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The good news is we no longer need to create:\nhuman calculators\n
create human hard drives\n
Most importantly we no longer need to mass produce standardized human robots for factory or office jobs\n
Wabi Sabi OER Barcelona
The Value of Imperfection:the Wabi-Sabi Principlein Aesthetics and Learning Jutta Treviranus FLOE Project Inclusive Design Institute OCAD University Toronto, Canada
“Crossing the Chasm” of adoption• More participation • implementing • contributing• Greater diversity of participation • to meet law and policy requirements regarding learners • recruit a large untapped group of participants
Virtuous Cycle• greater diversity of contributors• greater diversity of resources• meeting the needs of a greater diversity of learners
“Support Deep Learning”• fundamental departure from conventional or comfortable educational practices• complete retooling of habitual educational quality judgments
Wabi-Sabi • Japanese worldview and aesthetic that recognizes the beauty in the imperfect, impermanent and incomplete • “nurtures all that is authentic by acknowledging three simple realities: nothing lasts, nothing is finished, and nothing is perfect” • encompasses the beauty of things modest, humble and unconventional
We know that....• incomplete invites completion,• the broken invites fixing,• mistakes invite correction,• a partial collection of examples invites more examples,• humans call forth the greatest resourcefulness and creativity when there is an immediate and urgent unsolved problem• the best arguments and explanations arise from disagreement and debate,• cognitive dissonance and exposure to the counterintuitive spurs growth,• the value of constructivist learning.
Learning using..• The mistake• The intended ﬂaw• The inaccurate
Learning using:• The gap• The incomplete• The imperfect
We know...• “The perils of like-mindedness”• “Leave room for divergent thinking”• “Photo-realism can hinder understanding”• Provoking meaningful input in evaluations through the intended ﬂaws
And yet....• “mom I don’t have to think about it, the textbook gives me the right answer.”• “I’ll never do it as perfectly as the teacher so why should I try”• “All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten,” for teachers
Most Current OER• create the digital equivalent of the “sage on the stage,”• focus our energy on polished delivery not learner engagement,• use inflexible proprietary file formats that confound the creation of derivatives,• fail to support bidirectional communication,• do not support peer learning,• ignore the need for critical thinking, and• fail to accommodate translation into other languages and other modalities and delivery on diverse platforms.
Wabi-Sabi - Standards and Quality in Education• recognize that everything is imperfect and everything changes, even our notion of perfection• benchmarks for perfection in our curriculum as impediments to continuous improvement?• “the perfect is the enemy of the good” (Voltaire)• what is perceived as perfect repels efforts to improve and becomes outdated and impoverished
Yes but...• OER the “new kid on the block”• must try harder to be perceived as worthy to overcome skepticism, inertia and distrust• but will mimicking the status quo advance education?
Learning in a Digital Economy..a Knowledge Economy• education even more critical• prosperity of a society rests in large part on the educational development of its members• major shift in learning and education
We need...• creativity, resourcefulness,• flexibility,• collaboration, communication,• critical thinking and independent thought
Bigger problem...Marginalized Learner• feel disenfranchised,• do not see education as relevant,• see the system as too inflexible and• do not feel that their needs are being recognized or met
Learners learn differently• “Learning breakdown and drop out occurs when students face barriers to learning, feel disadvantaged by the learning experience offered or feel that their personal learning needs are ignored” ~2009 Report
OER and diverse learning• OER “born digital”• digital is plastic and mutable• but we constrain this flexibility
More contributors...• OER about pooling and sharing educational resources, about cumulative production and collaborative effort?• invite participation or contributions• encourage derivatives, tinkering or refinement• encourage sense of ownership and inclusion in the process• shared responsibility that only comes from providing valued contributions
Accessibility, inclusive learning• yes, it is the law, the policy, a right, an obligation...• it’s at the core and the epitome of OER culture
Why not in OER now ...• Accessibility seen to constrain creativity and innovation in both technological and pedagogical approaches,• counter to interactivity or more engaging learning experiences,• “there aren’t any learners with disabilities using my resources”• voluntary participation - less responsive to enforced standards• guidelines for complying too complex and confusing or impossible to achieve
The problem with One-Size-Fits-All andQualifying for Service• excludes learners that do not fit the categories• treats learners with disabilities as a homogeneous group• ignores the multiplicity of needs and skills that affect learning,• constrains the design of learning resources - less leeway to address minority needs and non-normative learning styles or approaches• compromises the learning experience for many of the learners the services are intended to serve• ghettoizes education for students with disabilities - less sustainable, more costly
Notion of Disability• Disability = a mismatch between the needs of the learner and the educational environment and experience offered• Not a personal trait• A relative condition
Accessibility =• Ability of the learning environment to adjust to the needs of all learners• Flexibility of education environment, curriculum and delivery• To optimize the learning environment for each individual learner• A relative quality
Doubly-marginalized learner• not served by mainstream education nor by service enhancements and programs intended to serve learners with disabilities• without financial resources, administrative savvy or advocacy skills to enable the child to qualify for special services• do not fit the narrow classifications of disability• only receive attention once it is too late, once they have become a “disciplinary” or “behavior problem.”
One-Size-Fits-One Education• optimizing learning for each learner• Learning needs that affect learning include: • sensory, motor, cognitive, emotional and social constraints, • individual learning styles and approaches, • linguistic or cultural preferences, • technical, financial or environmental constraints.
Flexible Resources and Making the Match• Large pool of diverse, flexible resources• To make the match: • transform the resource (e.g., through styling mechanisms), • augment the resource (e.g., by adding captioning to video), or • replace the resource with another resource that addresses the same learning goals but matches the learner’s specific access needs.
Requires...1. information about each learner’s access needs,2. information about the learner needs addressed by each resource,3. resources that are amenable to transformation, and a pool of alternative equivalent resources, and4. a method of matching learner needs with the appropriate learning experience
FLOE Project• Flexible Learning for Open Education• AccessForAll standard• designing for diversity• make it possible to meet diverse learner needs• http://floeproject.org
It’s good for youIt gets you where you want to go• ease of internationalization and translation,• OER portability across operating systems and browsers,• ease of reuse, repurposing, and updating,• improved discovery and selection of appropriate OER,• and ease of delivery through a variety of mobile devices whether phones, smart phones, tablets or laptops• greater resilience
It’s easy to implement• embedded in workflow• automatic wherever possible
To a more inclusive Wabi-Sabi OER community...• to cross the chasm• create deep learners