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Audience Theory Introduction - Effects, Uses and Gratification, Reception

Overview of the common audience theories looked at for AS Media Studies:

Effects Theory
Uses and Gratification Theory
Reception Theory

This is not specific to any board, and can apply to Film Studies as well in certain cases.

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Audience Theory Introduction - Effects, Uses and Gratification, Reception

  1. 1. AUDIENCE THEORY EFFECTS THEORY USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY RECEPTION THEORY - 4 sub sections - 4 sub sections - 3 sub sections O V E R V I E W
  2. 2. EFFECTS THEORY Effects theory implies that a media product has a direct and powerful effect on its audiences, and that these audiences are passive.
  3. 3. EFFECTS THEORY Effects theory implies that a media product has a direct and powerful effect on its audiences, and that these audiences are passive. The theory is very deterministic, meaning that there is a clear cause and effect model:
  4. 4. EFFECTS THEORY Effects theory implies that a media product has a direct and powerful effect on its audiences, and that these audiences are passive. The theory is very deterministic, meaning that there is a clear cause and effect model: The text itself being the cause, and then the change in the audience mindset or actions being the effect.
  5. 5. EFFECTS THEORY Effects theory implies that a media product has a direct and powerful effect on its audiences, and that these audiences are passive. The theory is very deterministic, meaning that there is a clear cause and effect model: The text itself being the cause, and then the change in the audience mindset or actions being the effect. The theory is split into four parts: HYPODERMIC NEEDLE DESENSITISATION COPYCAT CULTIVATION
  6. 6. EFFECTS THEORY HYPODERMIC NEEDLE
  7. 7. EFFECTS THEORY HYPODERMIC NEEDLE The theory suggests that the mass media could influence a very large group of people directly and uniformly by ‘injecting’ them with appropriate messages designed to trigger a desired response.
  8. 8. EFFECTS THEORY HYPODERMIC NEEDLE The theory suggests that the mass media could influence a very large group of people directly and uniformly by ‘injecting’ them with appropriate messages designed to trigger a desired response. The hypodermic needle model suggests that media messages are injected straight into a passive audience which is immediately influenced by the message.
  9. 9. EFFECTS THEORY HYPODERMIC NEEDLE The theory suggests that the mass media could influence a very large group of people directly and uniformly by ‘injecting’ them with appropriate messages designed to trigger a desired response. The hypodermic needle model suggests that media messages are injected straight into a passive audience which is immediately influenced by the message. Examples: Nazi Propaganda War of the Worlds Radio Documentary
  10. 10. EFFECTS THEORY COPYCAT
  11. 11. EFFECTS THEORY COPYCAT Copycat theory simply suggests that the audience will attempt to recreate or reenact what they are exposed to. This is a much more severe effect along the same lines as cultivation theory.
  12. 12. EFFECTS THEORY COPYCAT Copycat theory simply suggests that the audience will attempt to recreate or reenact what they are exposed to. This is a much more severe effect along the same lines as cultivation theory. Examples: Bobo doll experiment American high school shootings
  13. 13. EFFECTS THEORY DESENSITISATION
  14. 14. EFFECTS THEORY DESENSITISATION Desensitisation suggests that the more an audience experiences a shocking event, the less shocked that they become by it. The process of seeing something in a safe environment such as on television distinctly alters their reactions and emotions towards that action.
  15. 15. EFFECTS THEORY DESENSITISATION Desensitisation suggests that the more an audience experiences a shocking event, the less shocked that they become by it. The process of seeing something in a safe environment such as on television distinctly alters their reactions and emotions towards that action. It is suggested that because of violence in computer games and on television, people are now less shocked by seeing violence in the real world. (This also applies elsewhere, for example anorexia, and positively, for example race and homosexuality)
  16. 16. EFFECTS THEORY DESENSITISATION Also, as people become desensitised, the threshold for violence in future texts rises. This is seen as film ratings change over time, content changes, and X-rated films get cleared for viewing.
  17. 17. EFFECTS THEORY DESENSITISATION Also, as people become desensitised, the threshold for violence in future texts rises. This is seen as film ratings change over time, content changes, and X-rated films get cleared for viewing. What examples can you think of?
