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Introduction                 Open Source et administration ´lectronique                                                e  ...
Introduction                 Open Source et administration ´lectronique                                                e  ...
Introduction                 Open Source et administration ´lectronique                                                e  ...
Introduction                 Open Source et administration ´lectronique                                                e  ...
Introduction                 Open Source et administration ´lectronique                                                e  ...
Introduction                 Open Source et administration ´lectronique                                                e  ...
Introduction                 Open Source et administration ´lectronique                                                e  ...
Introduction                 Open Source et administration ´lectronique                                                e  ...
Introduction                 Open Source et administration ´lectronique                                                e  ...
Introduction                 Open Source et administration ´lectronique                                                e  ...
Introduction                 Open Source et administration ´lectronique                                                e  ...
Introduction                 Open Source et administration ´lectronique                                                e  ...
Introduction                 Open Source et administration ´lectronique                                                e  ...
Introduction                 Open Source et administration ´lectronique                                                e  ...
Introduction                 Open Source et administration ´lectronique                                                e  ...
Introduction                 Open Source et administration ´lectronique                                                e  ...
Introduction                   Open Source et administration ´lectronique                                                 ...
Introduction                 Open Source et administration ´lectronique                                                e  ...
Introduction                 Open Source et administration ´lectronique                                                e  ...
Introduction                 Open Source et administration ´lectronique                                                e  ...
Introduction                 Open Source et administration ´lectronique                                                e  ...
Introduction                 Open Source et administration ´lectronique                                                e  ...
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L'économie publique de l'Open-source de l'Open-Source et de l'innovation ouverte dans le domaine du numerique (D-Torre)

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A l'occasion du séminaire EcoTIC (décembre 2011) de l'observatoire des TIC en région Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur sur les transformations numériques et les impacts numériques, D-TORRE (GREDEG-CNRS) a présenter : L'économie publique de l'Open-Source et de
l'innovation ouverte dans le domaine du numerique

Publicado en: Tecnología
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L'économie publique de l'Open-source de l'Open-Source et de l'innovation ouverte dans le domaine du numerique (D-Torre)

  1. 1. Introduction Open Source et administration ´lectronique e Les instances et organismes europ´ens e Observations et r´sultats e Quelques pistes pour ouvrir la discussion L’´conomie publique de l’Open-Source et de e l’innovation ouverte dans le domaine du num´rique e Dominique Torre Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis - GREDEG - CNRS e Transformations num´riques et impacts ´conomiques e e en Provence - Alpes - Cˆte d’Azur o IMERA, Marseille, 9 d´cembre 2011 e                Dominique Torre, GREDEG - Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis e 9 d´cembre 2011 e
  2. 2. Introduction Open Source et administration ´lectronique e D´finitions e Les instances et organismes europ´ens e Repr´sentativit´ e e Observations et r´sultats e Historique Quelques pistes pour ouvrir la discussionD´finitions e Stricto sensu, un logiciel “open source” dispose d’une licence permettant l’acc`s au code source, e permettant la libre redistribution du logiciel, imposant la mise ` disposition de tout d´veloppement logiciel a e r´alis´ ` partir de lui (copyleft versus copyright) e ea Freeware et logiciel Open Source              Dominique Torre, GREDEG - Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis e 9 d´cembre 2011 e
