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Protection of habitat of corals

  1. Protection of habitat of Corals & Mangrove Course No. FRM 603 Conservation and Management of Exploited Fisheries Resources Presented to Kumar Naik A.S. Assistant Professor
  2. Introduction • Marine ecosystems are the largest of Earth's, aquatic ecosystems. • Marine ecosystems cover approximately 71% of the Earth's surface and contain approximately 97% of the planet's water. Yet another way to classify the ocean Photic zone – light is sufficient for photosynth esis – to 100 (or 200 m) Dysphotic zone – light is too weak for photosynth esis – twilight zone – < 5% sunlight Aphotic zone – no light
  3. How physical and chemical properties of water affect life in the sea ?
  5. 5 Salinity • Salinity is measured: – Refractometer Seawater is water from a sea or ocean. On average, seawater in the world's oceans has a salinity of about 3.5% (35 g/L).
  6. How Salinity Affects Marine Organisms • Most marine animals are adapted to a narrow salinity range • Changes is salinity affect organisms through osmosis • Hypero-smotic solution - water will flow into it across a semi-permeable membrane • Hypoo-smotic solution - water will leave the solution
  7. Dissolved Gases • Dissolved Gases – For living things the three most important dissolved gasses are oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2) – The amount of a given gas that can dissolve decreases with an increase in temperature – The amount of oxygen in a body of water depends on: • Mixing with the atmosphere • Respiration • Photosynthesis Sunlight + 6H20 + 6CO2 C6H12O6 (Glucose) + 6O2
  8. 8 Light • Light is crucial for photosynthesis and is strongest in the surface waters – UV light can be damaging to the proteins and DNA of many surface organisms
  9. Turbidity and Light Penetration • Turbidity – The amount of solid particles suspended in the water column • Important since plants and algae need light for photosynthesis – Increase turbidity can decrease the amount of light which effectively penetrates • Large concentrations of phytoplankton can decrease light penetration
  10. Pollution Source: CMFRI, 2010-11
  12. Introduction to Coral Reefs Coral reefs are underwater structures made from calcium carbonate secreted by corals. Most coral reefs are built from stony corals, and are formed by polyps that live together in groups.
  13. Corals- ANIMAL or PLANT?
  14. Coral is an ANIMAL! • Coral is actually an animal. • They live attached to the sea floor. • They are the builders of the reef! • A single coral animal is called a coral polyp. • The coral polyps live together in colonies. The coral polyps live inside here
  15. What do they eat? • To get energy to build the coral reef the corals need to eat. • The polyps use their tentacles to catch tiny animals that float in the water called zooplankton. • But corals get MOST of their food from marine plants that actually live inside the coral! A coral polyp
  16. What do they eat? • A microscopic type of algae called zooxanthellae actually live inside corals, just under their skin. • Corals are solar-powered just like trees on land. The algae that live inside the coral A coral polyp
  17. Zooxanthellae Coral polyp Coral colony Corals Coral Reef
  18. • The Great Barrier Reef is the largest system in the world and can be seen from outer space. •Corals produce a hard skeleton that forms the actual structure of the reef. •Coral reefs have the second highest biodiversity after rainforests. •Coral reefs worldwide cover an area of 284,300 square km, around 1% of the total area of the world’s oceans. Interesting Coral Reef Facts
  19. Why are coral reefs important? • Habitat: They are home to 33% of all known fish species. •Nursery: And a nursery ground for over 25% of all marine species. Photo by J. RandallPhoto by Dee Wescott Photo by MacGillivray Freeman Films
  20. Why are coral reefs important? •Income: they provide millions of dollars of income annually for people living by coral reefs. •Medical Research: coral reefs have the potential to be used as medical cures to treat cancer, heart disease, HIV and arthritis among others. • Protection: they protect 20% of the world’s coast from wave erosion. • Food: they are a food source for millions of people. • Tourism: coral reefs attract tourists from all over the world.
