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Sponsored by
Game Over ?
New Approaches to
Teaching Engineering
Courses
Joaquim Jorge
Joaquim Jorge
Instituto Superior Técnico
Universidade de Lisboa
Visualization and Multimodal Interfaces
@ INESC-ID Lisboa
...
About ACM
ACM, the Association for Computing Machinery is the world’s
largest educational and scientific computing society...
The Distinguished Speakers Program
is made possible by
For additional information, please visit http://dsp.acm.org/
ees.elsevier.com/cag
2014:
460 submissions
29 days to respond
17 weeks to accept
Ranked 4th CGJ
GoogleScholar
BACK TO THE FUTURE?
0
Bologna 1088
Wikimedia commons
XIX Century
Back to the Future ?
Are MOOCs the Answer?
One Size Fits All!
Same content x 1000s
Industrial Revolution
Standardized Experience
From here
To Here
Not About Tools!
Strandberg [CC-BY-SA] http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:20060513_toolbox.jpg/
Long Journey Ahead
safuanstyx.deviantart.com/
Gamification
towards
Adaptation
GAMIFICATION
I
Games – Students were born into them
by William Hook @ Flickr
Education
by Izaias Buson @ Flickr
Wavebreak Media Ltd/Bigstock.com
Boredom
Hye You | Daily Trojan
Demotivating
Can gamification improve learning?
by thebarrowboy @ Flickr
Sheldon 2010
the use of game design
elements in non-game contexts
ga•mi•fi•ca•tion /ˌɡeɪmɪfɪˈkeɪʃ(ə)n/
NOT Playing games in class
That’s
just
playing a
game…
NOT teaching with a game
NOT (just) giving points for activities
That’s Points-ification
The course becomes the game
Use game elements, mechanics, dynamics
Badges
Avatars
Votes
Leaderboards
Achievements
Boss Fights
Virtual Goods
Guilds Que...
SDT
Competence
Relatedness
Autonomy
Adapted from [Deci and Ryan, 2004]
It’s about motivation!
Autonomy
Relatedness
Competence
MULTIMEDIA CONTENT
PRODUCTIONII
MSc Course
IST/UL
Two Campi
300+ Students Gamified Experience
Blended Learning
Gamified since 2010/2011
Adding game elements to the mix…
by gfpeck @ Flickr
The course is a game!
IMMERSIONIMMERSION
ENGAGEMENT
XP, not grades!
LEVELS (20 … of course)
Grading system
Max
Min
2003-2010 Gamified
0
20 20000 XP
500 XP
PHAT L00T
Badges
Postmaster
Participate in the forums
Class Annotator
Find relevant references
Rise to the Challenge
Tinkering with ...
Competition
Proactive
Be the first to respond
Archivist
Archive challenge results
Quiz, Lab, Presentation, Exam King
Be th...
Leaderboard
Personal Page
Earn Achievements for more XP!
Three levels for each
achievement
Up to Three
Levels
Unlock a level to get XP
Description &
Conditions for next lvl
Extra credit available
Cooperation
Guild Warrior
Everyone in your lab does well
Guild Master
Your lab is the best there is!
Cooperation: Quest!
Reward Behavior
Right on Time
Be here when the lecture starts, don’t be
late…
Amphitheatre Lover
Attend theoretical lectur...
Dozens of different achievements
Highlights – Participate!
Postmaster
Participate in the forums
Class Annotator
Find relevant references
Rise to the Challe...
Highlights – Participate!
