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  1. 1. CLONING
  2. 2. There are 3 different types of cloning: • Gene cloning • Reproductive cloning • Therapeutic cloning
  3. 3. Gene cloning • A term used to describe a collection of DNA fragments derived from the genome of an organism and cloned randomly into suitable cloning vectors (plasmids, phages). • The term genomic DNA clone or chromosomal DNA clone then refers to an individual cell carrying a cloning vector with one of the cellular DNA fragments or to a phage isolate with a specific DNA insert.
  4. 4. Gene Cloning
  5. 5. Reproductive Cloning • Reproductive cloning is the production of a genetic duplicate of an existing organism. A human clone would be a genetic copy of an existing person. • Some oppose reproductive cloning because of safety considerations. Animal cloning is seldom successful, and many scientists believe that reproductive cloning can never be made safe. Human reproductive cloning would also threaten the psychological well-being of cloned children, open the door to more powerful genetic manipulation technologies, and raise other social and ethical concerns.
  6. 6. • Dolly defied scientific convention. With her birth on 5th July 1996, her makers had done the impossible - cloned an animal from a cell taken from an adult mammal. When Dolly was announced to the world on 22nd February 1997 she became global front page news. Press and public flocked to her home at the Roslin Institute outside Edinburgh to catch a glimpse of the world's most famous sheep.
  7. 7. Dolly the Cloned sheep
  8. 8. Therapeutic Cloning • Which creates embryonic Stem Cells. Researchers hope to use theses cells to grow healthy tissue to replace injured or diseased tissues in the human body.
  10. 10. • Advantages of Cloning: • 1/Potential benefits to modern medicine Even today, the full potential of stem cells has not been fully explored. The issue of stem cells has led to controversy because embryos are generally used and they have to be destroyed for the cells to be used. However, a number of researchers believe that stem cells will eventually change the face of medicine as we know it. Given the fact that the cells can be manipulated to mimic other types of cells, this can provide new ways to treat diseases like cancer and Alzheimer’s. • Cloning also offers hope to persons needing organ transplants. People requiring organ transplants to survive an illness often wait years for a suitable donor. In many cases these patients die waiting, as there are long lists of people requiring organs. Theoretically, cloning could eliminate this by producing more animals that can act as suitable donors. Pig livers have been successfully transplanted to human beings, as an interim measure until a human liver is found. Additionally, cloning of these animals not put a burden on the world’s food supply. • 2/Helping infertile couples Cloning offers couples dealing with fertility the chance to have a child of their own. Many infertile couples can’t be helped by the techniques currently available. In fact, although some states have already banned human cloning because of ethical issues, more couples struggling to have children are starting to consider the possibilities that cloning offer. • 3/Reverse the aging process • Cloning is being touted as a future answer to reverse the effects of aging.The antiaging market is a prime target becuase it is alreay a multibillion industry. • 4/Protecting Endangered Species Despite the best efforts of conservationists worldwide, some species are nearing extinction. The successful cloning of Dolly represents the first step in protecting endangered wildlife. • 5/ Improving food supply • Cloning could provide a means of cultivating plants that are stronger and more resistant to diseases, while producing more. The same could happen to livestock as well where diseases such as foot and mouth disease could be eradicated.Cloning could therefore effectively solve the world’s food problem and minimize or possible eadicate starvation.
  11. 11. • Disadvantages of Cloning • 1/The Element of Uncertainty While the cloning of Dolly was seen as a success story, many embryos were destroyed before the desired result was achieved. The process started with 277 eggs, and Dolly was the single successful outcome. Regardless of success in other areas, the field of cloning still has a long way to go. Infertile couples for example, could go through the same heartache as they would if in vitro fertilization failed. • 2/Inheriting diseases Cloning creates a copy of the original. A human clone would therefore inherit the genetic traits of its predecessor. This includes genetic abnormalities and diseases. Dolly the sheep for example exhibited signs of what some suggested were premature aging, although this was firmly denied by her ‘developers’. • 3/The Potential for Abuse If human cloning became a reality what checks and balances would be put in place to prevent abuse? Would scientists go overboard with the technology? If a couple has a clone that they are not happy with, what would they do next? These are all questions that must be raised in any discussion on cloning. Some have expressed the view that clones could be grown in a farm-like fashion simply for harvesting organs or stem cells. The potential for devaluing human life cannot be ignored. • Cloning, like so many other issues that have faced modern science, must be carefully evaluated. There will always be detractors, those who feel that anyone involved in cloning is playing God. And this may not be too far from the truth. However, any discussion on cloning must be looked at in the context of its inherent value to mankind.

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