  21. What is a healthy environment for coral reefs? • Sunlight • A certain salinity • Low nutrient, clear water • Water temperature 18-29 ºC • Water circulation Photo by MacGillivray Freeman Films
  22. What are the man-made threats to coral reefs? • Global warming leading to coral bleaching. • Runoff of chemicals and nutrients from land • Sedimentation. • Rubbish including marine debris • Overfishing • Physical damage from tourists and fishermen • Pollution from untreated sewage and oil. An example of coral bleaching.
  23. Coral Reefs: Imp... • Among the most diverse ecosystems in the world - the "Rainforests of the Seas". • It is estimated that one-third of all the world's fish species depend on coral for their existence. • Providing important services to mankind including fisheries, recreation and tourism. • Act as sensitive indicators of water quality. • Considered ‘medicine chests’ of the future. • Scientists believe that their organisms could well hold the key to cures for cancer, and coral skeletons are already being used as bone substitutes in reconstructive bone surgery.
  24. Some species of coral can live for over 4,000 years — longer than any other animal that lives in the ocean, A study has found.
  25. Threats Natural stresses · Storms, waves, cyclones, tsunamic occurrences. Biotic Stresses · Sedimentation · Chemical and Oil Pollution · Bleaching · Coral Diseases · Destructive fishing practices like blast fishing and trap fishing.
  26. Regulatory Measures • Legislative/Regulatory Instruments -The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 : All Reef-building, Fire and Sea Fan Corals put in Schedule-I of the Act (Prohibited from exploitation) -Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 : Section 5 of the Act delegates powers to State Governments, and UTs for taking punitive action. -Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 1991 : Management actions are activities to promote use and that protect and conserve natural resources.
  27. Cont.. -Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 1991 : Places corals, coral reefs, and marine parks in Coastal Regulation Zone-I(i), i.e, ecologically sensitive, and important areas. Constitutes National Coastal Zone Management Authority (NCZMA) at the Centre, and 13 CZMAs at States/Union Territories. - Formulation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plans (ICZMP) by Coastal States.
  28. Cont.. -All major projects within coastal zone require CRZ clearance on the same lines as environmental clearance. -Active judicial system – Supreme Court’s Order in April, 1996 led to formulation of ICZMPs. • Establishment of Marine National Parks (MNPs) - Six MNPs viz. Gulf of Mannar, Gulf of Kutch, Bhitarkanika, Mahatma Gandhi Wandoor National Park, Rani Jhansi MNP, and Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary declared as MNPs, the largest being the Gulf of Mannar having 10,500 sq. kms.
  29. Promotional Measures The promotional measures comprise – - Central Government assistance for bio-physical, and socio- economic survey and monitoring, surveillance, alternative livelihoods, prevention of pollution, restoration, and spread of education, and awareness. - Infrastructure creation e.g. National Coral Reef Research Station, and Lakshadweep Coral Reef Monitoring Network. - Capacity Building viz. imparting training in snorkeling, and SCUBA-diving; about 60 personnel given training. - Support given for Research – the Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Centre and Marine and Coastal Studies, Madurai Kamaraj University, National Institute of Oceanography; Goa, Wildlife Institute of India, among various Institutions engaged in coral reef research.
  30. Regional and Inter-National Ties India is a signatory to various Conventions / Agreements : - Convention on Bio-diversity and its Bio-safety Protocol. - Convention on International Trade on Endangered Species (CITES) - United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol. - Jakarta mandate on Coastal and Marine Biodiversity.
  31. Designation of Ministry of Environment & Forests as National Focal Point - Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) - International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI) - Coral Reef Degradation in Indian Ocean (CORDIO) - United Nations Environment Programme on Conservation, and Management of Coral Reefs. - Regional Seas Programme. - SACEP
  33. INTRODUCTION What is a mangrove? Mangroves are a community of tropical trees that have adapted to a salt-water environment. Mangroves play a critical role as part of the interdependent coral reef ecosystem. • This type of ecosystem is found exclusively in tropical and subtropical regions of the planet.
