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AP Euro CH 20

Focuses on the various ways life changed for Europeans during the 18th century.

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AP Euro CH 20

  1. 1. CH 20: The Changing Life of the People<br />AP European History<br />Magister Ricard<br />
  2. 2. Marriage and the Family<br />CH 20: The Changing Life of the People<br />
  3. 3. Late Marriage and Nuclear Families<br />Nuclear family was most common in preindustrial Europe<br />Common people married late (late 20’s)<br />Distinguished European society from others in the world<br />Most waited until they could support themselves financially<br />State attempted to control sexual behavior of unmarried adults<br />
  4. 4. Work Away From Home<br />Girls and boys learned independence by working away from home as servants, apprentices, laborers<br />Service in another family’s home common for girls<br />Servant girls worked hard, little independence, in danger of sexual exploitation<br />Boys subject to abuse, less vulnerable to sexual harassment<br />Prostitutes faced harsh laws during 16th and 17th centuries<br />
  5. 5. Premarital Sex and Community Controls<br />Evidence points to low rate of illegitimate births<br />In rural areas, tight control on premarital sex and adultery<br />Couples general had several children<br />Contraception used mainly by urban population<br />
  6. 6. New Patterns of Marriage and Illegitimacy<br />Cottage industry enabled independence earlier for young men and women<br />Young villagers who moved to the city entered into new sexual relationship free of community control<br />Illegitimacy rates rose steadily between 1750-1850<br />
  7. 7. Children and Education<br />CH 20: The Changing Life of the People<br />
  8. 8. Child Care and Nursing<br />Women of lower classes breast fed longer than customary today<br />The well-off hired poor wet nurses<br />Reliance on wet nurses led to high levels of infant mortality<br />In second half of 18th century, harsh criticism rose over wet-nursing<br />
  9. 9. Foundlings and Infanticide<br />Rates of infant mortality were high<br />Many children were abandoned after birth<br />Foundling homes created to care for these children<br />Infant mortality rates high in foundling homes<br />Some evidence suggests infanticide was common<br />
  10. 10. Attitudes Towards Children<br />Discipline was often severe<br />Enlightenment sparked a new debate about proper childrearing and childhood<br />Conflicting evidence about relationships between parents and children during 18th century<br />
  11. 11. Schools and Popular Literature<br />Protestants and Catholics encouraged reading of the Bible<br />Some European governments encouraged primary school for children of commoners<br />Basic literacy rose rapidly between 1600 and 1800<br />Rise in literacy promoted reading<br />Common people were not cut off from the ideas of the Enlightenment due to rise in literacy<br />
  12. 12. Food, Medicine, and New Consumption Habits<br />CH 20: The Changing Life of the People<br />
  13. 13. Diets and Nutrition<br />Poor diet consisted of whole grain bread, peas, and vegetables<br />Commoners loved meat and eggs, but did not eat very often<br />Townspeople had a more diverse diet than peasants<br />Rich gorged on meat, sweets, and liquor<br />Diets varied by region<br />Patterns of food consumption changed drastically<br />New foods from Americas improved calorie per acre production and nutrition<br />Corn, squash, tomatoes, potatoes<br />Most remarkable dietary change was consumption of sugar and tea<br />
  14. 14. Toward a Consumer Society<br />Consumer goods increased in quantity and variety during 18th century<br />Fashion industry becomes prominent<br />Housing reflected new consumerism<br />Consumer society was concentrated in NW Europe and North America<br />
  15. 15. Medical Practitioners<br />During 1700’s included faith healers, pharmacists, physicians, surgeons, and midwives<br />Women became increasingly excluded from medical practice outside of midwifery<br />Few treatments were effective<br />Surgeons made considerable progress in 18th century<br />Conquest of smallpox was greatest medical triumph<br />Experimentation with inoculation against smallpox lead to vaccination with cowpox<br />Effective in preventing disease (Edward Jenner, 1798)<br />
  16. 16. Religion and Popular Culture<br />CH 20: The Changing Life of the People<br />
  17. 17. The Institutional Church<br />Local parish church remained basic religious unit<br />Played key roles in community life<br />Protestants quickly bureaucratized churches controlled by secular powers<br />Catholic rulers took control of Catholic Church in their domains<br />Growth of state power and weakness of papacy exemplified by Jesuits in 18th century<br />
  18. 18. Protestant Revival<br />Pietism sought to revive emotional fervor of early Protestantism<br />Influenced by Pietism, John Wesley (1703-1791) spread Methodism in England<br />
  19. 19. Catholic Piety<br />Catholic authorities compromised with local elements and festivity of popular Catholicism<br />Jansenism was Catholic version of Protestant Pietism<br />Was an urban phenomenon<br />Catholic clergy sought to further “purify” popular religious practices<br />Attacks on popular Catholicism varied by region and country<br />
  20. 20. Leisure and Recreation<br />Carnival combines religious celebration and popular recreation<br />Towns and cities offered a wide range of amusements<br />Blood sports were popular<br />Division begins between “high culture” and popular culture<br />Elites saw the latter as sin, superstition, disorder, and vulgar<br />