  18. 18. EFFECTS THEORY DESENSITISATION Revenge of the Zombies 1951 X-Rated / late 90’s Universal
  19. 19. EFFECTS THEORY DESENSITISATION Revenge of the Zombies 1951 X-Rated / late 90’s Universal Natural Born Kilers 1994 X-Rated / 2001 - 18
  20. 20. EFFECTS THEORY DESENSITISATION Revenge of the Zombies 1951 X-Rated / late 90’s Universal Natural Born Kilers 1994 X-Rated / 2001 - 18 Reservoir Dogs 1992 X-Rated / 1994 - 18
  21. 21. EFFECTS THEORY DESENSITISATION Revenge of the Zombies 1951 X-Rated / late 90’s Universal Natural Born Kilers 1994 X-Rated / 2001 - 18 Reservoir Dogs 1992 X-Rated / 1994 - 18 The Exorcist: 1974 X-Rated (Theatre) 1974 Refused (Video) 1999 - 18
  22. 22. EFFECTS THEORY CULTIVATION
  23. 23. EFFECTS THEORY CULTIVATION Cultivation theory suggests that continued exposure to certain situations will change our views on them, to closer match what we have seen in media texts.
  24. 24. EFFECTS THEORY CULTIVATION Cultivation theory suggests that continued exposure to certain situations will change our views on them, to closer match what we have seen in media texts. As an audience we inherently believe what we see, at least up to a point. Because of this, repeated viewings of a particular point of view will alter our own views.
  25. 25. EFFECTS THEORY CULTIVATION Cultivation theory suggests that continued exposure to certain situations will change our views on them, to closer match what we have seen in media texts. As an audience we inherently believe what we see, at least up to a point. Because of this, repeated viewings of a particular point of view will alter our own views. Examples ?
  26. 26. EFFECTS THEORY CULTIVATION Cultivation theory suggests that continued exposure to certain situations will change our views on them, to closer match what we have seen in media texts. Examples: Russians being seen as villains and evil - James Bond / Call of Duty
  27. 27. EFFECTS THEORY CULTIVATION Cultivation theory suggests that continued exposure to certain situations will change our views on them, to closer match what we have seen in media texts. Examples: Russians being seen as villains and evil - James Bond / Call of Duty Africa being a desert with lions running wild - Nature shows
  28. 28. EFFECTS THEORY CULTIVATION Cultivation theory suggests that continued exposure to certain situations will change our views on them, to closer match what we have seen in media texts. Examples: Russians being seen as villains and evil - James Bond / Call of Duty Africa being a desert with lions running wild - Nature shows Pretty blonde girls being less intelligent - Soaps operas, TV comedies
  29. 29. EFFECTS THEORY CULTIVATION Cultivation theory suggests that continued exposure to certain situations will change our views on them, to closer match what we have seen in media texts. Examples: Russians being seen as villains and evil - James Bond / Call of Duty Africa being a desert with lions running wild - Nature shows Pretty blonde girls being less intelligent - Soaps operas, TV comedies Italo-American organised crime and gangsters - TV Drama, films.
  30. 30. EFFECTS THEORY CULTIVATION What other examples can you think of?
  31. 31. Further examples EFFECTS THEORY Create your own (fictional) example situations that fit for each of the four sections of effects theory: HYPODERMIC NEEDLE DESENSITISATION COPYCAT CULTIVATION
  32. 32. Further examples EFFECTS THEORY Create your own (fictional) example situations that fit for each of the four sections of effects theory: HYPODERMIC NEEDLE DESENSITISATION COPYCAT CULTIVATION E.g. A girl plays a new Facebook game where she scores points by breaking pencils. The next day in school, whilst her partner goes to the bathroom, the girl empties her pencil case and breaks all of her pencils in half. - Copycat
  33. 33. Further examples EFFECTS THEORY HYPODERMIC NEEDLE DESENSITISATION COPYCAT CULTIVATION Test Time
  34. 34. AUDIENCE THEORY EFFECTS THEORY USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY RECEPTION THEORY - 4 sub sections - 4 sub sections - 3 sub sections O V E R V I E W
  35. 35. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY
  36. 36. Write down your definition of ‘gratification’
  37. 37. Write down your definition of ‘gratification’ “ Pleasure, gained from the satisfaction of a desire. ”
  38. 38. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY The basic tenet of Uses and Gratification theory is that people are not helpless victims of all powerful media, but use media to fulfil their various needs. These needs serve as motivations (gratifications sought) for using media.
