and impermanence. (Conway, 1988) calls it ‘circularity’ where generations of migrants maintain informal contacts with ‘home’. • The revolution in transportation and communication has eased their way for many migrants to retain their links ‘back- home’ (Chamberlain, 1997). Caribbean’s have disseminated their culture worldwide in such ways:
  9. 3. The culture of the Caribbean continues its ‘globalizing mission’ in the form of its migrants; who ‘traffic’ the culture of the Caribbean by absorbing, changing and indigenizing it ( Basch et al. 1994). • (Craig, 1992) referred to the ‘indigenization’ of Diasporic communities where cultural practices are transmitted creating a new ‘syncretic’ Caribbean culture abroad. NOTTING HILL CARNIVAL, LONDON
  10. • Caribbean migration has permitted a peculiar ‘global favour’ permitting Caribbean retentions in the new creole cultures of the migrant destination as well transporting new elements back home. JAMAICA, QUEENS, N.Y, U.S.A WEST MALL, TRINDAD
  11. • 4. The experience of migration has developed a consciousness of the Caribbean and an awareness of its unique position and placement (Craig, 1992).
  13. HISTORY OF THE CARIBANA FESTIVAL Caribana began as the dream of ten enthusiastic individuals from diverse backgrounds but with a common West Indian heritage. They called their organisation the Centennial Committee.
  14. THE EVOLUTION OF CANADA’S CARIBANA FESTIVAL On July 28, 1967 it was formally incorporated as the Caribbean Committee for Cultural Advancement, but later changed to the Caribbean Cultural Committee-Caribana (January 15, 1969).
  15. The Evolution of Canada’s CaribanaThe Evolution of Canada’s Caribana FestivalFestival Begun in 1967 as the Caribbean community's contribution to Canada's centennial celebrations, Caribana has become a major annual summer event in Toronto attracting some one million people. Inspired primarily by Trinidad's annual pre- Lenten Carnival, this two-week festival of the arts reflects the diverse expressive traditions of the Caribbean, bringing together a wide range of indigenous songs and instrumental music, dances, masquerade and oral traditions, and also featuring various foods and folkways of the region. In the latter 1980s participation by groups from Central and South America, Africa, the Bahamas, Haiti, and Canada has added a dimension of multiculturalism to the festival that is uniquely Canadian.
  16. The Musical Component Of CaribanaThe Musical Component Of Caribana Soca Reggae Tassa Drumming Zuk ( St Lucia) Cadence (Haiti and Dominica)
  17. CARIBANA FESTIVAL: DISSEMINATING ‘WE’ CULTURE Festival events include: Calypso 'tents' (shows) ‘Fetes’ (parties) ‘Mas' (masquerade) Competitions A Junior Carnival ‘Pan Blockos' or ‘Blockoramas' (steelband street parties) ‘Talk tents' (shows featuring story tellers, comedians, and others expert in the oral traditions) A series of moonlight cruises on Lake Ontario, and a Caribana picnic on Toronto Island.
  18. CARIBANA FESTIVAL: A HOME AWAY FROM HOME Their dream was the construction of a monument of goodwill, a confirmation of Caribbean culture and a statement of belonging to their adopted land, Canada.
  20. The Diasporic Caribbean Carnivals • Hybrid Carnivals: – The Jonkonnu masks of Jamaica and the Bahamas, – The first Diasporic Carnival occurred in Harlem, New York in the 1920s (Nurse, 1999). Now referred to as Labour Day. Since 1947. – The major overseas Caribbean carnivals are Notting Hill and Caribana. They became institutionalized during the mid to late 1960s at the peak in Caribbean migration •
  21. The Diasporic Caribbean Carnivals • The emergence of the carnivals can be related to the rise of Black Power Consciousness. • The carnivals had been developed to promote cultural identity and socio-political integration within the Caribbean Diasporic community as well as with the host society. •
  23. ORIGINS OF LONDON’S NOTTING HILL CARNIVAL The Notting Hill Carnival is an annual event that since 1966 has taken place on the streets of Notting Hill, Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London, UK, each August over three days (the August bank holiday Monday and the two days beforehand). It is led by members of the West Indian community. First held in 1964 as an offshoot of the Trinidad Carnival, the Notting Hill Carnival has remained true to its Caribbean roots, bringing a spirit of diversity to London.
