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Unit 1-Introduction to Behavioral Sciences
What is Behavioral Science?
Behavioral science is a systematic, controlled,
empirical and critical investigation of behavior of the
organism through controlled and naturalistic
experimental observations and rigorous formulations.
It encompasses the activities of and interactions
among organisms in the natural world.
How Behavioral Science is different from
layman’s understanding of behavior
1. Behavioral scientists attempt to study the
behavior on the basis of systematic, rational,
2. They involve scientific methods of inquiry.
3. The findings can be repeated and the data
collection is objective.
4.The aim of behavioral scientists is to
understand and predict the behavior.
The core disciplines of Behavioral
It is the study the behavior on the basis of rational,
Sociology is the study of social systems which
means an operational social unit that is structured to
serve a purpose.
The aim of anthropology is to acquire a better
understanding of the relationship between the
human being and the environment.
Methods Used In Studying Behavioral
1. Experimental Design
2.Dependent/ Independent Vs.
2. Observation Method
1. Controlled/ Natural Observation
2. Participative Observation
3. Case Study
1.History of the case is prepared by contacting
the related persons.
2.Generally, used for clinical and counseling
4. Questionnaire Method
1.They are generally used to measure the
individual’s particular personality
characteristics, perceptions, beliefs and
motivations and future plans.
2.They are standardized tools which have norms.
3. Large amount of data can be collected through
1.It is a face-to-face situation between the
interviewer and the interviewee.
2.In interview schedule questions are asked and
filled in by an interviewer.
3. It is a process of social interaction
Types of Interviews
1. Structured Interviews
2. Structured Interviews
Merits and Demerits of Questionnaires and
1.Interviews provide greater opportunity for
careful questioning by enabling the
interviewer to directly observe both the
interview and his surroundings.
2. Questionnaire is a less expensive procedure
than an interview.
3. It is possible to collect data from a larger
number of people than interview.
4. Questionnaire can provide uniformity from
one measurement situation to another. While
interview may not be uniform and comparable
because of individual differences.
5. Questionnaires exerts less pressure on the
respondents to provide an immediate response.
6.The interviewer gets the first hand
understanding of the person and the situation ,
which is lacking in questionnaire method.