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LESSON 1.pptx

  2. * Nowadays, as we know that, information technology becomes the famous things in the world because most of technology makes our work become clear and it is very useful to the people in order to manage or do something. It is very unique of information technology like mobile device, computer, and so on because it is variety of used to the people directly make the people life more comfortable.
  3. *L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S As you read this MODULE, consider the following questions: 1. What is ethics, and why is it important to act according to a code of ethics? 2. Why is business ethics becoming increasingly important? 3. What are organizations doing to improve their business ethics? 4. What is corporate social responsibility? 5 What approach can you take to ensure ethical decision making?
  5. Every society forms a set of rules that creates the limitations of commonly recognized behavior. These rules are often expressed in statements about how people should perform, and the individual rules fit together to form the moral code by which a society lives. Unfortunately, the different rules often have contradictions, and people are sometimes uncertain about which rule to follow.
  6. The term morality refers to social conventions about right and wrong that are so widely shared that they become the basis for an established consensus. However, individual views of what behavior is moral may vary by age, cultural group, ethnic background, religion, life experiences, education, and gender.
  7. * Ethics is a set of beliefs about right and wrong behavior within a society. Ethical behavior conforms to generally accepted norms—many of which are almost universal. However, although nearly everyone would agree that certain behaviors—such as lying and cheating—are unethical.
  8. At its simplest, ethics is a system of moral principles. They affect how people make decisions and lead their lives. Ethics is concerned with what is good for individuals and society and is also described as moral philosophy. The term is derived from the Greek word ethos which can mean custom, habit, character or disposition.
  9. Ethics covers the following dilemmas: *how to live a good life *our rights and responsibilities *the language of right and wrong *moral decisions - what is good and bad?
  10. * Philosophers have several answers to this question: *God and religion *Human conscience *the example of good human beings *a desire for the best for people in each unique situation *political power *God-based ethics - supernaturalism
  11. Supernaturalism makes ethics inseparable from religion. It teaches that the only source of moral rules is God. So, something is good because God says it is, and the way to lead a good life is to do what God wants.
  12. Intuitionism *Intuitionists think that good and bad are real objective properties that can't be broken down into component parts. Something is good because it's good; its goodness doesn't need justifying or proving.
  13. Consequentialism *This is the ethical theory that most non-religious people think they use every day. It bases morality on the consequences of human actions and not on the actions themselves. Consequentialism teaches that people should do whatever produces the greatest amount of good consequences.
  14. Virtue ethics *Virtue ethics looks at virtue or moral character, rather than at ethical duties and rules, or the consequences of actions. Virtue ethics is particularly concerned with the way individuals live their lives, and less concerned in assessing particular actions. It develops the idea of good actions by looking at the way virtuous people express their inner goodness in the things that they do.
  15. Situation ethics *Situation ethics rejects prescriptive rules and argues that individual ethical decisions should be made according to the unique situation. Rather than following rules the decision maker should follow a desire to seek the best for the people involved. There are no moral rules or rights - each case is unique and deserves a unique solution.
  16. * *Ethics is concerned with other people. *At the heart of ethics is a concern about something or someone other than ourselves and our own desires and self-interest. *Ethics is concerned with other people's interests, with the interests of society, with God's interests, with "ultimate goods", and so on.
  17. Virtue Ethics is particularly concerned with the moral character of human beings. Searching for the source of right and wrong. At times in the past some people thought that ethical problems could be solved in one of two ways: *by discovering what God wanted people to do *by thinking rigorously about moral principles and problems
  18. * A person who acts with integrity acts in accordance with a personal code of principles. One approach to acting with integrity—one of the cornerstones of ethical behavior—is to extend to all people the same respect and consideration that you expect to receive from others.
  19. * When a person says "murder is bad" what are they doing? That's the sort of question that only a philosopher would ask, but it's actually a very useful way of getting a clear idea of what's going on when people talk about moral issues. The different 'isms' regard the person uttering the statement as doing different things.
  20. Moral realism *Moral realism is based on the idea that there are real objective moral facts or truths in the universe. Moral statements provide factual information about those truths.
  21. Subjectivism *Subjectivism teaches that moral judgments are nothing more than statements of a person's feelings or attitudes, and that ethical statements do not contain factual truths about goodness or badness. In more detail: subjectivists say that moral statements are statements about the feelings, attitudes and emotions that that particular person or group has about a particular issue.
  22. Emotivism *Emotivism is the view that moral claims are no more than expressions of approval or disapproval. This sounds like subjectivism, but in emotivism a moral statement doesn't provide information about the speaker's feelings about the topic but expresses those feelings.
  23. Prescriptivism *Prescriptivists think that ethical statements are instructions or recommendations. So, if I say something is good, I'm recommending you to do it, and if I say something is bad, I'm telling you not to do it.