  3. 3. Introduction Open Source et administration ´lectronique e D´finitions e Les instances et organismes europ´ens e Repr´sentativit´ e e Observations et r´sultats e Historique Quelques pistes pour ouvrir la discussionD´finitions e Stricto sensu, un logiciel “open source” dispose d’une licence permettant l’acc`s au code source, e permettant la libre redistribution du logiciel, imposant la mise ` disposition de tout d´veloppement logiciel a e r´alis´ ` partir de lui (copyleft versus copyright) e ea Freeware et logiciel Open Source              Dominique Torre, GREDEG - Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis e 9 d´cembre 2011 e
  4. 4. Introduction Open Source et administration ´lectronique e D´finitions e Les instances et organismes europ´ens e Repr´sentativit´ e e Observations et r´sultats e Historique Quelques pistes pour ouvrir la discussionRepr´sentativit´ e e Plus de 90% des syst`mes int`grent des briques OS, e e 82% des administrations recourent ` l’OS, a Seulement 15% des budgets Exemples de logiciels OS : serveurs : Apache syst`mes d’exploitation : Linux, Android e ´diteurs : Latex, Open Office e navigateurs : Firefox ...              Dominique Torre, GREDEG - Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis e 9 d´cembre 2011 e
  5. 5. Introduction Open Source et administration ´lectronique e D´finitions e Les instances et organismes europ´ens e Repr´sentativit´ e e Observations et r´sultats e Historique Quelques pistes pour ouvrir la discussionRepr´sentativit´ e e                Dominique Torre, GREDEG - Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis e 9 d´cembre 2011 e
  6. 6. Introduction Open Source et administration ´lectronique e D´finitions e Les instances et organismes europ´ens e Repr´sentativit´ e e Observations et r´sultats e Historique Quelques pistes pour ouvrir la discussionHistorique Balbutiements du logiciel dans les ann´es 1960 et 1970 e associant le priv´ (les laboratoires ATT Bell) et le public e (l’universit´ de Berkeley) dans l’´laboration de la base Unix, e e ancˆtre de l’Open Source dans sa configuration initiale, e En 1983, la cr´ation par Richard Stallman de la Free Software e Foundation, ´mergence de la licence GPL qui permet l’usage e du code sous licence mais oblige l’utilisateur ` laisser libre a disposition du r´sultat de son usage. e              Dominique Torre, GREDEG - Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis e 9 d´cembre 2011 e
  7. 7. Introduction Open Source et administration ´lectronique e D´finitions e Les instances et organismes europ´ens e Repr´sentativit´ e e Observations et r´sultats e Historique Quelques pistes pour ouvrir la discussionHistorique Ann´es 1990 : d´veloppement des communaut´s Open e e e Source, autour des projets Linux et Debian notamment A partir de 1997, ´conomistes et sociologues prennent e conscience du caract`re novateur du mouvement. Paul e Raymond et La Cath´drale et le Bazar (Raymond, 1999) e ann´es 2000 : concurrence entre les deux mod`les e e ann´es 2010 : hybridation (voir Microsoft. . .) e              Dominique Torre, GREDEG - Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis e 9 d´cembre 2011 e
  8. 8. Introduction Open Source et administration ´lectronique e Les instances et organismes europ´ens e Int´rˆt du logiciel libre ee Observations et r´sultats e Quelques pistes pour ouvrir la discussionInt´rˆt de l’Open Source ee Int´rˆt du point de vue collectif ee d´veloppement communautaire = synergies e bonne diffusion des connaissances d´veloppement extensif des vari´t´s e ee Limites en partie surmont´es e faiblesse des incitations d´veloppement anarchique e coˆt d’apprentissage (personnalisation insuffisante) u              Dominique Torre, GREDEG - Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis e 9 d´cembre 2011 e
  9. 9. Introduction Open Source et administration ´lectronique e Les instances et organismes europ´ens e Int´rˆt du logiciel libre ee Observations et r´sultats e Quelques pistes pour ouvrir la discussionInt´rˆt de l’Open Source ee Int´rˆt du point de vue collectif ee d´veloppement communautaire = synergies e bonne diffusion des connaissances d´veloppement extensif des vari´t´s e ee Limites en partie surmont´es e faiblesse des incitations d´veloppement anarchique e coˆt d’apprentissage (personnalisation insuffisante) u              Dominique Torre, GREDEG - Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis e 9 d´cembre 2011 e
