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Definition of Apartheid <ul><li>A system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government in South Africa between 1948 and 1994, under which the rights of the majority black inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and minority rule by whites was maintained. </li></ul>
Timeline of Events <ul><li>1948 - Policy of apartheid (separateness) adopted when National Party (NP) takes power. </li></ul><ul><li>1950 - Population classified by race. Group Areas Act passed to segregate blacks and whites. </li></ul><ul><li>1952 - The Pass Laws Act requires blacks to carry identification booklets at all times. </li></ul><ul><li>1953 - The Separate Amenities Act establishes "separate, but not necessarily equal" public facilities for whites and non-whites; the Bantu Education Act does the same to schools. </li></ul><ul><li>1960s - International pressure against government begins, South Africa excluded from Olympic Games. </li></ul><ul><li>1970s - More than 3 million people forcibly resettled in black 'homelands'. </li></ul>
Events Continued… <ul><li>1976 - More than 600 killed in clashes between black protesters and security forces during uprising which starts in Soweto. </li></ul><ul><li>1977 - Steve Biko, leader of the Black Consciousness Movement, is arrested and dies of head injuries in police custody. </li></ul><ul><li>1985 - As civil unrest increases and labor strikes threaten the economy, over the next four years thousands of blacks are killed and thousands more detained. Media access is also restricted. </li></ul><ul><li>1994 - South Africa holds its first democratic election with universal suffrage </li></ul>
Nelson Mandela <ul><li>Served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>First South African president to be elected in a fully representative democratic election. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-apartheid activist, and the leader of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the armed wing of the African National Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Supported reconciliation and negotiation, and helped lead the transition towards multi-racial democracy in South Africa </li></ul>
Steve Biko <ul><li>Anti-apartheid activist in South Africa in the 1960s and 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Founded the Black Consciousness Movement </li></ul><ul><li>His writings and activism attempted to empower black people, and he was famous for his slogan "black is beautiful", which he described as meaning: "man, you are okay as you are, begin to look upon yourself as a human being" </li></ul>
Rules Under Apartheid <ul><li>The Population Registration Act of 1950 required all citizens of South Africa to be classified into categories according to their race </li></ul><ul><li>The Reservation of Separate Amenities Act of 1953 created separate public facilities to be used by whites and blacks </li></ul><ul><li>Blacks forfeited their civil rights under several laws passed by the national government they were forbidden to engage in political activity and exercise their democratic rights </li></ul>
Rules Under Apartheid Continued… <ul><li>Married couples and their families were required by law to obtain state permission before they could live together </li></ul><ul><li>Marrying a person of a different race was illegal, showing or even having intentions to have any type of relationship between members of a different race became a crime. </li></ul><ul><li>Blacks were primarily trained to become artisans, tradesmen, and semi-skilled laborers </li></ul><ul><li>Blacks were restricted from renting or even occupying property in the areas deemed as "white-zones", unless they had received permission from the state to do so </li></ul>
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