Talkative
Ask intelligent questions in class
Self-Determination: Skill Tree
Quality Over Quantity
by EssG @ Flickr (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)
Creativity: AvatarWorld
Getting started made easy
by bokeh burger @ Flickr
by EssjayNZ @ Flickr
A transparent process
moodle
Forum Posts
Scripts
Peter van Grieken @ floickr
Activities
Scores
Grades
Manual Grading
Chris Lawrence @ flickr
Spreadsheets to collect
Generate Pages
RESULTS
III
Participation & Proactivity
by woodleywonderworks @ Flickr
Student feedback
by albertogp123 @ Flickr
Easier to Learn From
Creativity
by theodevil @ Flickr
More Of What They Like
Useful for the Future
More Interesting and Motivating
by johnwiechecki @ Flickr (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)
TOWARDS
PERSONALIZATIONIV
Student Model
by velkr0 @ Flickr (CC BY 2.0)
Cluster Students
Leaderboard Rank
16 30 44 58 72 86 100 114 128 142
Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4
Students by Cluster
11
29
23
13
Achievers Regular Half-Hearted Underachievers
Performance
Performance
Labs
Presentation
Exam
Challenges
AchievementsSkill Tree
AvatarWorld
MCP Quest
Quizzes
Achievers
Labs
Presenta...
Participation
Participation
Posts
Skill Tree Posts
Explored Skill Tree
Nodes
AvatarWorld Posts
Badges
Completed
Achievements
Explored
Ac...
Engagement
1
2
3
4
5
Engagement
Achievers Regular Halfhearted Underachievers
Predicting Student Profile
Automatic Early-on Classification
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
25% 33% 50% 100%
Accuracy
Time through the semester...
Grade accumulation over 2 yrs
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
17
24
31
38
45
52
59
66
73
80
87
94
101
108
115
...
Self-Reported Satisfaction
98
3
4
5
6
Ratingscale
Technology-driven
Organization-driven
Resource-driven
Usefulness Easy2Use Quality
Satisfaction w co...
99
Focus per cluster
10
0
Technology-
driven
System
Organization-
driven
Content
Resource-
driven
Pedagogy
1
2
3
4
5
6
Posting in
fora
Uploading Downloading Participating
in chat
Consulting
grades
Searching
archived
contents
Cons...
DESIGN ISSUES
V
Meaning
Mastery
Autonomy
Diversity
Social Recognition
Manage the Workload / Rythm
Competition vs Cooperation
(Mass)Customize the Experience
Adaptive Gamified Learning
by SMBCollege @ Flickr (CC BY 2.0)
The Team
Joaquim.Jorge@acm.org
daniel.goncalves@inesc-id.pt
daniel.goncalves@inesc-id.pt
International Conference Papers
1. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J. A., and Gonçalves, D. J. (2014b). Relating gaming
habit...
International Conference Papers
1. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J. A., and Gonçalves, D. J. (2014b). Relating gaming
habit...
Journal Papers
1. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., and Gonçalves, D. (2015b).
Predicting student profile with performance ...
Game Over? New Approaches to Teaching Engineering Courses
Game Over? New Approaches to Teaching Engineering Courses
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Game Over? New Approaches to Teaching Engineering Courses

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Keynote Presentation at SIGGRAPH Asia Symposium on Education
Kobe, Japan November 1st 2015

Abstract: Gamification has been explored recently as a way to promote content delivery in education, yielding promising results. However, little is known regarding how it helps different students experience learning and acquire knowledge.
In this talk I discussed our experiences with gamified engineering courses and the reactions of students to the gamified experience.
By examining student performance and attitude data collected from several years we identified distinct student types.
I described the different student types, according to behavior and explained how gamification can provide for smarter learning by catering to students with different profiles.