  10. 10. Introduction Open Source et administration ´lectronique e Les instances et organismes europ´ens e Int´rˆt du logiciel libre ee Observations et r´sultats e Quelques pistes pour ouvrir la discussionInt´rˆt de l’Open Source ee Int´rˆt pour l’administration ´lectronique ee e la disponibilit´ du code permet son adaptabilit´, son e e interop´rabilit´ e e l’ouverture est une marque de s´curit´ (pas de e e cryptage-maison) la r´utilisation du code diminue son coˆt e u Ces propri´t´s en font des syst`mes soutenables pour ee e l’administration ´lectronique. e              Dominique Torre, GREDEG - Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis e 9 d´cembre 2011 e
  11. 11. Introduction Open Source et administration ´lectronique e Les instances et organismes europ´ens e L’OSOR Observations et r´sultats e Quelques pistes pour ouvrir la discussionL’adoption d’Open Source par les collectivit´s publiques efait l’objet d’un int´rˆt au niveau europ´en ee e L’IDABC (Interoperable Delivery of European eGovernment Services to public Administrations, Business and Citizens) Programme termin´ depuis 2009. Cr´e l’OSOR. e e The Open Source Observatory and Repository for European public administrations (OSOR.eu) supports and encourages the collaborative development and re-use of publicly-financed free, libre and open source software (F/OSS) applications developments for use in European public administrations. It is a platform for exchanging information, experiences and F/OSS-based code. It also promotes and links to the work of national repositories, encouraging the emergence of a pan-European federation of open     source software repositories.          Dominique Torre, GREDEG - Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis e 9 d´cembre 2011 e
  12. 12. Introduction Open Source et administration ´lectronique e Les instances et organismes europ´ens e L’OSOR Observations et r´sultats e Quelques pistes pour ouvrir la discussionL’OSOR                Dominique Torre, GREDEG - Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis e 9 d´cembre 2011 e
  13. 13. Introduction Open Source et administration ´lectronique e Les instances et organismes europ´ens e L’OSOR Observations et r´sultats e Quelques pistes pour ouvrir la discussionL’OSOR Ses missions : publication d’informations et de monographies conseil juridique conseil technique et liens avec les plates-formes Financ´ par des budgets communautaires. e              Dominique Torre, GREDEG - Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis e 9 d´cembre 2011 e
  14. 14. Introduction Open Source et administration ´lectronique e Une marche ` suivre de l’OSOR concernant les march´s publics a e Les instances et organismes europ´ens e Une ´tude g´n´rale sur la communaut´ europ´enne e e e e e Observations et r´sultats e Monographies Quelques pistes pour ouvrir la discussionOSOR Guideline on Public Procurement and Open SourceSoftware r´alis´ en 2008 par Unisys Belgium,et le MERITT, (Rishab Aiyer e e Ghosh, Ruediger Glott, Patrice-Emmanuel Schmitz et Abdelkrim Boujraf) L’Open-Source n’est pas un probl`me technique mais un probl`me e e de march´s publics. Le rapport examine les conditions dans e lesquelles les march´s publics approchent l’Open-Source. Comment e approcher l’OS par un march´ public. e Le rapport s’inspire beaucoup de l’exp´rience hollandaise e (diff´rents textes et d´cisions ` partir de 2003/2005) e e a              Dominique Torre, GREDEG - Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis e 9 d´cembre 2011 e
  15. 15. Introduction Open Source et administration ´lectronique e Une marche ` suivre de l’OSOR concernant les march´s publics a e Les instances et organismes europ´ens e Une ´tude g´n´rale sur la communaut´ europ´enne e e e e e Observations et r´sultats e Monographies Quelques pistes pour ouvrir la discussionLa distribution des interventions publiques en Europe entre2007 et 2010 Stefano Comino, Fabio M. Manenti et Alessandro Rossi, Revue d’Economie Industrielle, num´ro ` th`me sur le logiciel libre, e a e d´cembre 2011. e ´ Etudient les interventions publiques dans le domaine de l’OS. Adoption, 45.5% des cas, Recommandation (directive marquant l’encouragement ` a l’adoption) 32% des cas, D´veloppement (l’administration contribue au d´veloppement) e e 18% des cas,   Subvention 3,9% des cas.            Dominique Torre, GREDEG - Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis e 9 d´cembre 2011 e
  16. 16. Introduction Open Source et administration ´lectronique e Une marche ` suivre de l’OSOR concernant les march´s publics a e Les instances et organismes europ´ens e Une ´tude g´n´rale sur la communaut´ europ´enne e e e e e Observations et r´sultats e Monographies Quelques pistes pour ouvrir la discussionLa distribution des interventions publiques en Europe entre2007 et 2010              Dominique Torre, GREDEG - Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis e 9 d´cembre 2011 e