  24. * *Morals are one’s personal beliefs about right and wrong, while the term ethics describes standards or codes of behavior expected of an individual by a group (nation, organization, profession) to which an individual belongs. *For example, the ethics of the law profession demand that defense attorneys defend an accused client to the best of their ability, even if they know that the client is guilty of the most heinous and morally objectionable crime one could imagine.
  25. Law is a system of rules that tells us what we can and cannot do. Laws are enforced by a set of institutions (the police, courts, law-making bodies). Legal acts are acts that conform to the law. Moral acts conform to what an individual believes to be the right thing to do. Laws can proclaim an act as legal, although many people may consider the act immoral—for example, abortion.
  27. Ethics has risen to the top of the business agenda because the risks associated with inappropriate behavior have increased, both in their likelihood and in their potential negative impact. Several trends have increased the likelihood of unethical behavior.
  28. First, for many organizations, greater globalization has created a much more complex work environment that spans diverse cultures and societies, making it more difficult to apply principles and codes of ethics consistently.
  29. Second, in today’s difficult and uncertain economic climate, organizations are extremely challenged to maintain revenue and profits. Some organizations are sorely tempted to resort to unethical behavior to maintain profits.
  30. * *Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the concept that an organization should act ethically by taking responsibility for the impact of its actions on the environment, the community, and the welfare of its employees. *Setting CSR goals encourages an organization to achieve higher moral and ethical standards.
  31. Supply chain sustainability is a component of CSR that focuses on developing and maintaining a supply chain that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Supply chain sustainability takes into account such issues as fair labor practices, energy and resource conservation, human rights, and community responsibility. Many IT equipment manufacturers have made supply chain sustainability a priority.
  33. We are all faced with difficult decisions in our work and in our personal life. Most of us have developed a decision-making process that we execute automatically, without thinking about the steps we go through.
  34. For many of us, the process generally follows the steps: Gather and analyze facts. Make no assumptions. Identify stakeholders affected by the decision. Involve others, including stakeholders, in brainstorming. What laws, guidelines, policies, and principles apply? What is the impact on you, your organization, and other stakeholders? Evaluate alternatives based on multiple criteria. Develop and execute an implementation plan. Provide leadership to overcome resistance to change. Evaluate results against selected success criteria. Were there any unintended consequences?
  35. Utilitarian Approach *The utilitarian approach to ethical decision- making states that you should choose the action or policy that has the best overall consequences for all people who are directly or indirectly affected. The goal is to find the single greatest good by balancing the interests of all affected parties.
  36. Fairness Approach *The fairness approach focuses on how fairly actions and policies distribute benefits and burdens among people affected by the decision. The guiding principle of this approach is to treat all people the same.
  37. Common Good Approach *The common good approach to decision making is based on a vision of society as a community whose members work together to achieve a common set of values and goals. Examples include an effective education system, a safe and efficient transportation system, and accessible and affordable health care.
  39. The growth of the Internet, the ability to capture and store vast amounts of personal data, and greater reliance on information systems in all aspects of life have increased the risk that information technology will be used unethically.
  40. Here are some examples that raise public concern about the ethical use of information technology: *Many employees have their email and Internet access monitored while at work, as employers struggle to balance their need to manage important company assets and work time with employees’ desire for privacy and self-direction.
  41. *Millions of people have downloaded music and movies at no charge and in apparent violation of copyright laws at tremendous expense to the owners of those copyrights. Organizations contact millions of people worldwide through unsolicited email (spam) as an extremely low-cost marketing approach. *Hackers break into databases of financial and retail institutions to steal customer information, then use it to commit identity theft—opening new accounts and charging purchases to unsuspecting victims.
  42. *Students around the world have been caught downloading material from the Web and plagiarizing content for their term papers. *Web sites plant cookies or spyware on visitors’ hard drives to track their online purchases and activities.
  43. Two fundamental tenets. *First, the general public does not understand the critical importance of ethics as it applies to IT, as too much emphasis has been placed on technical issues. *The second tenet is that in the business world, important decisions are too often left to the technical experts. General business managers must assume greater responsibility for these decisions, but to do so they must be able to make broad-minded, objective decisions based on technical savvy, business know-how, and a sense of ethics.
  44. The goals of this is to educate people about the tremendous impact of ethical issues in the successful and secure use of information technology; to motivate people to recognize these issues when making business decisions; and to provide tools, approaches, and useful insights for making ethical decisions.
  45. *

Notas del editor

  1. Despite its obvious common-sense appeal, consequentialism turns out to be a complicated theory, and doesn't provide a complete solution to all ethical problems.
  2. Good people as well as good actions. Ethics is not only about the morality of particular courses of action, but it's also about the goodness of individuals and what it means to live a good life.
  3. If a person did this properly, they would be led to the right conclusion. Modern thinkers often teach that ethics leads people not to conclusions but to 'decisions'.