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Game Over? New Approaches to Teaching Engineering Courses

  1. 1. Sponsored by Game Over ? New Approaches to Teaching Engineering Courses Joaquim Jorge
  2. 2. Joaquim Jorge Instituto Superior Técnico Universidade de Lisboa Visualization and Multimodal Interfaces @ INESC-ID Lisboa http://web.ist.utl.pt/jorgej Research Interests: Calligraphic Interaction, Multimodal Interfaces, Graphical Modeling
  3. 3. About ACM ACM, the Association for Computing Machinery is the world’s largest educational and scientific computing society, uniting educators, researchers and professionals to inspire dialogue, share resources and address the field’s challenges. ACM strengthens the computing profession’s collective voice through strong leadership, promotion of the highest standards, and recognition of technical excellence. ACM supports the professional growth of its members by providing opportunities for life-long learning, career development, and professional networking. With over 100,000 members from over 100 countries, ACM works to advance computing as a science and a profession. www.acm.org
  4. 4. The Distinguished Speakers Program is made possible by For additional information, please visit http://dsp.acm.org/
  5. 5. ees.elsevier.com/cag 2014: 460 submissions 29 days to respond 17 weeks to accept Ranked 4th CGJ GoogleScholar
  6. 6. BACK TO THE FUTURE? 0
  7. 7. Bologna 1088 Wikimedia commons
  8. 8. XIX Century
  9. 9. Back to the Future ?
  10. 10. Are MOOCs the Answer?
  11. 11. One Size Fits All!
  12. 12. Same content x 1000s
  13. 13. Industrial Revolution
  14. 14. Standardized Experience
  15. 15. From here
  16. 16. To Here
  17. 17. Not About Tools! Strandberg [CC-BY-SA] http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:20060513_toolbox.jpg/
  18. 18. Long Journey Ahead safuanstyx.deviantart.com/
  19. 19. Gamification
  20. 20. towards Adaptation
  21. 21. GAMIFICATION I
  22. 22. Games – Students were born into them by William Hook @ Flickr
  23. 23. Education by Izaias Buson @ Flickr
  24. 24. Wavebreak Media Ltd/Bigstock.com Boredom
  25. 25. Hye You | Daily Trojan Demotivating
  26. 26. Can gamification improve learning? by thebarrowboy @ Flickr
  27. 27. Sheldon 2010 the use of game design elements in non-game contexts ga•mi•fi•ca•tion /ˌɡeɪmɪfɪˈkeɪʃ(ə)n/
  28. 28. NOT Playing games in class That’s just playing a game…
  29. 29. NOT teaching with a game
  30. 30. NOT (just) giving points for activities That’s Points-ification
  31. 31. The course becomes the game
  32. 32. Use game elements, mechanics, dynamics Badges Avatars Votes Leaderboards Achievements Boss Fights Virtual Goods Guilds Quests Rewards Progress Bars Skill Trees Experience Points Stat Points
  33. 33. SDT Competence Relatedness Autonomy Adapted from [Deci and Ryan, 2004] It’s about motivation!
  34. 34. Autonomy
  35. 35. Relatedness
  36. 36. Competence
  37. 37. MULTIMEDIA CONTENT PRODUCTIONII
  38. 38. MSc Course IST/UL
  39. 39. Two Campi
  40. 40. 300+ Students Gamified Experience
  41. 41. Blended Learning
  42. 42. Gamified since 2010/2011
  43. 43. Adding game elements to the mix… by gfpeck @ Flickr
  44. 44. The course is a game!
  45. 45. IMMERSIONIMMERSION
  46. 46. ENGAGEMENT
  47. 47. XP, not grades!
  48. 48. LEVELS (20 … of course)
  49. 49. Grading system Max Min 2003-2010 Gamified 0 20 20000 XP 500 XP
  50. 50. PHAT L00T
  51. 51. Badges Postmaster Participate in the forums Class Annotator Find relevant references Rise to the Challenge Tinkering with class subjects
  52. 52. Competition Proactive Be the first to respond Archivist Archive challenge results Quiz, Lab, Presentation, Exam King Be the best!
  53. 53. Leaderboard
  54. 54. Personal Page
  55. 55. Earn Achievements for more XP!
  56. 56. Three levels for each achievement Up to Three Levels
  57. 57. Unlock a level to get XP Description & Conditions for next lvl
  58. 58. Extra credit available
  59. 59. Cooperation Guild Warrior Everyone in your lab does well Guild Master Your lab is the best there is!
