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Behavioral science

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Behavioral science

  1. 1. 1 Behavioral Sciences(HS-102) Unit 1-Introduction to Behavioral Sciences What is Behavioral Science? Behavioral science is a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of behavior of the organism through controlled and naturalistic experimental observations and rigorous formulations. It encompasses the activities of and interactions among organisms in the natural world.
  2. 2. 2 How Behavioral Science is different from layman’s understanding of behavior 1. Behavioral scientists attempt to study the behavior on the basis of systematic, rational, demonstrable-cause-effect relationship. 2. They involve scientific methods of inquiry. 3. The findings can be repeated and the data collection is objective. 4.The aim of behavioral scientists is to understand and predict the behavior.
  3. 3. 3 The core disciplines of Behavioral Science 1.Psychology 2.Sociology 3.Anthropology 1.Psychology It is the study the behavior on the basis of rational, demonstrable-cause-effect relationship.
  4. 4. 4 2.Sociology Sociology is the study of social systems which means an operational social unit that is structured to serve a purpose. 3.Anthropology The aim of anthropology is to acquire a better understanding of the relationship between the human being and the environment.
  5. 5. 5 Methods Used In Studying Behavioral Sciences 1. Experimental Design 1.Cause-effect Relationship 2.Dependent/ Independent Vs. 3.Control/Experimental Group 2. Observation Method 1. Controlled/ Natural Observation 2. Participative Observation
  6. 6. 6 Contd…. 3. Case Study 1.History of the case is prepared by contacting the related persons. 2.Generally, used for clinical and counseling purposes
  7. 7. 7 4. Questionnaire Method 1.They are generally used to measure the individual’s particular personality characteristics, perceptions, beliefs and motivations and future plans. 2.They are standardized tools which have norms. 3. Large amount of data can be collected through questionnaire.
  8. 8. 8 5.Interview Schedule 1.It is a face-to-face situation between the interviewer and the interviewee. 2.In interview schedule questions are asked and filled in by an interviewer. 3. It is a process of social interaction
  9. 9. 9 Types of Interviews 1. Structured Interviews 2. Structured Interviews
  10. 10. 10 Merits and Demerits of Questionnaires and Interviews 1.Interviews provide greater opportunity for careful questioning by enabling the interviewer to directly observe both the interview and his surroundings. 2. Questionnaire is a less expensive procedure than an interview. 3. It is possible to collect data from a larger number of people than interview.
  11. 11. 11 Contd… 4. Questionnaire can provide uniformity from one measurement situation to another. While interview may not be uniform and comparable because of individual differences. 5. Questionnaires exerts less pressure on the respondents to provide an immediate response. 6.The interviewer gets the first hand understanding of the person and the situation , which is lacking in questionnaire method.

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