  24. ORIGINS OF LONDON’S notting hill carnival • The roots of the Notting Hill Carnival that took shape in the mid-1960s come from two separate but connected strands. • A "Caribbean Carnival" was held on 30 January 1959 in St Pancras Town Hall as a response to the depressing state of race relations at the time; the UK's first widespread racial attacks (the Notting HILL race riots) had occurred the previous year. • The 1959 event, held indoors and televised by the BBC, was organised by Trinidadian Claudia Jones (often described as "the mother of the Notting Hill Carnival") in her capacity as editor of Britain's first black newspaper The West Indian Gazette, and directed by Edric Connor; showcasing elements of a Caribbean carnival cabaret style. •
  25. • The other important strand was the "hippie" London Free School-inspired festival in Notting Hill that became the first organised outside event in August 1966. • Among the early bands to participate were Ebony Steelband and Metronomes Steelband. • "Notting Hill Carnival became a major festival in 1975 when it was organised by a young teacher called Leslie Palmer.“ The carnival was also popularised by live radio broadcasts by Alex Pascall on his daily Black Londonersprogramme for BBC Radio London. •
  27. • When the Notting Hill Carnival first started, around 500 people attended the Caribbean festival. Today it attracts hundreds of thousands to London, and continues to grow in popularity. You can expect to see some 50,000 performers more than 30 sound systems. More than 1 million people attend over the Carnival weekend. • Sunday at The Notting Hill Carnival is Family Day. It kicks off with J’Ouvert, a fun opening with dance, drummers and steel bands from 6am until 9am; before the children’s day parade gets under way. It's also the day costume prizes are awarded. • Bank Holiday Monday sees the main parade. In the evening, the floats leave the streets in procession and people continue the festivities at the many Notting Hill Carnival after-parties. •
  29. NOTTING HILL CARNIVAL: ITS IMPACT ON FUTURE GENERATIONS • Experts identified the following external developments that they considered important for the future of the Notting Hill Carnival: • a. Increased house prices and gentrification in Notting Hill • b. Increase in security, health and safety issues • c. Political change which led to decreased funding • d. Change in London’s ethnic make-up • e. Differentiation of attendee groups • f. Legal restrictions concerning noise, pollution, etc. • g. Changing identity of London as a world city • h. Notting Hill Carnival’s location • i. Political developments affecting residents and businesses • j. Emerging new generation of ‘makers’ and producers •
  30. 1. THEY LEFT IN SEARCH OF WORK • The first wave of migrants occurred post – world war which coincided with Britain’s labour shortage and the reconstruction programmes it had created (Peach, 1968). Between 1948-1973 approximately 550,000 people arrived in Britain (Peach, 1991). 2. IN SEARCH OF HIGHER STANDARDS OF LIVING • Caribbean governments recognize foreign exchange earnings sent through remittances and through the spending power of returnees to visit home ,as of economic and political importance (Chamberlain & Goulbourne). Why Caribbeans leave their homeland?