  60. 60. Cooperation: Quest!
  61. 61. Reward Behavior Right on Time Be here when the lecture starts, don’t be late… Amphitheatre Lover Attend theoretical lectures Lab Lover Attend Labs
  62. 62. Dozens of different achievements
  63. 63. Highlights – Participate! Postmaster Participate in the forums Class Annotator Find relevant references Rise to the Challenge Bi-Weekly tinkering with class subjects
  64. 64. Highlights – Participate! Talkative Ask intelligent questions in class
  65. 65. Self-Determination: Skill Tree
  66. 66. Quality Over Quantity by EssG @ Flickr (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)
  67. 67. Creativity: AvatarWorld
  68. 68. Getting started made easy by bokeh burger @ Flickr
  69. 69. by EssjayNZ @ Flickr A transparent process
  70. 70. moodle
  71. 71. Forum Posts
  72. 72. Scripts Peter van Grieken @ floickr Activities Scores Grades
  73. 73. Manual Grading Chris Lawrence @ flickr
  74. 74. Spreadsheets to collect
  75. 75. Generate Pages
  76. 76. RESULTS III
  77. 77. Participation & Proactivity by woodleywonderworks @ Flickr
  78. 78. Student feedback by albertogp123 @ Flickr
  79. 79. Easier to Learn From
  80. 80. Creativity by theodevil @ Flickr
  81. 81. More Of What They Like
  82. 82. Useful for the Future
  83. 83. More Interesting and Motivating by johnwiechecki @ Flickr (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)
  84. 84. TOWARDS PERSONALIZATIONIV
  85. 85. Student Model by velkr0 @ Flickr (CC BY 2.0)
  86. 86. Cluster Students
  87. 87. Leaderboard Rank 16 30 44 58 72 86 100 114 128 142 Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4
  88. 88. Students by Cluster 11 29 23 13 Achievers Regular Half-Hearted Underachievers
  89. 89. Performance
  90. 90. Performance Labs Presentation Exam Challenges AchievementsSkill Tree AvatarWorld MCP Quest Quizzes Achievers Labs Presentation Exam Challenges AchievementsSkill Tree AvatarWorld MCP Quest Quizzes Regular Labs Presentation Exam Challenges AchievementsSkill Tree AvatarWorld MCP Quest Quizzes Underachievers Labs Presentation Exam Challenges AchievementsSkill Tree AvatarWorld MCP Quest Quizzes Halfhearted
  91. 91. Participation
  92. 92. Participation Posts Skill Tree Posts Explored Skill Tree Nodes AvatarWorld Posts Badges Completed Achievements Explored Achievements Artist Badges (quality) Achievers Posts Skill Tree Posts Explored Skill Tree Nodes AvatarWorld Posts Badges Completed Achievements Explored Achievements Artist Badges (quality) Underachievers Posts Skill Tree Posts Explored Skill Tree Nodes AvatarWorld Posts Badges Completed Achievements Explored Achievements Artist Badges (quality) Regular Posts Skill Tree Posts Explored Skill Tree Nodes AvatarWorld Posts Badges Completed Achievements Explored Achievements Artist Badges (quality) Halfhearted
  93. 93. Engagement 1 2 3 4 5 Engagement Achievers Regular Halfhearted Underachievers
  94. 94. Predicting Student Profile
  95. 95. Automatic Early-on Classification 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 25% 33% 50% 100% Accuracy Time through the semester Performance data Gaming data
  96. 96. Grade accumulation over 2 yrs 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 17 24 31 38 45 52 59 66 73 80 87 94 101 108 115 122 129 136 143 150 Achievers Regular Halfhearted Underachievers Average 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 10 17 24 31 38 45 52 59 66 73 80 87 94 101 108 115 122 129 136 Achievers Regular Halfhearted Underachievers Average
  97. 97. Self-Reported Satisfaction
  98. 98. 98 3 4 5 6 Ratingscale Technology-driven Organization-driven Resource-driven Usefulness Easy2Use Quality Satisfaction w content
  99. 99. 99
  100. 100. Focus per cluster 10 0 Technology- driven System Organization- driven Content Resource- driven Pedagogy
  101. 101. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Posting in fora Uploading Downloading Participating in chat Consulting grades Searching archived contents Consulting news Consulting videos Ratingscale Technology-driven students 05 / 06 06 / 07 Satisfaction
  102. 102. DESIGN ISSUES V
  103. 103. Meaning
  104. 104. Mastery
  105. 105. Autonomy