  39. 39. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY The basic tenet of Uses and Gratification theory is that people are not helpless victims of all powerful media, but use media to fulfil their various needs. These needs serve as motivations (gratifications sought) for using media. Gratifications obtained should correspond with gratifications sought for the media to be able to meet the needs of the users. Jay G. Blumler and Elihu Katz devised their uses and gratifications model in 1974 to highlight four areas of gratification in media texts for audiences:
  40. 40. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY The basic tenet of Uses and Gratification theory is that people are not helpless victims of all powerful media, but use media to fulfil their various needs. These needs serve as motivations (gratifications sought) for using media. Gratifications obtained should correspond with gratifications sought for the media to be able to meet the needs of the users. Jay G. Blumler and Elihu Katz devised their uses and gratifications model in 1974 to highlight four areas of gratification in media texts for audiences: SURVEILLANCE (INFORMATION) PERSONAL IDENTITY ESCAPISM / DIVERSION RELATIONSHIPS
  41. 41. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY SURVEILLANCE (INFORMATION)
  42. 42. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY SURVEILLANCE (INFORMATION) The surveillance need is based around the idea that people feel better having the feeling that they know what is going on in the world around them.
  43. 43. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY SURVEILLANCE (INFORMATION) The surveillance need is based around the idea that people feel better having the feeling that they know what is going on in the world around them. The surveillance model then is all about awareness. We use the mass media to be more aware of the world, gratifying a desire for knowledge and security.
  44. 44. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY SURVEILLANCE (INFORMATION) An example: As you are being driven home from school you see a hoard of police cars and roads being closed as several helicopters fly overhead. When you get home you turn on the television to find out what is going on.
  45. 45. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY SURVEILLANCE (INFORMATION) What other examples can you think of?
  46. 46. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY SURVEILLANCE (INFORMATION) What other examples can you think of? • Crimewatch
  47. 47. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY SURVEILLANCE (INFORMATION) What other examples can you think of? • Crimewatch • Rogue Traders
  48. 48. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY SURVEILLANCE (INFORMATION) What other examples can you think of? • Crimewatch • Rogue Traders • Watchdog
  49. 49. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY ESCAPISM / DIVERSION
  50. 50. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY ESCAPISM / DIVERSION The diversion need describes what's commonly termed as escapism - watching the television so we can forget about our own lives and problems for a while and think about something else.
  51. 51. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY ESCAPISM / DIVERSION This can work with positive programmes, such as holiday shows or the constant happy endings in the Australian soap operas (Neighbours). Most commonly this positive diversion in film is associated with comedies.
  52. 52. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY ESCAPISM / DIVERSION This can work with positive programmes, such as holiday shows or the constant happy endings in the Australian soap operas (Neighbours). Most commonly this positive diversion in film is associated with comedies. Or with negative programmes, such as the bleak EastEnders or a tragic film, which help to put our own problems into perspective: “At least my life's not that bad!”
  53. 53. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY ESCAPISM / DIVERSION What sort of things do you watch to take your mind off things if you’ve had a particularly rubbish day?
  54. 54. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY ESCAPISM / DIVERSION
  55. 55. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY PERSONAL IDENTITY
  56. 56. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY PERSONAL IDENTITY The personal identity need explains how being a subject of the media allows us to reaffirm the identity and positioning of ourselves within society.
  57. 57. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY PERSONAL IDENTITY The personal identity need explains how being a subject of the media allows us to reaffirm the identity and positioning of ourselves within society. The characters in soaps are usually designed to have wildly different characteristics, so that everyone can find someone to represent themselves, someone to aspire to, and someone to despise.
  58. 58. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY PERSONAL IDENTITY The personal identity need explains how being a subject of the media allows us to reaffirm the identity and positioning of ourselves within society. The characters in soaps are usually designed to have wildly different characteristics, so that everyone can find someone to represent themselves, someone to aspire to, and someone to despise. This identification could act as a way to channel your own life, helping you to set goals to work to.