  31. 1. Violent riots in Notting Hill in 1958 caused the Immigration Act of 1962 and 1965 to close the door on further immigration. 2. (Banton, 1967) spoke about the practice of racial prejudice and discrimination towards migrants. 3. (Rex & Tomlinson, 1979) spoke of the impact of teasing on West Indians where explanations for Underachievement were attributed to their social, cultural and historical attributes. CHALLENGES FACED BY CARIBBEAN’S IN THE DIASPORA:
  32. 1. Lord Jenkins in 1968 stated that assimilation was not desirable and instead Britain should recognize ‘cultural diversity’ and encourage ‘mutual tolerance’. 2. The Swann Report of 1985 sought to enshrine ‘multi-culturalism’ in the education system in order to create a ‘socially cohesive’ society. Relationship with members of the host society: London & Partners Brixton Market, London, U.K
  33. 3. Kasinitz (1992) refers to the ‘creolization’ of Caribbean communities abroad and the sense of global identity and perspective that Caribbean’s transmit about themselves e.g. with language, food, clothing etc. ‘Creolization’ means more than just mixture; it involves the creation of new cultures.  Roger Abraham referred to it as "culture with an attitude"(2002). •
  34. TRANSNATIONALISM THEORY OF MIGRATION “Transnationalism is the human activities and social institutions that extend across national boundaries.” (Nielsen) •
  35. TRANSNATIONALISM THEORY What is transnationalism? • “The concept of transnationalism was introduced into academic discourse in the early nineties when social anthropologists noted that a new kind of migrant population was emerging, composed of those whose networks, activities and patterns of life encompass both their host and home societies.” (Glick Schiller, Basch & Blanc-Szanton, 1992).
  36. • Glick Schiller et al. (1992: 1) defined transnationalism as ‘the process by which immigrants build social fields that link together their country of origin and their country of settlement’. •
  37. • Transnationalism creates a greater degree of connection between individuals, communities and societies across borders, bringing about changes in the social, cultural, economic and political landscapes of societies of origin and destination. (International Organization of Migration, 2010) •
  38. • Trans-migrants develop and maintain familial, economic, social, organizational, religious, or political relations that span national borders. • They take actions, make decisions, feel concerns and develop identities within social networks that connect them to two or more societies at the same time. (Glick Schiller et al., 1992: 2) •
  39. ECONOMIC TRANSNATIONAL ACTIVITIES • Examples of economic transnational activities include monetary remittances, migrant entrepreneurship or the collective transfer of resources or products to the local community (Country of origin).
  40. • Portes (2003) argues, transnational economic ties are of great importance for the development of the countries of origin. For instance, monetary remittances and migrant investments play an important role in generating welfare for the families left behind in the country of origin.
  41. POLITICAL TRANSNATIONAL ACTIVITIES • Political activities include participation in electoral activities, political affiliations or political mobilization in the country of settlement (Al-Ali, Black & Koser, 2001) •
  42. SOCIAL TRANSNATIONAL ACTIVIES • Examples of transnational activities include visiting and maintaining contacts with family and friends in the country of origin, joining organizations in the country of residence or the country of origin, participation in cultural activities, watching home country television, etc. (Al-Ali 2001 & Jayaweera & Choudbury, 2008) •
  43. OTHER MIGRATION THEORIES • Ravenstein- Laws of Migration • Lee - Push-Pull factors • Gravity Model • Intervening Opportunity Model • Chain Migration •
  44. REFERENCES: • Cohen, Robin (1998) “The Caribbean Case,” in Caribbean Migration: Globalised Identities, ed. Chamberlain Mary. London: Routledge. • Al-Ali, N., Black, R. & Koser, K. (2001). Refugees and transnationalism: the experience of Bosnians and Eritreans in Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 27(4), pp. 615-634. • Glick Schiller, N., Basch, L. & Blanc-Szanton, C. (1992). Toward a transnational perspective on migration: race, class, ethnicity, and nationalism reconsidered. New York: New York Academy of Press. • Jayaweera, H., & Choudhury, T. (2008). Immigration, faith and cohesion: Evidence from local areas with significant Muslim populations. Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Oxford: Centre on Migration, Policy and Society • •
  45. • ELECTRONIC REFERENCES: • • •   • • • •
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  49. Thanks for watching

Notas del editor

  1. SYNCRETISM:uncritical acceptance of conflicting or divergent beliefs or principles.
  2. SYNCRETISM:the amalgamation or attempted amalgamation of different religions, cultures, or schools of thought. “HYBRIDITY” can be understood as the ongoing condition of all human cultures, which contain no zones of purity because they undergo continuous processes oftransculturation (two-way borrowing and lending between cultures),” (RenatoRosaldo , 1995).
  3. Assimilation:- the process in which one group takes on the cultural and other traits of a larger group