  106. 106. Diversity
  107. 107. Social Recognition
  108. 108. Manage the Workload / Rythm
  109. 109. Competition vs Cooperation
  110. 110. (Mass)Customize the Experience
  111. 111. Adaptive Gamified Learning by SMBCollege @ Flickr (CC BY 2.0)
  112. 112. The Team
  113. 113. Joaquim.Jorge@acm.org daniel.goncalves@inesc-id.pt daniel.goncalves@inesc-id.pt
  114. 114. International Conference Papers 1. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J. A., and Gonçalves, D. J. (2014b). Relating gaming habits with student performance in a gamified learning experience. In Proceedings of the First ACM SIGCHI Annual Symposium on Computer-human Interaction in Play, CHI PLAY ’14, pages 17–25, New York, NY, USA. ACM. 2. Barata, G., Gama, S., Fonseca, M. J., and Gonçalves, D. (2013a). Improving student creativity with gamification and virtual worlds. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Gameful Design, Research, and Applications, Gamification ’13, pages 95–98, New York, NY, USA. ACM. 3. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., and Gonçalves, D. (2013e). Improving participation and learning with gamification. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Gameful Design, Research, and Applications, Gamification ’13, pages 10–17, New York, NY, USA. ACM. 4. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., and Gonçalves, D. (2013d). So fun it hurts - gamifying an engineering course. In Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Human- Computer Interaction, HCII 2013, pages 639–648, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. 5. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., and Gonçalves, D. (2013b). Engaging engineering students with gamification. In Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-GAMES), 2013, pages 1–8.
  115. 115. International Conference Papers 1. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J. A., and Gonçalves, D. J. (2014b). Relating gaming habits with student performance in a gamified learning experience. In Proceedings of the First ACM SIGCHI Annual Symposium on Computer-human Interaction in Play, CHI PLAY ’14, pages 17–25, New York, NY, USA. ACM. 2. Barata, G., Gama, S., Fonseca, M. J., and Gonçalves, D. (2013a). Improving student creativity with gamification and virtual worlds. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Gameful Design, Research, and Applications, Gamification ’13, pages 95–98, New York, NY, USA. ACM. 3. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., and Gonçalves, D. (2013e). Improving participation and learning with gamification. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Gameful Design, Research, and Applications, Gamification ’13, pages 10–17, New York, NY, USA. ACM. 4. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., and Gonçalves, D. (2013d). So fun it hurts - gamifying an engineering course. In Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Human- Computer Interaction, HCII 2013, pages 639–648, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. 5. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., and Gonçalves, D. (2013b). Engaging engineering students with gamification. In Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-GAMES), 2013, pages 1–8.
  116. 116. Journal Papers 1. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., and Gonçalves, D. (2015b). Predicting student profile with performance and gaming preferences. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, (submitted) . 2. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., and Gonçalves, D. (2015c). Studying student differentiation in gamified education: A long-term study. Computers in Human Behavior, (accepted). 3. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., and Gonçalves, D. (2015a). Gamification for smarter learning: tales from the trenches. Smart Learning Environments, 2(1):10. 4. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., and Gonçalves, D. (2014a). Identifying student types in a gamified learning experience. International Journal of Game-Based Learning (IJGBL), 4(4):19–36.

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