  59. 59. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY PERSONAL IDENTITY The use of the media for forming personal identity can also be seen outside of fiction:
  60. 60. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY PERSONAL IDENTITY The use of the media for forming personal identity can also be seen outside of fiction: Sports personalities and pop stars can often become big role models, inspiring young children everywhere (which is why there's such an outcry when one of them does something wrong).
  61. 61. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY PERSONAL IDENTITY Write down two hobbies / interests that you have
  62. 62. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY PERSONAL IDENTITY Write down two hobbies / interests that you have Now list TV shows that you might watch because of these interests
  63. 63. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY RELATIONSHIPS
  64. 64. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY RELATIONSHIPS The relationships need is further split into two parts:
  65. 65. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY RELATIONSHIPS The relationships need is further split into two parts: We can form a relationship with the media, and also use the media to form a relationship with others. RELATIONSHIPS WITH MEDIA RELATIONSHIPS BECAUSE OF MEDIA
  66. 66. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY RELATIONSHIPS WITH MEDIA Many people use the television as a form of companionship. This may seem sad, but think about how many times you've watched the TV on your own, or with other people but sitting in silence.
  67. 67. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY RELATIONSHIPS WITH MEDIA Many people use the television as a form of companionship. This may seem sad, but think about how many times you've watched the TV on your own, or with other people but sitting in silence. The television is often quite an intimate experience, and by watching the same people on a regular basis we can often feel very close to them, as if we even know them.
  68. 68. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY RELATIONSHIPS WITH MEDIA Many people use the television as a form of companionship. This may seem sad, but think about how many times you've watched the TV on your own, or with other people but sitting in silence. The television is often quite an intimate experience, and by watching the same people on a regular basis we can often feel very close to them, as if we even know them. We also talk to the TV a lot. Not many football fans can sit through a televised match without shouting at the players or the referee, and many people tell characters what to (or not to do) next.
  69. 69. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY RELATIONSHIPS WITH MEDIA Have you ever cried when someone died in a film or TV show?
  70. 70. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY RELATIONSHIPS WITH MEDIA Have you ever cried when someone died in a film or TV show? Do you ever get angry with what characters do?
  71. 71. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY RELATIONSHIPS WITH MEDIA Have you ever cried when someone died in a film or TV show? Do you ever get angry with what characters do? Do you tune in weekly to a show to find out what has happened?
  72. 72. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY RELATIONSHIPS WITH MEDIA Have you ever cried when someone died in a film or TV show? Do you ever get angry with what characters do? Do you tune in weekly to a show to find out what has happened? The more we watch the same personalities, the more we feel we get to know them. Even though the relationship is completely one-sided, it's easy to see how we can fall in love with TV personalities.
  73. 73. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY RELATIONSHIPS BECAUSE OF MEDIA Another aspect to the personal relationships model is how we can sometimes use the media as a springboard to form and build upon relationships with real people.
  74. 74. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY RELATIONSHIPS BECAUSE OF MEDIA Another aspect to the personal relationships model is how we can sometimes use the media as a springboard to form and build upon relationships with real people. Having a favourite TV programme in common can often be the start of a conversation, and can even make talking to strangers that much easier.
  75. 75. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY RELATIONSHIPS BECAUSE OF MEDIA Another aspect to the personal relationships model is how we can sometimes use the media as a springboard to form and build upon relationships with real people. Having a favourite TV programme in common can often be the start of a conversation, and can even make talking to strangers that much easier. You may decide to watch a particular show because your friends or people you want to impress are talking about it. You’re watching it to improve your relationships in the real world.
  76. 76. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY RELATIONSHIPS BECAUSE OF MEDIA Have you ever watched something so that you could join a conversation about that media text? It could be a TV show, a Film, a film on Facebook, a YouTube video, etc.
  77. 77. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY SURVEILLANCE (INFORMATION) PERSONAL IDENTITY ESCAPISM / DIVERSION RELATIONSHIPS
  78. 78. AUDIENCE THEORY EFFECTS THEORY USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY RECEPTION THEORY - 4 sub sections - 4 sub sections - 3 sub sections O V E R V I E W
  79. 79. RECEPTION THEORY
  80. 80. RECEPTION THEORY Reception Theory in terms of media products is adapted from literary reader response theory.