  17. 17. Introduction Open Source et administration ´lectronique e Une marche ` suivre de l’OSOR concernant les march´s publics a e Les instances et organismes europ´ens e Une ´tude g´n´rale sur la communaut´ europ´enne e e e e e Observations et r´sultats e Monographies Quelques pistes pour ouvrir la discussionLa distribution des interventions publiques en Europe entre2007 et 2010 Intervention Adoption Advisory Development Subsidy TOTAL Local 69 19 15 4 107 Level National 36 45 23 5 109 Supranat. 0 10 5 0 15 Table 5: policies classified in terms of type of intervention and administrative level (Source: our elaboration from the OSOR.eu website)                Dominique Torre, GREDEG - Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis e 9 d´cembre 2011 e
  18. 18. Introduction Open Source et administration ´lectronique e Une marche ` suivre de l’OSOR concernant les march´s publics a e Les instances et organismes europ´ens e Une ´tude g´n´rale sur la communaut´ europ´enne e e e e e Observations et r´sultats e Monographies Quelques pistes pour ouvrir la discussion Interventio Interventions ns national national level e-gov level e-gov index index (A) (B) (C) (A) (B) (C) Austria 3 100 1.86 Luxembourg 0 68 0.88 Belgium 6 70 0.58 Malta 2 100 Bulgaria 1 40 Netherlands 9 79 1.78 Czech Rep 1 60 2.08 Norway 3 80 0.16 Denmark 7 84 0.82 Poland 2 53 0.91 Estonia 2 90 Portugal 6 100 0.09 Finland 5 89 0.23 Romania 1 45 France 15 80 0.62 Slovakia 0 55 0.25 Germany 8 74 1.77 Slovenia 0 95 Greece 0 45 0.21 Spain 9 80 0.19 Hungary 2 63 0.75 Sweden 1 95 1.09 Ireland 1 83 7.53 Switzerland 2 32 0.37 Italy 7 70 0.13 Turkey 2 0.05 Latvia 1 65 UK 7 100 1 Lithuania 2 60 Corr (A,B) 0.32 Corr (A,C) -0.16     Figure: Interventions at national level, e-Government diffusion and             software goods trade balanceDominique Torre, GREDEG - Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis e 9 d´cembre 2011 e
  19. 19. Introduction Open Source et administration ´lectronique e Une marche ` suivre de l’OSOR concernant les march´s publics a e Les instances et organismes europ´ens e Une ´tude g´n´rale sur la communaut´ europ´enne e e e e e Observations et r´sultats e Monographies Quelques pistes pour ouvrir la discussionPlusieurs monographies disponibles              Dominique Torre, GREDEG - Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis e 9 d´cembre 2011 e  
  20. 20. Introduction Open Source et administration ´lectronique e Une marche ` suivre de l’OSOR concernant les march´s publics a e Les instances et organismes europ´ens e Une ´tude g´n´rale sur la communaut´ europ´enne e e e e e Observations et r´sultats e Monographies Quelques pistes pour ouvrir la discussionPlusieurs monographies disponibles                Dominique Torre, GREDEG - Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis e 9 d´cembre 2011 e
  21. 21. Introduction Open Source et administration ´lectronique e Une marche ` suivre de l’OSOR concernant les march´s publics a e Les instances et organismes europ´ens e Une ´tude g´n´rale sur la communaut´ europ´enne e e e e e Observations et r´sultats e Monographies Quelques pistes pour ouvrir la discussionLa r´gion Emilie-Romagne en Italie e Monographie r´alis´e en 2010 par Francesco Rentocchini et Dimitri e e Tartari, Intenational Journal of Open Source Software and Processes, 2(3), 1-29, July-September 2010, (disponible en ligne aussi). Quels sont les b´n´fices de l’OS pour la collectivit´ ? e e e Les r´sultats montrent une croissance de l’adoption de l’OS e (serveurs et desktop). Une moindre d´pendance aux ´diteurs propri´taires se manifeste e e e aussi. L’adoption de l’Open Source affecte de mani`re positive la vari´t´ e ee   et le niveau d’interactions entre les services publics locaux.            Dominique Torre, GREDEG - Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis e 9 d´cembre 2011 e
  22. 22. Introduction Open Source et administration ´lectronique e Les instances et organismes europ´ens e Observations et r´sultats e Quelques pistes pour ouvrir la discussionQuelques pistes Mieux connaˆ l’adoption de l’OS dans les administrations ıtre locales en France, ´ Etablir un comparatif entre r´gions fran¸aises et entre des e c administrations publiques locales de plusieurs pays, Mieux harmoniser les d´cisions locales en France et en Europe. e              Dominique Torre, GREDEG - Universit´ Nice - Sophia Antipolis e 9 d´cembre 2011 e

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