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AP Euro CH 19

The expansion of European society and culture in the 18th century.

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AP Euro CH 19

  1. 1. CH 19: The Expansion of Europe in the 18th Century<br />AP European History<br />Magister Ricard<br />
  2. 2. Agriculture and the Land<br />CH 19: The Expansion of Europe in the 18th Century<br />
  3. 3. The Open Field System<br />The great accomplishment of medieval agriculture<br />Three field rotations helped keep fields fertile<br />Traditional village rights reinforced traditional patterns of farming<br />Peasants were exploited<br />Peasants in Eastern Europe were worst off<br />
  4. 4. The Agricultural Revolution<br />More complex systems of crop rotation increased the amount of land under cultivation<br />Grain crops alternated with nitrogen-storing crops<br />Open-field system ended by “enclosing” fields, especially in England<br />Enclosure movement also ended common lands and the independence of rural poor<br />Poor relied on open-field system to survive<br />
  5. 5. The Leadership of the Low Countries and England<br />Prior to agricultural revolution, Holland was most advanced nation<br />Intensive farming was well established by mid-17th century<br />Dutch had dense population<br />English were adept to learning from Dutch<br />JethroTull famous for experimental agriculture and animal husbandry<br />By mid-18th century, England headed up agricultural tranformation<br />Half of all English land was enclosed by 1700<br />Pattern of landownership and production begins<br />Enclosure marks beginnings of estate agriculture and landless rural proletariat<br />
  6. 6. The Beginning of the Population Explosion<br />CH 19: The Expansion of Europe in the 18th Century<br />
  7. 7. Limitations on Population Growth<br />Famine, disease, and war check population growth<br />Population of Europe kept fairly low prior to 18th century<br />
  8. 8. The New Pattern of the 18th Century<br />Fewer deaths, in part due to disappearance of plague<br />Advances in medicine did little to decrease mortality rates<br />Improved sanitation promotes better public health<br />Increase in food supply means fewer famines and epidemics<br />
  9. 9. Cottage Industry and Urban Guilds<br />CH 19: The Expansion of Europe in the 18th Century<br />
  10. 10. The Putting Out System<br />Two main participants<br />Merchant capitalists<br />Rural workers<br />Merchants loaned raw materials to workers who produced goods for the merchant to sell<br />Putting-Out system grew due to competitive advantages<br />Rural manufacturing did not spread at an even rate<br />
  11. 11. The Textile Industry<br />Had employed more people than any other industry<br />Most participants in cottage industry worked in textiles<br />Cottage industry was a family enterprise<br />Relations between workers and employers were marked with conflict<br />
  12. 12. Urban Guilds<br />Guild system peaked in 17th and 18th centuries<br />Guild masters were at the top<br />Guilds restricted membership<br />Power of guilds varied across Europe<br />Critics of guilds saw them as obstacles to innovation and progress<br />During 18th century, some guilds became more accessible to women<br />
  13. 13. The Industrious Revolution<br />“Industrious revolution” used to describe Europe’s social and economic transformation<br />In Northern Europe, new choices were made about allocation of time and resources<br />Impact of these new patterns are still debated<br />Economic and social changes in 18th century lead to Industrial Revolution<br />
  14. 14. Building the World Economy<br />CH 19: The Expansion of Europe in the 18th Century<br />
  15. 15. Mercantilism and Colonial Wars<br />English mercantilism was characterized by government regulations that served both the interests of state and private individuals<br />Mercantilism in other parts of Europe only served state interests<br />Navigation Acts (1651-1663)<br />Economic warfare with Dutch domination of Atlantic shipping<br />Gave British merchants a near monopoly over trade with North America<br />
  16. 16. Mercantilism and Colonial Wars<br />After defeating Dutch, England fights France for maritime domination<br />War of Spanish Succession (1701-1713)<br />War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748)<br />The Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) – England gains full control over India and North America<br />London becomes largest and richest city in the West<br />Colonies provide new markets for English goods<br />English exports were balanced and diversified<br />French still profited from colonial trade<br />
  17. 17. Land and Labor in British America<br />Cheap land and scarce labor in North America<br />Rapid increase in the colonial population<br />Importation of African slaves to tobacco plantations<br />Prosperity for British colonists<br />
  18. 18. The Atlantic Slave Trade<br />Slavery was key element in Atlantic system and western European economic expansion<br />After 1700, England leader of slave trade<br />Demand increases, prices for African slaves rises<br />Africans participated in slave trade<br />After 1775, abolition movement develops in England<br />
  19. 19. Revival in Colonial Latin America<br />Under Philip V (1700-1746) Spain recovers economically and defends colonies in America<br />Rising silver exports creates wealth for Creole merchants<br />Creole estate owners dominate peasantry through debt peonage, a form of serfdom<br />Mestizos, offspring of Spanish men and Indian women, form large group in colonies of Spain<br />
  20. 20. Trade and Empire in Asia<br />Europeans vied for dominance of trade in Asia<br />Dutch were major players in spice trade at end of 16th century<br />Replaced the Portuguese in Indian Ocean trade, made Asian partners dependents<br />In 18th century, Dutch faced competition from English East India Company<br />England focused attention on India<br />England’s rival in India was France<br />By early 1800’s, England gains economic and political dominance in most of subcontinent<br />
  21. 21. Adam Smith and Economic Liberalism<br />Challenged mercantilist ideas with defense of free trade<br />Argues to keep government interference in the economy to a minimum<br />Writes Wealth of Nations in 1776<br />One of the most original thinkers from the Enlightenment<br />Forms basis for argument for economic liberalism<br />