  34. Mangroves Mangroves are evergreen trees and grow up to a height of 5 meters, community of trees and shrubs, Not a natural taxonomic grop • 54 species total world-wide • 16 families. 20 genera Total area under mangrove:43.7 mh 74% of the game fish and 90% of the commercially valuable sea life in south florida depend on mangroves
  35. Mangrove Location  Mangroves are generally found along the coastlines of tropical and sub tropical regions.  Usually between 250 N and 250 latitude S  Indian mangroves 0.7mha , 2.66%of world mangroves.  Sunder bans: 0.4 million hectare  Gujrat:689 km2  Lakshadweep islands-2 mangrove areas of 1 hectare each. James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University,
  36. Importance of Mangroves • Acts as kidneys for the coastal waters • Important nursery grounds for finfishes and shellfishes • Renewable resource of fuel • Offers protection against coastal erosion • Play important role in livelihood of Coastal communities • Mangrove foliage as feed for domestic animals • Provide opportunities for Tourism, Education and Scientific Study
  37. FACTORS OF MANGROVE DEGRADATION Population expansion Lack of government attention and over all awareness Regulation Inefficient Reforestation techniques Inadequate manpower and logistics Large hurricanes. Shore line development. Illegal dumping of wastes. Oil and other hazardous chemical pollution.
  38. Threats • Large scale clearing: to accommodate human population, agriculture and aquaculture. • This has led to forest fragmentation, concomitant loss of animals and destabilization of mangrove-dominant shorelines. • Small scale harvesting and grazing: for timber, fuel wood, fodder and impact of individuals and their livestock, who make forays into the forests? • Industrial threats: pollution due to effluents, mining, industrial development, oil spills.
  39. CONVERSION AND DEGRADATION OF MANGROVES • 20%of worlds mangroves lost since 1980’s(FAO) • 38% global mangrove deforestation is linked with shrimp farm • Like tropical rain forest, mangroves are being degraded . • Uses such as fish ponds, salt beds, rice fields, urbanization, housing estates, human settlement (transmigration), roads , mining and similar uses . Mangrove nursery at Mangalore, Source: CMFRI 2011
  40. India (Govt of India; 1987) • 6740 sq km • WB- 1618 sq km • Guj- 1166 sq km • Goa 5 sq km • Karnataka 19 sq km
  41. India (Nayak 1993) • 4474 sq km • WB- 4200 sq km • Guj- 260 sq km • Goa 200 sq km • Karnataka 60 sq km
  42. India (Kathiresen, 1998) • 4827 sq km • WB- 2123 sq km • Guj- 991 sq km • Goa 5 sq km • Karnataka 3 sq km
  43. 1166 6740 4200 260 60 330 4474 2123 991 3 124 4827 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 WB Gujrat Karnataka MH Total Km sq 1987 1993 1998
  44. Policy • Environmental Protection Act, 1986 • National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement on Environment and Development (1992) • Action Plan of the Ministry of Environment and Forests (1995) • Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification (1991) • Scheme on Conservation and Management of Mangroves and Coral Reefs (1986) • Ramsar convention in1971 Management
  45. Reef & Mangrove Appeal • The Reef & Mangrove appeal was launched in response to the 2004 - tsunami • Project aim • The Reef & Mangrove appeal aims to raise funds for coral reef and mangrove protection. • It is important to protect both mangroves and coral reefs as they are incredibly diverse but threatened ecosystems with important roles in protecting the coasts against the forces of the sea.
  46. Limitations of management • Lack of knowledge of mangrove ecosystems, • Status and linkages to other ecosystems • A comprehensive information database of mangrove biodiversity in each country is necessary to monitor the status of mangrove biological diversity. • Realise its economic potential and areas of application.
  47. Thank You