  81. 81. RECEPTION THEORY Reception Theory in terms of media products is adapted from literary reader response theory. The theory dates back many years, however it was the cultural theorist Stuart Hall who was the main proponent in applying reception theory to media analysis in the 1970’s.
  82. 82. RECEPTION THEORY Reception Theory in terms of media products is adapted from literary reader response theory. The theory dates back many years, however it was the cultural theorist Stuart Hall who was the main proponent in applying reception theory to media analysis in the 1970’s. Hall strongly opposed the ideas held that audiences are passive and therefore effected in certain ways by media texts. Instead, Hall proposed that audience members can play an active role in decoding messages as they rely on their own social contexts.
  83. 83. RECEPTION THEORY Hall developed his ideas and came up with what became the ‘Encoding and Decoding Model’
  84. 84. RECEPTION THEORY Hall developed his ideas and came up with what became the ‘Encoding and Decoding Model’ Encoding How the product is constructed by the producers of the text
  85. 85. RECEPTION THEORY Hall developed his ideas and came up with what became the ‘Encoding and Decoding Model’ Encoding Decoding How the product is constructed by the producers of the text How the product is interpreted by the audience when they receive it
  86. 86. RECEPTION THEORY When talking about reception theory we always discuss it in relation to the decoding. However the type of response is meaningless without an understanding of the encoding.
  87. 87. RECEPTION THEORY When talking about reception theory we always discuss it in relation to the decoding. However the type of response is meaningless without an understanding of the encoding. Encoding Producer encodes meaning(s) into the text
  88. 88. RECEPTION THEORY When talking about reception theory we always discuss it in relation to the decoding. However the type of response is meaningless without an understanding of the encoding. Encoding Decoding Producer encodes meaning(s) into the text Audience has a preferred response
  89. 89. RECEPTION THEORY When talking about reception theory we always discuss it in relation to the decoding. However the type of response is meaningless without an understanding of the encoding. Encoding Decoding Producer encodes meaning(s) into the text Audience has a preferred response Audience has a negotiated response
  90. 90. RECEPTION THEORY When talking about reception theory we always discuss it in relation to the decoding. However the type of response is meaningless without an understanding of the encoding. Encoding Decoding Producer encodes meaning(s) into the text Audience has a preferred response Audience has a negotiated response Audience has an oppositional response
  91. 91. RECEPTION THEORY
  92. 92. RECEPTION THEORY What has been encoded by the producers?
  93. 93. RECEPTION THEORY What has been encoded by the producers? The aim is to make the product look attractive and to generate sales. It’s an advertisement.
  94. 94. RECEPTION THEORY What are the possible responses?
  95. 95. RECEPTION THEORY What are the possible responses? Preferred Negotiated Oppositional
  96. 96. RECEPTION THEORY What are the possible responses? Preferred Negotiated Oppositional How would someone who had a preferred response be affected?
  97. 97. RECEPTION THEORY What are the possible responses? Preferred Negotiated Oppositional How would someone who had a preferred response be affected? How would someone who had a negotiated response be affected?
  98. 98. RECEPTION THEORY What are the possible responses? Preferred Negotiated Oppositional How would someone who had a preferred response be affected? How would someone who had a negotiated response be affected? How would someone who had an oppositional response be affected?
  99. 99. RECEPTION THEORY It is extremely important to always identify the intentions of the producers before determining whether a response is preferred, negotiated, or oppositional.
  100. 100. RECEPTION THEORY It is extremely important to always identify the intentions of the producers before determining whether a response is preferred, negotiated, or oppositional. Moving image examples
  101. 101. RECEPTION THEORY Find an example of a short video clip for a partner on youtube. Using your partners clip describe three different people, each one having a different response to the clip. (Preferred / Negotiated / Oppositional)
  102. 102. AUDIENCE THEORY EFFECTS THEORY USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY RECEPTION THEORY - 4 sub sections - 4 sub sections - 3 sub sections O V E R V I E W

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